Held, Julius S. (Julius Samuel), 1905-2002

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The American art historian Julius Samuel Held (1905-2002) was renowned for his scholarship in 16th- and 17th-century Dutch and Flemish art, and an authority on the works of Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, and Rembrandt. Educated in pre-war Germany, Held emigrated in 1934 to the United States where he pursued an academic career at Barnard College, Columbia University. Held also lectured and taught at other colleges and art institutions in the United States.

From the description of Julius S. Held papers, ca. 1918-1999. (Getty Research Institute). WorldCat record id: 84548090

In 1950 Sterling and Francine Clark chartered the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute as a home for their extensive art collection. Opened to the public in 1955, the Institute has built upon this extraordinary group of works to become a highly respected art museum and one of the few institutions in the United States that combines a public art museum with a complement of research and academic programs, including a major art history library.

From the description of Offprints from Julius S. Held, 1940-1988. (Art Center College of Design, James L Fogg Library). WorldCat record id: 316804504

From the description of Offprints from Julius S. Held, 1940-1988. (Art Center College of Design, James L Fogg Library). WorldCat record id: 263070116

Art historian, educator, Bennington, Vt. Eminent scholar of Rubens. Worked as an advisor to art collectors, including J. Paul Getty.

From the description of Julius Samuel Held papers concerning Saul Baizerman and Leonard Baskin, 1947-1976. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122599561

Biographical/Historical Note

The art historian Julius Samuel Held is considered one of the foremost authorities on the works of Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, and Rembrandt. His advice was sought by other art history scholars, private collectors, dealers, museums, and auction houses in the United States and abroad. For many years his opinion was the final word in matters of attribution of artworks in his field of expertise.

Held was born in 1905 in Mosbach in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. He died in 2002 in Bennington, Vermont. He was married to Ingrid-Märta Pettersson (1905-1986), an art conservator, with whom he had a son and a daughter. Held studied art history at the universities of Heidelberg, Berlin, Vienna, and Freiburg. In 1930 he obtained his Ph.D. from the university of Freiburg under Hans Jantzen, writing on Dürer. In 1931 he became assistant to Max Friedländer at the Kaiser Friedrich Museum in Berlin. In 1934 Held fled Nazi Germany to the United States and became a U.S. citizen in 1940.

Held began his academic career in 1935 as a lecturer in art history at the New York University. In 1937 he was hired as a lecturer at Barnard College, Columbia University, where he was appointed assistant professor in 1944, advanced to associate professor in 1950, full professor in 1954, and served as chairman of the Art History Department from 1967 to 1970. In 1971 Held retired from Barnard College and moved from New York to Bennington,Vermont, where he continued to teach for ten years as Clark Professor of Art in the graduate program for art history at Williams College, and at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute.

Held also lectured at other institutions: as Carnegie Lecturer from 1936 to 1937 at the National Gallery in Ottawa, visiting lecturer from 1943 to 1944 at Bryn Mawr College, visiting professor from 1946 to 1947 at the New School for Social Research, visiting professor in 1954 and 1958 at Yale University, lecturer with the American College Council for Summer Study Abroad in 1957, and Andrew W. Mellon visiting professor at University of Pittsburgh from 1972 to 1973. He also served as academic advisor at Marlboro College from 1965 to 1980, and as a member of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton in 1967. During the 1950s Held was asked by Luis Ferré, the Governor of Puerto Rico, to advise the new art museum in Ponce. His participation in the selection and acquisition of important European works of art elevated the museum to world recognition.

Held published extensively. Among his most significant and influential works are Rubens in America (with Jan-Albert Goris, 1947), Rubens, selected drawings (1959), Rembrandt’s Aristotle and other Rembrandt studies (1969), 17th and 18th century art (with Donald Posner, 1971), and Rembrandt studies (1991). At the age of 75 Held issued his landmark study, the two-volume critical catalog Oil sketches of Peter Paul Rubens (1980).

