Project Apollo (U.S.)

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The Apollo program was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972. First conceived during Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration as a three-man spacecraft to follow the one-man Project Mercury which put the first Americans in space, Apollo was later dedicated to President John F. Kennedy's national goal of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" by the end of the 1960s, which he proposed in an address to Congress on May 25, 1961.

Kennedy's goal was accomplished on the Apollo 11 mission when astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed their Lunar Module on July 20, 1969, and walked on the lunar surface, while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the Command/Service Module, and all three landed safely on Earth on July 24. Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon.

Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, with the first manned flight in 1968. It achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the major setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test. After the first landing, sufficient flight hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration. Budget cuts forced the cancellation of three of these. Five of the remaining six missions achieved successful landings, but the Apollo 13 landing was prevented by an oxygen tank explosion in transit to the Moon, which destroyed the Service Module's capability to provide electrical power, crippling the CSM's propulsion and life support systems. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a "lifeboat" for these functions. Apollo used Saturn family rockets as launch vehicles, which were also used for an Apollo Applications Program, which consisted of Skylab, a space station that supported three manned missions in 1973–74, and the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint US-Soviet Union Earth-orbit mission in 1975.

Apollo set several major human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit. Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program returned 842 pounds (382 kg) of lunar rocks and soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moon's composition and geological history. The program laid the foundation for NASA's subsequent human spaceflight capability, and funded construction of its Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center. Apollo also spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Borman, Frank, 1928-. [Letter] 1977 November 1, Miami, Fla. [to] Evan Lerman, Brooklyn, N.Y. / Frank Borman. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn Aaron, John, 1942-. Oral history interview with John Aaron, 2006 November 04. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn Collection of Research Materials for the HBO Television Series, From the Earth to the Moon, 1940-1997, bulk 1958-1997 University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Dept. of Special Collections.
referencedIn Frosch, Robert A. (Robert Alan), 1928-. Oral History interview with Robert Alan Frosch, 1981. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Golovin, Nicholas E. (Nicholas Erasmus), 1912-1969. Papers of Nicholas E. Golovin, 1943-1970 (bulk 1958-1969). Library of Congress
referencedIn Crossen, James D. James Crossen oral history, 2001. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Donald Rumsfeld Papers, 1888-2008, (bulk 1963-2007) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Kirkland, Zach, 1938-. Oral history interview with Zach Kirkland, 2006 October 20. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn Beech Aircraft Corporation. Beech Aircraft printed materials 1956-[1980]. Boulder Public Library
referencedIn Bergman, Jules. Papers, 1965-1974. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
referencedIn Sperry Corporation. Sperry Gyroscope Company Division. Records, 1910-1970. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Paine, Thomas O., 1921-. Thomas O. Paine papers, 1931-1992 (bulk 1960-1982). Library of Congress
referencedIn Honeywell Inc. Corporate records, 1843-1999. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Collins, Reid. Papers, 1968-1985. University of Wyoming, American Heritage Center
referencedIn Mueller, G. E. (George Edwin), 1918-. G.E. Mueller papers, 1876-1997 (bulk 1935-1995). Library of Congress
referencedIn Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977. Wernher Von Braun papers, 1796-1970 (bulk 1950-1970). Library of Congress
referencedIn Home Box Office (Firm). Collection of research materials for the HBO television series, From the earth to the moon, 1940-1997, bulk 1958-1997. University of California, Los Angeles
referencedIn Nicholas E. Golovin Papers, 1943-1970, (bulk 1958-1969) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Fred Oliver U.S. Space Program Collection, 1965-1983 Wright State University, Special Collections and Archives
referencedIn Manned Space Flight: A Congressional Presentation United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Driscoll, Everly. Space / by Everly Driscoll. LESCO
