Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721

Alternative names

Hide Profile

Born Giovanni Francesco Albani in 1649, Clement XI was pontificate from November 23, 1700 until March 19, 1721.

From the description of Indulgence granted to Nevers (Church of St. Silvester), 1702 May 2. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122552432

Giovanni Francesco Albani.

From the description of Autograph signature (when cardinal) to letter : Rome, 1690 Apr. 29. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270904202

From the description of Autograph signature (when pope) to a document, 1707 Nov. 7. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270924297

From the description of Autograph signature to a document, 1700 Mar. 30. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270924290

From the description of Autograph signature to letter : Rome, 1690 Feb. 18. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270904205

Giovanni Francesco Albani was born of a noble Umbrian family and educated at the Roman College, where he became sufficiently proficient in the classics that he was admitted to the exclusive Accademia founded in Rome by Queen Christina of Sweden. After studying philosophy and law, he entered the curial service and advanced rapidly at the papal court. At the age of twenty-eight he governed successively Rieti, Sabina, and Orvieto. In all his assignments he was well received.

Recalled to Rome, he became vicar of St. Peter's and on the death of Giovanni Cardinal Slusio (1687) succeeded to the position of secretary of papal briefs. In 1690 he was named cardinal and exercised great influence under Alexander VIII and Innocent XII; he drafted the latter's constitution Romanum decet pontificem (Jun. 22, 1692) outlawing nepotism. Ordained to the priesthood in September 1700, he was elected pope at the forty-six-day conclave that followed, a candidate supported by the zelanti, that is, the cardinals who wanted a nonpolitical pope with the interests of the church at heart. His qualifications overbalanced the objection that he was only fifty-one years of age.

An ecclesiastic of austere habits, he accepted the papacy with reluctance. In spite of his administrative duties he remained a scholar throughout his life, striving always to enlarge the collections of the Vatican Library, one of the most important additions to the collection being the manuscripts (mostly Syriac) collected at his urging by the Orientalist and librarian Joseph Simeon Assemani (1687-1768). He also endeavored to preserve the cultural treasures of Rome by prohibiting the exportation of ancient objects.

The historian Christopher M. S. Johns (1993) notes: "during the first quarter of the eighteenth century Clement XI redirected papal art patronage away from the glorification of an individual pontiff, which typified the art campaigns of his predecessors, to that of the institution itself . . . [i.e.] the papacy as a spiritual and cultural entity. At the center of his policy was the restoration of several early Christian basilicas, a program deeply informed by the contemporary Paleo-Christian revival in sacred sciences and popular piety. Seeking to represent the image of Rome and the papacy to an increasingly well-educated and secularized Europe, Clement XI thus prepared the way for the creation of a museum-like city that still serves as the spiritual and cultural capital of the classical tradition."

He had less success in the political arena. Owen Chadwick notes that "more calamities happened to the papacy during this pontificate than under any pope since the reformation." Much of his reign was given over to the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), which quickly demonstrated his own and the papacy's ineffectiveness.

During his pontificate Jansenism was condemned by his constitution Vineam Domini Sabaoth (Jul. 16, 1705), and his famous bull Unigenitus Dei Filius (Sept. 8, 1713). His constitution Ex illa die (Mar. 19, 1715) reiterated the 1704 ruling against the use by missionaries of Chinese rites on the pretext that they were primarily civic acts. This prohibition was finally lifted by Pius XII in 1939.

From the description of Fondo Albani, ca. 1500-1721. (University of Michigan). WorldCat record id: 145568963

