Choiseul, Louis Marie Gabriel César de, 1734-1796

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Louis Marie Gabriel César de Choiseul, baron d'Esguilly, was born in 1734 at Autun, France. His father was César Gabriel de Choiseul, duc de Praslin (1712-1785), French diplomat and statesman. Louis Choiseul entered into armed service as a musketeer in the second company, 1747, and served successively in the King's Regiment (sous-lieutenant, 1750; lieutenant, 1755) and the Gendarmes-Dauphin (capitaine-lieutenant, 1761). From 1757 to 1762 he served in the Seven Years' War, but thereafter his political ambitions took him away from his military career.

In 1765, Choiseul was named ambassador to Turin, then capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia. He is remembered in his diplomatic career for arranging several marriages with political ramifications: the princess of Carignan with the prince of Lamballe (1766); the comte de Provence with Marie-Josephe Louise and the the comte d'Artois with Marie-Thérèse de Savoie (1771-1773), daughters of the Sardinian King; and the Prince of Piémont with Marie Adélaïde Clotilde Xavière (1775). During the course of his long mission, Choiseul was charged with monitoring the situation between Austria and Prussia, until the question of the Bavarian Succession was resolved (1778-1779), and he played an important role in monitoring Sardinian maneuvers relative to French-held Corsica. The French government recognized this service by promoting him to brigadier (1770) and ultimately to maréchal de camp (1780). Between 1778 and 1791, during absences from his post at Turin, Choiseul was replaced by the chargé d'affaires, Nicolas-François Tricot de Lalande.

Choiseul held fairly strong pro-British opinions during the American Revolution, but in the first years of the French Revolution, even while accepting the émigré princes, he appears to have expressed pro-Republican, pro-Democratic views. Choiseul's mission at Turin came to an end in either late 1791 or early 1792. He returned to France to find his property sequestered by the republican government. Choiseul died in 1796.

The Marquis de Monteil (b. 1718) was selected as ambassador to the Republic of Genoa in 1777. He was charged with obtaining a definitive interpretation of the Treaty of Versailles (1768) with respect to French intentions to annex Corsica. During the American Revolution, the Genoese maintained a neutral stance, but allowed the French and Spanish navies to use their ports.

From the guide to the Choiseul correspondence, 1777-1781, (William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Choiseul correspondence, 1777-1781 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Choiseul, Louis Marie Gabriel César de, 1734-1796. Choiseul correspondence, 1777-1781. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Belle-Polue (frigate) corporateBody
associatedWith Burgoyne, John, 1722-1792 person
associatedWith Byron, John, 1723-1786 person
associatedWith Chabot, Louis-Antoine-Auguste, duc de Rohan, 1733-1807 person
associatedWith Darby, George, d. 1790 person
associatedWith Dorchester, Guy Carleton, Baron, 1724-1808 person
associatedWith Estaing, Charles Henri, comte d', 1729-1794. person
associatedWith France. Marine. corporateBody
associatedWith Frederick II, King of Prussia, 1712-1786 person
associatedWith Grasse, François Joseph Paul de Grasse, comte de, 1722-1788 person
associatedWith Great Britain. Royal Navy. corporateBody
associatedWith Guichen, Luc Urbain de Bouecix, comte de, 1712-1790 person
associatedWith Howe, Richard Howe, Earl, 1726-1799 person
associatedWith Howe, William Howe, Viscount, 1729-1814 person
associatedWith Keppel, Augustus Keppel, Viscount, 1725-1786 person
associatedWith Knights of Malta. corporateBody
associatedWith Latouche-Tréville, Louis-René de, 1745-1804 person
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associatedWith Murio, Jerome. person
associatedWith Rochambeau, Donatien Marie Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de, 1750-1813 person
associatedWith Rodney, George Brydges Rodney, Baron, 1719-1792 person
associatedWith Ségur, Louis-Philippe, comte de, 1753-1830 person
associatedWith Suffren de Saint-Tropez, Pierre André de, 1729-1788 person
associatedWith Ternay, Charles Henry Louis d'Arsac, chevalier de, 1723-1780 person
associatedWith Valperga di Caluso, Tommaso, 1737-1815 person
associatedWith Vergennes, Charles Gravier, comte de, 1719-1787 person
associatedWith Washington, George, 1732-1799 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Great Britain
Sardinia (Italy)
Corsica (France)
Sardinia (Italy)
Great Britain
United States
United States
Maltese language
Anglo--Dutch War, 1780-1784
Russo--Turkish War, 1787-1792
Philadelphia Campaign, 1777-1778
Diplomatic and consular service, French
Monmouth, Battle of, Freehold, N.J., 1778
Brandywine, Battle of, Pa., 1777


Birth 1734

Death 1796

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Ark ID: w6r81g85

SNAC ID: 33073563