Smith, J. Russell (Joseph Russell), 1874-1966

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J. Russell Smith was a geographer who influenced the teaching of geography after 1920 through his many elementary texts.

From the description of Papers, [ca. 1888]-1966. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122684053

From the guide to the J. Russell (Joseph Russell) Smith papers, [ca. 1888]-1966, Circa 1888-1966, (American Philosophical Society)

Oliver Edwin Baker (1883-1949) was an agricultural geographer and population expert and an analyst for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. He was an authority on agricultural land utilization and advocate of “rurban” living, a combination of urban employment, suburban living, and part-time farming.

Baker was born in 1883 in Tifflin, Ohio, to Edwin Baker, a merchant, and his wife Martha Ranney Thomas. As a boy Baker was taught by his mother, a former school teacher, and then in public school. He graduated at age nineteen from Heidelberg College in Tifflin with a major in history and mathematics. The following year he received his master’s degree in philosophy and sociology from Heidelberg. He then enrolled at Columbia University, where he was granted a master’s in political science. He subsequently studied forestry at Yale (1907-1908) and agriculture at the University of Wisconsin (1908-1912). During his time at Wisconsin he co-authored an essay on the climate of Wisconsin and its effects on agriculture, and he spent his summers with the Wisconsin Soil Survey. In 1912 Baker joined the United States Department of Agriculture. Five years later he co-authored the Geography of the World’s Agriculture . The positive reception of this volume motivated Baker to produce an Atlas of American Agriculture, which was published in six parts between 1918 and 1936. Baker subsequently returned to the University of Wisconsin, where he earned a Ph.D. in economics in 1921 with a dissertation on land utilization. His research interests in the economics of agriculture stemmed in part from the influence of two of his professors at Wisconsin, Henry C. Taylor (1873-1969) and Richard T. Ely (1854-1943).

In 1922 Baker accepted Taylor’s invitation to join the Department of Agriculture’s new Bureau of Agricultural Economics. There he undertook a number of research projects, including many that involved the delineating and mapping of agricultural regions. His “Agricultural Regions of North America” was published in several parts between 1926 and 1933 in Economic Geography, for which he also served as associate editor for several years. He evidently often amazed his students by citing statistics on any of the 300 counties in the United States. Among his other publications during this period was an essay on agriculture in China that appeared in Foreign Affairs (1928). Baker was vice president of the Association of American Geographers in 1824 and president in 1932. During this period he was involved in the Association’s long-term program to investigate the “the margin of the cultivable earth,” so-called pioneer belts. In the late 1920s he also belonged to a National Research Council’s committee charged with the study of pioneer belts. From 1923 to 1927 Baker taught part-time in the newly established geography department at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts.

By the 1930s Baker became increasingly interested in questions related to population studies, including rural-urban migration, population quality, and living conditions on farms. Baker’s research in population problems stemmed from his interest in what he saw as the most valuable farm product, outstanding citizens. He encouraged and participated in several surveys of rural youth, and, based on his recognition that many rural people live in unsatisfactory conditions, he devoted much energy to improving their circumstances. For example, he attempted to the future of farming by studying past agricultural trends, offered specific suggestions designed to improve farming practices, and he tried to increase popular awareness of the contributions of farm families to the nation’s welfare. He essentially saw the nation as a complex of agricultural regions, and while some geographers regarded his agrarianism as reactionary, others recognized his contributions especially in the mapping of these regions. In 1937 the University of Göttingen awarded him an honorary degree.

Baker was deeply concerned about the declining U.S. birthrate, especially among urban people, which he predicted would have devastating consequences for the entire nation. He was a strong advocate of a “rurban” lifestyle that would combine urban employment with suburban living and part-time farming. This, he believed, would help preserve the rural values he so admired, including the “family ideal,” “the worth of the human soul, patriotism, the dignity of labor, the necessity of sacrifice, and the widespread distribution in the ownership of property,” as he explained in his essay “Some Implications of Population Trends to the Christian Church” (1942). Baker also believed that a “rurban” society would help improve land-use practices and increase the birthrate. He called for farm ownership over many generations, with one dwelling reserved for the older couple and one for the younger. Baker and his wife Alice Hargrave Crew, whom he married in 1925, practiced what he preached. The couple raised four children on a suburban property where they grew a garden and raised cows and chickens. Baker eventually bought a farm in Virginia with the intention of leaving it to his son.

In 1942 Baker joined the faculty of the University of Maryland. At that time, the university offered no courses in geography. Over the next seven years, Baker established what became one of the foremost geography departments in the country. He retired as chairman in 1949 in order to focus on his research, especially in connection to the Atlas of World Resources and the China Atlas . He died later that year in his home in College Park, Maryland.

From the guide to the Oliver Edwin Baker papers, 1913-1949, 1913-1949, (American Philosophical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Smith, J. Russell (Joseph Russell), 1874-1966. Letter, 1958, to Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf J. Russell (Joseph Russell) Smith papers, [ca. 1888]-1966, Circa 1888-1966 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Smith, J. Russell (Joseph Russell), 1874-1966. Papers, [ca. 1888]-1966. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Huntington, Ellsworth, 1876-1947. Ellsworth Huntington papers, 1779-1953 (inclusive), 1890-1947 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Houghton Mifflin Company correspondence and records, 1832-1944. Houghton Library
creatorOf Smith, Thomas R. (Thomas Russell), 1833-1914. Papers, 1849-1864. Friends Historical Library of Swarthmore College
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Ellsworth Huntington papers, 1779-1952, 1890-1947 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Oliver Edwin Baker papers, 1913-1949, 1913-1949 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Taylor, Henry C. (Henry Charles), 1873-1969. Henry C. Taylor papers, 1896-1968. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Baker, O. E. (Oliver Edwin), 1883-1949. Papers, 1913-1949. American Philosophical Society Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Association of American Geographers. corporateBody
associatedWith Baker, Alice Crew person
associatedWith Baker, O. E. (Oliver Edwin), 1883-1949. person
associatedWith Bixby, Willard G. person
associatedWith Bowman, Isaiah, 1878-1950. person
associatedWith Buck, John Lossing, 1890-1975 person
correspondedWith Century Company corporateBody
associatedWith Columbia University corporateBody
associatedWith Condliffe, J. B., (John Bell), 1891-1981 person
correspondedWith Dellenbaugh, Frederick Samuel, 1853-1935 person
associatedWith East, Edward M., (Edward Murray), 1879-1938 person
associatedWith Ely, Richard Theodore, 1854-1943 person
associatedWith Hershey, John W. person
associatedWith Hershey, John W. family
correspondedWith Houghton Mifflin Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Huntington, Ellsworth, 1876-1947. person
associatedWith Institute of Pacific Relations. corporateBody
associatedWith Johnson, Emory Richard, 1864-1950. person
associatedWith Lowdermilk, Walter Clay, 1888-1974. person
associatedWith Merk, Frederick, 1887-1977 person
associatedWith Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990. person
associatedWith Pioneer Belts Projects. corporateBody
associatedWith Ratzel, Friedrich, 1844-1904. person
associatedWith Smith, Thomas R. (Thomas Russell), 1833-1914. person
associatedWith Taylor, Henry C. (Henry Charles), 1873-1969. person
associatedWith United States. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Dept. of Agriculture. corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Nurseries (Horticulture)
Nurseries (Horticulture)
Conservation of natural resources
Economic geography
Forest conservation
Forest conservation
Human geography


Birth 1874

Death 1966




Ark ID: w6tt4sb2

SNAC ID: 4580940