referencedIn Calada News Gathering Services Collection of Video Recordings and Other Material Relating to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1969-2002 Special Collections Research Center
referencedIn Kraft, Christopher C. Papers, 1941-1982. Virginia Tech
referencedIn Windler, Milton, 1933-. Oral history interview with Milton Windler, 2006 September 16. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn Sperry Corporation. Aerospace Division. Records 1948-1975. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Chaffee, Roger Bruce, 1935-1967. Papers, records, photographs and artifacts 1935-1967. Grand Rapids Public Library
referencedIn F. Curtis Michel - Scientist-Astronaut Papers, MS 43., 1951-1981, Bulk Dates 1963-1974 Woodson Research Center, Fondren Library, Rice University, Houston, TX
referencedIn Wernher Von Braun Papers, 1796-1970, (bulk 1950-1970) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Columbia Broadcasting System, inc. Man on the moon sound recording, 1969 [sound recording]. Clemson University Libraries, Robert Muldrow Cooper Library
referencedIn Scott H. Simpkinson collection, 1943-1989. University of Central Florida, UCF
referencedIn Boulder Daily Camera. NASA printed materials 1955-1983. Boulder Public Library
referencedIn Samuel C. Phillips Papers, 1929-1990, (bulk 1958-1989) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Fendell, Ed, 1932-. Oral history interview with Ed Fendell, 2006 October 27. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn The David and Betty Scherr collection. Wichita State University, Ablah Library
referencedIn Calada News Gathering Services. Calada News Gathering Services collection of video recordings and other material relating to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1969-2002 [manuscript] North Carolina State University, NCSU Libraries
referencedIn Slayton, Donald K. "Deke", 1924-1993. Donald Kent "Deke" Slayton collection, 1943-1945. US Air Force Academy, McDermott Library
referencedIn Kranz, Eugene, 1933-. Oral history interview with Eugene Kranz, 2006 November 22. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn Witman, Arthur, 1902-1991. 35mm negative collection, 1936-1969. University of Missouri - St Louis, University Libraries, Thomas Jefferson, St. Louis Mercantile Library, (former branch Ward E. Barnes)
referencedIn Spong, William B. (William Belser), 1920-1997. Papers of William B. Spong. 1965-1974. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Lewis, Chuck, 1937-. Oral history interview with Chuck Lewis, 2006 September 29. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn Thompson, Earl, 1938-. Oral history interview with Earl Thompson, 2006 November 10. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn Gold, Thomas. Oral History interview with Thomas Gold, September 30, 1983. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn G. E. Mueller Papers, 1876-1997, (bulk 1935-1995) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Dr. Stanley C. White Papers, 1950-2000, 1961-1979 Wright State University, Special Collections and Archives
referencedIn Michel, F. Curtis, 1934-. Astronaut papers, 1965-1969. American Institute of Physics
referencedIn Bickmire, Walter W., 1920-2002. Walter W. Bickmire papers, 1966. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Arnold, James R. (James Richard), 1923-. [Lecture, May 14, 1997 [sound recording] / James Arnold and Fred Peters ; introduction by Karl Johansson]. University of California, San Diego, UC San Diego Library; UCSD Library
referencedIn Corporate records., 1843-1999. Minnesota Society
referencedIn The Seth MacFarlane Collection of the Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan Archive, 1860-2004, (bulk 1962-1997) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Field, George B., 1929-. Oral history interview with George Brooks Field, 1980 July 14 and 15. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Phillips, Samuel C. (Samuel Cochran), 1921-1990. Samuel C. Phillips papers, 1929-1990 (bulk 1958-1989). Library of Congress
referencedIn United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Historical documents. American Institute of Physics
referencedIn Hamblin, Dora Jane, 1920-1993. Papers of Dora Jane Hamblin, 1937-1993. University of Iowa Libraries
referencedIn Gus Grissom collection [graphic], 1960-1967. Indiana Historical Society Library
referencedIn Rumsfeld, Donald, 1932-. Donald Rumsfeld papers, 1888-2008 (bulk 1963-2007). Library of Congress
referencedIn Briscoe, Allen Lee, 1945-. Oral history interview with Lee Briscoe, 2006 November 22. University of North Texas Library, UNT
referencedIn Colwell, Carl L. Papers, 1962-1976. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
referencedIn Abelson, Philip Hauge. Philip Hauge Abelson papers, 1937-1989 (bulk 1962-1984). Washington State University, Holland and Terrell Libraries
referencedIn Aldrin, Edwin E., 1930-. First day of issue, 1969 Jul. 20, Moon Landing, U.S.A.-Sept. 9, Washington, D.C. / Richard Nixon, Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, Edwin E. Aldrin. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn [Pamphlets on Project Apollo, the space program for manned flight to the moon]. Yale University Library