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Ceremoniale MS., ca. 1700. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Papers of Pope Clement XI, 1573-1718. Library of Congress
referencedIn Italian castle archive, ca. 1550-1848 (bulk 1600-1750). Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Mariana, de Neoburgo, Queen, consort of Charles II, King of Spain, 1667-1740. Autograph letter signed : Madrid, to Pope Clement XI, 1700 Oct. 23. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Fiocca, Antonio, Abbot. Memorie istoriche de fatti più notabili succeduti nell'anno 1708, e 1709 trà le corti di Roma, Vienna e Barcellona registrate dall'Abbate Antonio Fiocca della città di Catanzano ... di sett. MDCCIX : manuscript, 1709. Harvard University, Houghton Library
creatorOf Innocent XII, Pope, 1615-1700. Miscellaneous manuscripts (Large), 1684-1699. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Brugueres, Michel'. Poesie varie : manuscript, [17--]. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Autograph signature (when cardinal) to letter : Rome, 1690 Apr. 29. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1640-1705. Autograph signature to letter : to Pope Clement XI, 1705 Mar. 12. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Catholic Church. Chinese rites controversy : manuscript, [ca. 1710]. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Adimari, Lodovico, 1644-1708. Parafrasi de' Salmi Penitenziali di Lodovico Adimari : da lui donata alla Signora Laura Sersali. Newberry Library
referencedIn Hawarden, Edward, 1662-1735. Edward Hawarden letter, 1711 March 14. Flugschriften des Fruhen 16 Jahrhunderts
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Pope Clement XI brief, 1712. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Raguaglio dell' viaggio fatta sopra le galere pontificie della maesta della regina di colonia imbarca da in Civita Vecchia, e barcata in Marseglia, 1714 29 July. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Catholic Church. Chinese rites controversy : manuscript, [ca. 1710]. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Crimmins, John D. (John Daniel), 1844-1917. The papal autograph collection / collected by John D. Crimmins. Catholic University of America
referencedIn Catholic Church. Collegio dei cardinali. Conclavi, 1585-1846. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Indulgence granted to Nevers (Church of St. Silvester), 1702 May 2. Flugschriften des Fruhen 16 Jahrhunderts
creatorOf Nores, Pietro de. Miscello. : M.S. CLXXXII (miscellaneous manuscripts), ca. 1630-1715. J. Paul Getty Center, Arts Archives
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Autograph signature to a document, 1700 Mar. 30. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Fondo Albani, ca. 1500-1721. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Du Bosc, Claude, 1684-1745?. A solemn procession performed at the canonization of certain saints in Saint Peters Church during the pontificate of Clement ye XI. An.o 1712 = Ordre de la procession, pour la canonization de quelques saints, dans l'église de S.t Pierre, sous le pontificat de Clement XI. en 1712 [graphic] / C. Du Bosc fecit et exc. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Catholic Church. Pope (1691-1700 : Innocent XII). Manuscript document : Rome, 1693 Oct. 16. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Anton Francesco Montauti diplomatic collection, 1689-1744. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Clement XI bull, 1714. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Du Bosc, Claude, 1684-1745?. A theatre erected in S.t Petrs Church for the canonization of saints under the pontificate of Clement XIth. an.o 1712 = Theatre dressé dans l'église de S.t Pierre pour la canonisation de quelques saints sous le pontificat de Clement XI en 1712 [graphic] / B. Picart delin. ; C. Du Bosc fecit. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Carpegna, Gasparo, d. 1714. Italian historical miscellany, with anonymous cantii : manuscript, [ca. 1686-ca. 1720]. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Autograph signature (when pope) to a document, 1707 Nov. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Fontana, Carlo, 1634-1714. Esposto primo-terzo (reports), 1702 Dec. 1. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. Autograph signature to letter : Rome, 1690 Feb. 18. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Sixtus V, Pope, 1520-1590. Documents relating to the Order of San Hipólito Mártir, 1585-1771. UC Berkeley Libraries
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Alberoni, Giulio, 1664-1752. person
associatedWith Catholic Church. corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Corsica, France) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (France) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Genoa, Italy) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Holy Roman Empire) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Naples) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Poland) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Portugal) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Sardinia) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Spain) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Apostolic Nunciature (Switzerland) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Camera Apostolica. corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Collegio dei cardinali. corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Inquisition (Malta) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Legation (Bologna, Italy) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Legation (Ferrara, Italy) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Legation (Ravenna, Italy) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Legation (Urbino, Italy) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Pope (1691-1700 : Innocent XII) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Pope (1700-1721 : Clement XI) corporateBody
associatedWith Catholic Church. Secretariatus Status. corporateBody
associatedWith Church of St. Silvester (Nevers, France) corporateBody
associatedWith Confraternità del Santissimo Sacramento (Molfetta, Italy) corporateBody
associatedWith Crimmins, John D. (John Daniel), 1844-1917. person
associatedWith Du Bosc, Claude, 1684-1745? person
associatedWith Fiocca, Antonio, Abbot. person
associatedWith Fontana, Carlo, 1634-1714. person
associatedWith Gentile, Antonio Saverio de, person
associatedWith Hawarden, Edward, 1662-1735. person
associatedWith Innocent XII, Pope, 1615-1700. person
associatedWith Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, 1640-1705. person
associatedWith Mariana, de Neoburgo, Queen, consort of Charles II, King of Spain, 1667-1740. person
associatedWith Philip V, King of Spain, 1683-1746. person
associatedWith Vallot, Edward, Bishop of Nevers. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Poland
Nova Scotia
Montefeltro (Italy)
Ferrara (Italy : Legazione)
Scotland
England
Naples (Kingdom)
Corsica (France)
Malta
Newfoundland and Labrador
Genoa (Italy)
Portugal
Greece
Spain
Bologna (Italy : Legazione)
Venice (Italy)
Avignon (France)
Switzerland
Sardinia (Italy)
Mantua (Italy)
Great Britain
Marche (Italy)
Sicily (Italy)
Geneva (Switzerland)
Ireland
Florence (Italy)
Marittima (Italy)
Spain
Germany
France
Lazio (Italy)
Turkey
Cape Breton Island (N.S.)
Campagna (Italy)
Holy Roman Empire
Rome (Italy)
Savoy (France and Italy)
Bari (Italy)
Umbria (Italy)
San Marino
Sabina (Italy)
India
China
Urbino (Italy : Legazione)
Ravenna (Italy : Legazione)
Tuscany (Italy)
Subject
Forgiveness of sin--Early works to 1800
Papal documents
Indulgences
Popes
Papacy--History--1566-1799
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1649-07-23

Death 1721-03-19

Italians

French,

Latin,

Italian,

English

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w60c4w71

Ark ID: w60c4w71

SNAC ID: 63470801