Held’s classical education influenced his approach to art history. At the time when the discipline was favoring iconography and other more "empirical" methods of study, Held maintained the primacy of connoisseurship as one of the tools of the art historian.

Held was also actively engaged in matters related to the memory of the Jewish Holocaust. In 1988 he was instrumental in creating a memorial to his boyhood synagogue in Mosbach, destroyed during Kristallnacht.

From the guide to the Julius S. Held papers, ca. 1918-1999, (Getty Research Institute)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Fogg Art Museum. Archives of the Fogg Art Museum, 1895-1985 (inclusive). Harvard University Art Museum
referencedIn Sachs, Paul J. (Paul Joseph), 1878-1965. Papers, 1903-2005. Harvard University Art Museum
creatorOf Lillian Freiman Collection. Correspondence with friends and business associates (galleries), ca. 1920-1983. University of Guelph
referencedIn The Bruno Walter papers, ca. 1887-ca. 1966 The New York Public Library. Music Division.
creatorOf Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Public Relations Office Records of Members' Trips and Events, 1979-1996. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
referencedIn Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars records, 1927-1949, 1933-1945 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Heim Gallery records, 1965-1991 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Chappell, Warren, 1904-1991. Papers of Warren Chappell, 1932, 1946, 1975-1983. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Held, Julius Samuel, 1905-. Interviews with art historians, 1991-2002. Getty Research Institute, Research Library
creatorOf HELD, JULIUS S. Artist file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)
creatorOf Steinberg, Leo, 1920-2011. Leo Steinberg research papers, 1945-1996 (bulk 1950-1993). Getty Research Library
creatorOf Heim Gallery. Heim Gallery records, 1965-1991. Getty Research Library
creatorOf College Art Association of America. Glimpses of some early departments of the history of art in the U.S.A. : panel discussion, 1987 Feb. 13. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Held, Julius S. (Julius Samuel), 1905-2002. Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1959. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Chappell, Warren, 1904-1991. Letters to Julius Held, 1981-1987. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Julius S. Held papers, ca. 1918-1999 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Held, Julius Samuel, 1905-. Offprints from Julius S. Held, 1940-1988. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
referencedIn Olschki, Fiammetta. Papers relating to Leo S. Olschki (Firm) and Olschki family members, 1904-1994 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn Interviews with art historians, 1991-2002 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Held, Julius Samuel, 1905-. Offprints from Julius S. Held, 1940-1988. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
creatorOf Chappell, Warren, 1904-1991. Material by and about Warren Chappell, 1937-1989. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Prints & Drawing Dept. Curatorial Office Records of the Prints and Drawings Department, 1952-1996 (bulk 1958-1994) Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
referencedIn Olschki, Fiammetta,. Fiammetta Olschki collection of Leo S. Olschki (Firm) and Olschki family papers, 1904-1994. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Chappell, Warren, 1904-1991. Papers of Warren Chappell [manuscript], 1870-1994. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Rinehart, Michael. Library Records of Michael Rinehart, 1965-1980. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
creatorOf Held, Julius S. (Julius Samuel), 1905-2002. Julius S. Held papers, ca. 1918-1999. Getty Research Library
creatorOf Brooks, John H. Records of John H. Brooks, 1968-2007. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
referencedIn Melville, Ward, 1887-. Held Family Miscellany. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