referencedIn Duke, Charles Moss, 1935-. Charles Moss Duke papers, 1964-1974. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Apollo XIV Mission Microform Bible no. 14-169 1996-028., 1971 Austin Seminary Archives, Stitt Library, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary.
referencedIn Skylab Collection, 1960-1990 Wright State University, Special Collections and Archives
referencedIn Thomas O. Paine Papers, 1931-1992, (bulk 1960-1982) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn MOBEV phase 1 report. Jackson College, Atkinson Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Aaron, John, 1942- person
associatedWith Abelson, Philip Hauge. person
associatedWith Aerospace Ministries (Houston, Tex.) corporateBody
hasMember Aldrin, Buzz, 1930- person
hasMember Alfred Worden person
hasMember Anders, William A. (William Alison), 1933- person
associatedWith Apollo 10 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo 11 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo 12 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo 13 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo 14 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo 15 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo 16 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo 17 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo 8 (Spacecraft) corporateBody
associatedWith Apollo No. 1 (Ship) corporateBody
hasMember Armstrong, Neil, 1930-2012 person
associatedWith Arnold, James R. (James Richard), 1923- person
hasMember Bean, Alan, 1932- person
associatedWith Beech Aircraft Corporation. corporateBody
associatedWith Bergman, Jules. person
associatedWith Bickmire, Walter W., 1920-2002. person
hasMember Borman, Frank, 1928- person
associatedWith Boulder Daily Camera. corporateBody
associatedWith Briscoe, Allen Lee, 1945- person
associatedWith Calada News Gathering Services. corporateBody
hasMember Cernan, Eugene, 1934-2017 person
hasMember Chaffee, Roger Bruce, 1935-1967. person
hasMember Collins, Michael, 1930- person
associatedWith Collins, Reid. person
associatedWith Columbia Broadcasting System, inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Colwell, Carl L. person
hasMember Conrad, Pete, 1930-1999 person
associatedWith Crossen, James D. person
hasMember Cunningham, Walter, 1932- person
associatedWith Driscoll, Everly. person
associatedWith Druyan, Ann, 1949- Seth MacFarlane collection of the Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan archive. 1860-2004 person
hasMember Duke, Charles Moss, 1935- person
associatedWith Duke, Charles Moss, 1935- person
hasMember Eisele, Donn F., 1930-1987 person
hasMember Evans, Ronald E., 1933-1990 person
associatedWith Fendell, Ed, 1932- person
associatedWith Field, George B., 1929- person
associatedWith Frosch, Robert A. (Robert Alan), 1928- person
associatedWith Furukawa, Shiro person
associatedWith Gold, Thomas. person
associatedWith Golovin, Nicholas E. (Nicholas Erasmus), 1912-1969. person
hasMember Gordon, Richard F., 1929- person
hasMember Grissom, Gus. person
associatedWith Hamblin, Dora Jane, 1920-1993. person
associatedWith Home Box Office (Firm) corporateBody
associatedWith Honeywell Inc. corporateBody
hasMember Irwin, James B. (James Benson) person
associatedWith Kirkland, Zach, 1938- person
associatedWith Kraft, Christopher C. person
associatedWith Kranz, Eugene, 1933- person
associatedWith Lewis, Chuck, 1937- person
hasMember Lovell, Jim. person
hasMember Mattingly, T. Ken (Thomas Ken) person
hasMember McDivitt, James Alton, 1929- person
associatedWith Michel, F. Curtis person
associatedWith Michel, F. Curtis, 1934- person
hasMember Mitchell, Edgar D. person
associatedWith Mueller, G. E. (George Edwin), 1918- person
associatedWith Oliver, Fred person
associatedWith Paine, Thomas O., 1921- person
associatedWith Phillips, Samuel C. (Samuel Cochran), 1921-1990. person
associatedWith Rumsfeld, Donald, 1932- person
hasMember Russell Schweickart person
associatedWith Sagan, Carl, 1934-1996 person
hasMember Schirra, Wally person
hasMember Schmitt, Harrison H. person
hasMember Scott, David Randolph, 1932- person
hasMember Shepard, Alan B. (Alan Bartlett), 1923-1998 person
associatedWith Slayton, Donald K. "Deke", 1924-1993. person
associatedWith Sperry Corporation. Aerospace Division. corporateBody
associatedWith Sperry Corporation. Sperry Gyroscope Company Division. corporateBody
associatedWith Spong, William B. (William Belser), 1920-1997. person
hasMember Stafford, Thomas P. person
hasMember Swigert, Jack. person
associatedWith Thompson, Earl, 1938- person
associatedWith United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. corporateBody
associatedWith Von Braun, Wernher, 1912-1977. person
hasMember White, Edward Higgins, 1930-1967 person
associatedWith White, Stanley C., 1926-2011 person
associatedWith Windler, Milton, 1933- person
associatedWith Witman, Arthur, 1902-1991. person
hasMember Young, John (John Watts), 1930- person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States 00 US
Subject
Moon--Exploration
space exploration
Spacecraft
Space
Moon
Occupation
Function

Corporate Body

Active 1961

Active 1972

Americans

Information

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