Macdonald, Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre, duc de Tarente, 1765-1840

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Epithet: General; Maréchal de France

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000798.0x0000c3

Étienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald (1765-1840) was a Marshal of France and military leader during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, regarded with respect for both his military achievements and his personal character.

Born in France to Jacobite Scottish parents, he embarked on his military career in 1785. By 1793 he was a colonel in the French Army, and fought in Spain and Italy. In 1800 he was named commander of the Helvetic Republic (Switzerland) and in 1809 he became military adviser to the viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy. In recognition of his achievements that same year in the Battle of Wagram against the Austrians, Napoleon made him a Marshal of France and duke of Taranto (in Naples). After the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814 MacDonald assisted in negotiating Napoleon's surrender and was named a peer of France, a Knight Grand-Croix of the Royal Order of St. Louis, and Chancellor of the Legion of Honor. He retired from public life in 1830 and died in 1840.

Although he visited his father's homeland, the island of Uist in the Outer Hebrides, only once, the island erected a plaque "to the memory of Marshal of France Jacques Macdonald" in May of 2010.

From the guide to the Alexandre Macdonald Letters, 1807-1840, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Hallaron, Michael Sean. Marshal Macdonald : a reassessment of his campaigns under the revolution and the directory / by Michael Sean Hallaron. University of Houston, Clear Lake, Alfred R. Neumann Library
creatorOf Macdonald, Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre, duc de Tarente, 1765-1840. Armée du Nord, registre de correspondance du général de brigade Macdonald. Florida State University
referencedIn William Henry Hoffman Collection on Napoleon I, Napoleon I, William Henry Hoffman Collection on, (bulk 1789-1821), 1585-1913 John Hay Library, Special Collections
creatorOf Cherubini, Luigi, 1760-1842. Letter : to E.-J.-J.-A. Macdonald, duc de Tarente, 1818 Aug. 22. Harvard University, Harvard Theater Collection, Harvard College Library
referencedIn Vol. XLIII. (IV. ff. 275). Apr.-June, 1799.Ferdinand IV of Naples and Sicily; afterwards Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Maria Carolina: Memorials from Princes, Nobles, and others to Lord Nelson: 1799.Ferdinand IV of Naples and Sicily; afterwards Fe... British Library
referencedIn Scott, Walter, Sir, 1771-1832. Autograph letter signed : Abbotsford [near Melrose], to the Marchioness of Abercorn, 1825 July 4. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Alexandre Macdonald Letters, 1807-1840 Syracuse University. Library. Special Collections Research Center
referencedIn Macdonald, Lacques Étienne Joseph Alexandre, 1765-1840. Register of correspondence, 1812-1813. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Billacoys family. family
associatedWith Cherubini, Luigi, 1760-1842. person
correspondedWith France. Armée corporateBody
associatedWith France. Armée. Armée du Nord. corporateBody
associatedWith Hallaron, Michael Sean. person
associatedWith Hoffman, William Henry, 1867-1916 person
associatedWith Macdonald, Lacques Étienne Joseph Alexandre, 1765-1840. person
associatedWith Scott, Walter, Sir, 1771-1832. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Tunis, Tunisia
Egypt, Africa
Malta, Europe
Salerno, Campania
Tripoli, Lybia
Boulak, Egypt
Pizzighettone, Lombardy
First Coalition, War of the, 1792-1797
Military history
Politics, government and public administration
Second Coalition, War of the, 1798-1801


Birth 1765-11-17

Death 1840-09-25





Ark ID: w6cj97qg

SNAC ID: 1286803