creatorOf Held, Julius Samuel, 1905-. Julius Samuel Held papers concerning Saul Baizerman and Leonard Baskin, 1947-1976. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Held, Julius Samuel, 1905-. Interviews with art historians, 1991-2002. Getty Research Institute, Research Library
creatorOf Held, Julius S. (Julius Samuel), 1905-2002. Art historian : Julius S. Held : oral history transcript / interviewed by Taina Rikala de Noriega. Completed under the auspices of the Oral History Program, University of California, Los Angeles, and the Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1994. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Barnard College. Fine Arts Dept. Barnard College Fine Arts Department records, 1957-1967. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Stephen Sandy letters from poets, 1954-1988. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
referencedIn Defenbacher, D. S. (Daniel S.), 1906-1986. Papers, 1935-1951 (bulk 1940-1950). Walker Art Center Library
creatorOf Cunningham, Charles Crehore, 1910-1979. Curatorial Office Records of Charles Cunningham, 1973-1977. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
referencedIn Thaw, Eugene Victor,. Oral history interview with Eugene V. Thaw 2007 Oct. 1-2 [sound recording]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Leo Steinberg research papers, 1945-1996, 1950-1993 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf College Art Association of America. Glimpses of some early departments of the history of art in the U.S.A. : panel discussion, 1987 Feb. 13. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Cándida Smith, Richard. Interviews with art historians, 1991-2002. Getty Research Institute, Research Library
referencedIn Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Office of the Director. Philippe de Montebello reader files, 1969-1973. Hirsch Library Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
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associatedWith Serkin, Rudolf, 1903- person
associatedWith Seymour Slive. person
associatedWith Sittow, Michel, 1468? -1525 or 6 person
associatedWith Skutsch, Otto person
associatedWith Slive, Seymour, 1920- person
associatedWith Sloane, Joseph C. person
associatedWith Sluijter, Eric Jan, 1946- person
associatedWith Smith, David R. (David Ross) person
associatedWith Snyders, Frans, 1579-1657. person
associatedWith Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co. corporateBody
associatedWith Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co. corporateBody
associatedWith Sotheby's (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Spear, Richard E., 1940- person
associatedWith Stechow, Wolfgang, 1896-1974. person
associatedWith Steen, Jan, 1626-1679 person
associatedWith Steinberg, Leo, 1920- person
associatedWith Steinberg, Leo, 1920-2011. person
associatedWith Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. corporateBody
associatedWith Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Prints & Drawing Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Sterling, Charles, 1901- person
associatedWith Stewart, J. Douglas person
associatedWith Stewart, J. Douglas (John Douglas), 1934-. person
associatedWith Stighelen, Katlijne van der person
associatedWith Stimmer, Tobias, 1539-1584 person
associatedWith Strauss, Walter L. person
associatedWith Styhr, Jørgen person
associatedWith Sumowski, Werner. person
associatedWith Suttermans, Justus, 1597-1681 person
associatedWith Sutton, Peter C. person
associatedWith Swart, Jan, ca. 1500-ca. 1553 person
associatedWith Sweerts, Michiel, 1618-1664 person
correspondedWith Taylor, René person
associatedWith Teniers, David, 1582-1649 person
associatedWith Teniers, David, 1610-1690 person
associatedWith Teniers, David, 1638-1685 person
associatedWith Tennenbaum, Silvia person
associatedWith Terbrugghen, Hendrik, 1588? -1629 person
associatedWith Tharp, Twyla person
associatedWith Thaw, Eugene Victor, person
associatedWith Thomas van Ypern, Johannes, 1617-1678 person
associatedWith Thulden, Theodoor van, 1606-1669 person
associatedWith Tietze, Andreas person
associatedWith Tietze-Conrat, E. (Erika), 1883-1958. person
associatedWith Tietze, Hans, 1880-1954. person
associatedWith Titian, ca. 1488-1576 person
associatedWith University of California, Los Angeles. Oral History Program. corporateBody
