Crimmins, John D. (John Daniel), 1844-1917

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The Papal States arose in the eighth century out of the conflict between the papacy and the Byzantine emperors. The state was originally under Frankish protection. From the early tenth century to the Gregorian reforms of the eleventh century, the papal state was dominated by factions of the Roman nobility. Meanwhile, the papacy laid foundations of its administrative independence. In the Middle Ages, papal rule in the Papal States fluctuated, being sometimes reduced to Rome; the popes allowed the formation of communes (autonomous municipalities). In the fourteenth century, the absence of the popes in Avignon weakened the state. By mid-century, Cardinal Gil Albornoz overcame most communes' resistance to centralization, though many small tyrannies remained until the sixteenth century. Albornoz's work was largely undone by Great western Schism; fifteenth-century popes like Martin V and Nicholas V had to use far lesser political and financial resources to rebuild the Papal States. The French reluctantly continued to protect what was left of the Papal States until the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 distracted them; Italy took advantage of the situation to annex Rome and put an end to the Papal States, although the Pope retained personal sovereignty.

From the description of The papal autograph collection / collected by John D. Crimmins. 1578-1865 (Catholic University of America). WorldCat record id: 70123891

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Crimmins, John D. (John Daniel), 1844-1917. The papal autograph collection / collected by John D. Crimmins. Catholic University of America
referencedIn Goldwin Goldsmith Drawings, archival material and photographs, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Connecticut Accession number (s): 0000003, 1990009., 1896-1961 Alexander Architectural Archive, The University of Texas at Austin.
referencedIn Addresses and articles (bound), 1899-1921. Theodore Roosevelt Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Crimmins, John D. (John Daniel), 1844-1917,. Typewritten letter signed from John Daniel Crimmins, New York, to Augustin Daly [manuscript], 1892 April 29. Folger Shakespeare Library
referencedIn William Sulzer Letters, 1898-1941 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Alexander VIII, Pope, 1610-1691. person
associatedWith Benedict XIV, Pope, 1675-1758. person
associatedWith Catholic Church. corporateBody
associatedWith Ciacchi, Luigi, 1765-1865. person
associatedWith Clement IX, Pope, 1600-1669. person
associatedWith Clement VIII, Pope, 1536-1605. person
associatedWith Clement XII, Pope, 1652-1740. person
associatedWith Clement XI, Pope, 1649-1721. person
correspondedWith Daly, Augustin, 1838-1899 person
associatedWith Goldsmith, Goldwin, 1871-1962 person
associatedWith Gregory XIII, Pope, 1502-1585. person
associatedWith Gregory XIV, Pope, 1535-1591. person
associatedWith Gregory XVI, Pope, 1765-1846. person
associatedWith Leo XII, Pope, 1760-1829. person
associatedWith Paul V, Pope, 1552-1621. person
associatedWith Pius IX, Pope, 1792-1878. person
associatedWith Pius VIII, Pope, 1761-1830. person
associatedWith Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919 person
associatedWith Sixtus V, Pope, 1520-1590. person
associatedWith Sulzer, William, 1863-1941 person
associatedWith Urban VIII, Pope, 1568-1644. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Italy
San Marino
Papal States
Subject
Popes
Papacy
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1844

Death 1917

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Ark ID: w66m4n42

SNAC ID: 50445256