United States. Economic Cooperation Administration

Variant names

Hide Profile

The National Maritime Union of America (NMU), which represented merchant marine workers, was formed in 1937, as a split from the International Seafarer's Union, which was affiliated with the American Federation of Labor (AFL). At its first convention in 1937, the NMU joined the Committee for Industrial Organizations (CIO). A crucial role in its formation was played by former members of the Communist-led Marine Workers Industrial Union. Among the notable reforms achieved by the union's Communist-dominated leadership was "checkerboarding," the side-by-side racial integration of sailors' sleeping quarters. By the end of World War II, the NMU had nearly 100,000 members. The union was founded and led by Joseph Curran, who served as NMU president until 1981.

During World War II, the alliance of Communists and non-communists in the union was weakened by charges that the Communists, in their desire to maximize productivity in order to aid the Soviet Union, did not aggressively defend sailors' interests. The Cold War exacerbated the ideological divide, and in 1948, the NMU's Communist leadership and its allies were defeated in union elections and expelled.

In 1950, the NMU's Welfare plan was established, providing seamen with health, accident and life insurance benefits. In 1954 a pension component was added. Curran's successor, Shannon Wall, was not well-received by a strong minority of the union, led by James Morrissey. In 2001, the NMU merged with the Seafarers International Union of North America, which originally represented West Coast merchant mariners.