associatedWith Van Dyck, Anthony, Sir, 1599-1641. person
associatedWith Varshavskaia, M. IA. person
associatedWith Velde, Esaias van den, 1587-1630 person
associatedWith Velde, Jan van de, 1568-1623 person
associatedWith Velde, Willem van de, 1610 or 11-1693 person
associatedWith Velde, Willem van de, 1633-1707 person
associatedWith Vellert, Dirck Jacobsz., fl. 1511-1544. person
associatedWith Venne, Adriaen Pietersz. van de, 1589-1662 person
associatedWith Vergara, Lisa, 1948- person
associatedWith Vermeer, Johannes, 1632-1675 person
associatedWith Vermeulen, Jan, 17th cent. person
associatedWith Vermeyen, Jan Cornelisz, 1500-1559 person
associatedWith Veronee-Verhaegen, Nicole person
associatedWith Vertikoff, Alexander person
associatedWith Vey, Horst. person
associatedWith Victors, Jan, 1619-1676 person
associatedWith Vinckeboons, David, 1576-1629 person
associatedWith Vlieghe, Hans person
associatedWith Voet, Léon, 1919- person
associatedWith Volk, Mary Crawford person
associatedWith Volmaryn, Pieter Crynse, ca. 1629-1679 person
associatedWith Vos, Cornelis de, 1584 or 5-1651 person
associatedWith Vos, Maarten de, 1532-1603. person
associatedWith Vos, Paul de, ca. 1596-1678 person
associatedWith Voss, Hermann person
associatedWith Vos, Simon de, 1603-1676 person
associatedWith Vrancx, Sebastian, 1573-1647 person
associatedWith Walsh, John, 1937- person
associatedWith Walter, Bruno, 1876-1962 person
associatedWith Warnke, Martin person
associatedWith Weber, Gregor J. M. person
associatedWith Weinberg, H. Barbara (Helene Barbara), 1942- person
associatedWith Weitzner, Julius H. person
associatedWith Welu, James A. person
associatedWith Weyden, Rogier van der, 1399 or 1400-1464. person
associatedWith White, Christopher, 1930- person
associatedWith Wierix, Jan, 16th cent person
associatedWith Wierix, Jeronimus, 1553-1619 person
associatedWith Wildens, Jan, 1585-1653 person
associatedWith Wilkin, Karen, 1940- person
associatedWith Willeboirts Bosschaert, Thomas, 1613 or 4-1654 person
associatedWith Willeboirts Bosschaert, Thomas, 1613 or 4-1654. person
associatedWith Williams College. corporateBody
associatedWith Winkler, Friedrich, 1888- person
associatedWith Winner, Matthias, 1931- person
associatedWith Wittkower, Rudolf person
associatedWith Witz, Konrad, ca. 1400-ca. 1445 person
associatedWith Wohl, Alice Sedgwick person
associatedWith Wolf, Emile E. person
associatedWith Wolfert, Artus, 1581-1641. person
associatedWith Wolf, Robert Erich person
associatedWith Wolf, Robert Erich. person
associatedWith Wood, Jeremy person
associatedWith Wouters, Frans, 1612-1659 person
associatedWith Wouwerman, Philips, 1619? -1668 person
associatedWith Wright, Virginia person
associatedWith Wtewael, Joachim, 1566-1638 person
associatedWith Wulc, Stanley S. person
associatedWith Wuttke, Dieter person
associatedWith Zimmer, Jürgen, 1937- person
associatedWith Zurbarán, Francisco, 1598-1664 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Berlin (Germany)
New York (State)
Germany
Williamstown (Mass.)
Europe
United States
Ghent--Belgium
Bruges--Belgium
Williamstown (Mass.)
Subject
Painting, Modern--17th century--Expertising
Painting--Conservation and restoration
Art historians--Correspondence
Art--Expertising
Art museums
Art, Dutch--16th century--Expertising
Art historians
Painting, Flemish--Expertising
Art, Netherlandish--Expertising
Art, Flemish--Bruges--Belgium--Expertising
Authors and publishers
Art--Collectors and collecting--Interviews
Art, Flemish--Expertising
Art, Flemish--16th century--Expertising
Art, German--17th century--Expertising
Authors and publishers--United States
Art, Dutch--17th century--Expertising
Museum curators--Correspondence
Art, German--16th century--Expertising
Art dealers--Correspondence
Art libraries
Art historians--Interviews
Art, Flemish--Ghent--Belgium--Expertising
Museum directors--Correspondence
Art, Flemish--17th century--Expertising
Art--Private collections--Europe
Art--Collectors and collecting--Correspondence
Art--Private collections--United States
Painting, Dutch--Expertising
Art--Private collections
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1905-04-15

Death 2002-12-22

Americans

English

Information

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Ark ID: w6542pxw

SNAC ID: 56762642