From the guide to the National Maritime Union Photographs, circa 1940-circa 1950, undated, (Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Robert Allen Griffin Papers, 1942-1971 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Hodges, Luther Hartwell, 1898-1974. Luther Hartwell Hodges papers, 1947-1969. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
creatorOf United States. Economic Cooperation Administration. Press releases, 1950-1951. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives
referencedIn Robert Allen Griffin Papers, 1942-1971 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Wood, Ralph C. (Ralph Clinton), 1911-1994. Ralph C. Wood papers, 1931-1992. Herbert Hoover Library
referencedIn Tenenbaum, Edward A. (Edward Adam), 1921-. Papers, 1941-1959. Harry S. Truman Library
referencedIn De Chazeau, Melvin Gardner, 1900-1985. Melvin Gardner De Chazeau papers, 1907-1983. Cornell University Library
creatorOf United States. Economic Cooperation Administration. Country stud[ies] European recovery program. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf National Maritime Union Photographs, circa 1940-circa 1950, undated Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn Blair Moody Papers, 1928-1954, 1934-1952 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn Unitarian Service Committee. Administrative Records, 1948-1953 Andover-Harvard Theological Library
referencedIn Walter J. Levy Papers, 1911-1988 Univerisity of Wyoming. American Heritage Center.
referencedIn Jefferson Franklin Ray, Jr. papers, 1837-1990, 1920-1955 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Kirkpatrick, Helen Paull. Papers 1930-1998. Smith College, Neilson Library
referencedIn Robert Blum papers, 1950-1964 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf United States. Economic Cooperation Administration. [Economic Cooperation Administration pamphlets]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Melvin Gardner De Chazeau papers, 1907-1983. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn C. Stribling Snodgrass papers, 1918-1977, 1938-1974 Univerisity of Wyoming. American Heritage Center.
referencedIn Blair Moody Papers, 1928-1954, 1934-1952 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
referencedIn Roger Dearborn Lapham papers, 1948-1949 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. Isaiah Bowman papers, 1904-1951. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
creatorOf Hinkley, Robert H., 1891-. Papers, 1891-1977. Landmarks of Science Microform Service
referencedIn Administrative Records, 1941-1952. Andover-Harvard Theological Library
referencedIn Collier, John, 1884-1968. John Collier papers, 1910-1987 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Robert H. Hinckley papers, 1891-1997 J. Willard Marriott Library, University of UtahManuscripts Division
referencedIn Stillman, Charles L. (Charles Latimer), 1904-1986. Charles L. Stillman papers, 1947-1951. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
creatorOf Sperry, Theodore M. Congo journal / Theodore M. Sperry. Pittsburg State University, Leonard H. Axe Library
referencedIn Unitarian Service Committee. Executive Director. Records, 1941-1951 Andover-Harvard Theological Library
referencedIn Snodgrass, C. Stribling, 1900-1974. C. Stribling Snodgrass papers, 1918-1977 (bulk 1938-1974). Univerisity of Wyoming. American Heritage Center.
referencedIn Wadsworth, James Jeremiah, 1905-. Reminiscences of James Jeremiah Wadsworth : oral history, 1967. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Kemsley, William George, 1908-. William & Ann Kemsley collection, 1943-1961. Wayne State University
creatorOf United States. Economic Cooperation Administration miscellaneous records, 1948-1951 Hoover Institution Archives
creatorOf United States. Economic Cooperation Administration. Economic Cooperation Administration miscellaneous records, ca. 1948-1951. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn John Collier papers Yale University Library
referencedIn John Collier papers, 1910-1987 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn National Maritime Union of America. Photograph collection, [ca. 1940-1960]. Churchill County Museum
referencedIn Lester Knox Little papers, 1932-1964. Houghton Library
referencedIn Walter J. Levy Papers, 1911-1988 Univerisity of Wyoming. American Heritage Center.
referencedIn Nunn, Henry L., 1878-1972. Papers, 1852-1973. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Lapham, Roger D. (Roger Dearborn), 1883-1966. An interview on shipping, labor, San Francisco city government and American foreign aid : oral history transcript / Roger D. and Helen B. Lapham ; tape recorded interview conducted January-August, 1956 in San Francisco by Corinne L. Gilb. Regional Cultural History Project, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1957 : and related material, 1956-1957. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Joseph N. Scanlon Papers University of Pittsburgh
referencedIn Lapham, Roger D. (Roger Dearborn), 1883-1966. Roger Dearborn Lapham papers, 1948-1949. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Deering, Arthur Lowell. Papers, 1919-1957. Raymond H. Fogler Library
referencedIn The Nation, records, 1879-1974 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Price, Harry Bayard. Papers, 1952-1953. Harry S. Truman Library
referencedIn Hoffman, Paul G. (Paul Gray), 1891-1974. Papers, 1928-1972. Harry S. Truman Library
creatorOf United States. Economic Cooperation Administration. [Economic Cooperation Administration : international trade pamphlets]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Oliver Hoyem papers, 1905-1965 University of Oregon Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Charles L. Stillman papers, 1947-1951 Hoover Institution Archives
referencedIn Anderson, Samuel W. (Samuel Wagner), 1898-1962. The Samuel W. Anderson papers, 1922-1959 (bulk 1948-1958) Georgetown University, Joseph Mark Lauinger Memorial Library
referencedIn Ray, J. Franklin (Jefferson Franklin), 1905-. Jefferson Franklin Ray, Jr. papers 1837-1990 (inclusive), 1920-1955 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf United States. Economic Cooperation Administration. United States. Economic Cooperation Administration. Press releases, 1950-1951. Cornell University Library
referencedIn National Foreign Trade Council. Corporate records, 1936-1988. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Reed, Daniel A. (Daniel Alden), 1875-1959. Daniel Alden Reed papers, 1914-1960. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Randall, Clarence B. (Clarence Belden), 1891-1967. Clarence B. Randall papers, 1932-1967 (bulk 1948-1965) Princeton University Library
referencedIn Hinckley, Robert Henry, 1891-1988. Papers, 1891-1977. University of Utah, J. Willard Marriott Library
referencedIn Blum, Robert, 1911-1965. Robert Blum papers, 1950-1964 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Washington State University. Economic Cooperation Administration Film Evaluation Project. Economic Cooperation Administration Film Project: a report ; typescript, 1951 May 24-1952 June 15. Washington State University, Holland and Terrell Libraries
referencedIn Sidney Ayres papers, 1914-1960. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Anderson, Samuel W. (Samuel Wagner), 1898-1962. person
associatedWith Blum, Robert, 1911-1965. person
associatedWith Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. person
associatedWith Collier, John, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith Curran, Joseph Edwin, 1906-1981 person
associatedWith Daniel A.(Daniel Alden), Reed 1875-1959. person
associatedWith De Chazeau, Melvin Gardner, 1900-1985. person
associatedWith Deering, Arthur Lowell. person
associatedWith Ernst, Haas person
associatedWith Griffin, R. Allen (Robert Allen), 1893- person
associatedWith Hinckley, Robert Henry, 1891-1988. person
associatedWith Hinkley, Robert H., 1891- person
associatedWith Hodges, Luther Hartwell, 1898-1974. person
associatedWith Hoffman, Paul G. (Paul Gray), 1891-1974. person
associatedWith Hoyem, Oliver, 1891-1965 person
associatedWith Kemsley, William George, 1908- person
associatedWith Kirkpatrick, Helen Paull. person
associatedWith Lapham, Roger D. (Roger Dearborn), 1883-1966. person
associatedWith Levy, Walter J. person
associatedWith Levy, Walter J. person
correspondedWith Little, Lester Knox, 1892-1981 person
associatedWith Melvin Gardner De Chazeau 1900-1985. person
associatedWith Moody, Blair, 1902-1954. person
associatedWith National Foreign Trade Council. corporateBody
associatedWith National Maritime Union of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Nation (New York, N.Y. : 1865). corporateBody
associatedWith Nunn, Henry L., 1878-1972. person
associatedWith Price, Harry Bayard. person
associatedWith Randall, Clarence B. (Clarence Belden), 1891-1967. person
associatedWith Ray, J. Franklin (Jefferson Franklin), 1905- person
associatedWith Reed, Daniel A. (Daniel Alden), 1875-1959. person
associatedWith Scanlon, Joseph N. (Joseph Norbert), 1899-1956. person
associatedWith Smith, Ferdinand person
associatedWith Snodgrass, C. Stribling, 1900-1974. person
associatedWith Sperry, Theodore M. person
associatedWith Stillman, Charles L. (Charles Latimer), 1904-1986. person
associatedWith Tenenbaum, Edward A. (Edward Adam), 1921- person
associatedWith Unitarian Service Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith Universalist Service Committee. Executive Director. corporateBody
associatedWith Wadsworth, James Jeremiah, 1905- person
associatedWith Washington State University. Economic Cooperation Administration Film Evaluation Project. corporateBody
associatedWith Wood, Ralph C. (Ralph Clinton), 1911-1994. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
France
Taiwan
Europe
Subject
Economic assistance, American
Communism
Economic assistance, American Taiwan
Fertilizer industry
Reconstruction--1939-
Fertilizer industry Taiwan
Communism--France
Merchant mariners--Labor unions--United States
Reconstruction (1939-1951)
Occupation
Activity

Corporate Body

Active 1891

Active 1977

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w64v0nrd

Ark ID: w64v0nrd

SNAC ID: 47100901