Tubman, Harriet, 1822-1913

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Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Ross; b. ca. 1822–d. March 10, 1913) was an American abolitionist, humanitarian, and an armed scout and spy for the United States Army during the American Civil War. Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made thirteen missions to rescue approximately seventy enslaved families and friends, using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. She later helped abolitionist John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era was an active participant in the struggle for women's suffrage. Born a slave in Dorchester County, Maryland, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia in 1849, then returned to Maryland to rescue her family. Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives with her out of the state, and eventually guided dozens of other slaves to freedom. After the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed, she helped guide fugitives farther north into British North America, and helped newly freed slaves find work. When the Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the raid at Combahee Ferry, which liberated more than 700 slaves. After the war, she retired to the family home on property she had purchased in 1859 in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents. She was active in the women's suffrage movement until illness overtook her and she had to be admitted to a home for elderly African Americans that she had helped to establish years earlier. After she died in 1913, she became an icon of American courage and freedom.
Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917. Papers, 1847-1915. American Antiquarian Society
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Photographs Collection, Bulk, 1930-1990, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Conrad, Earl. Harriet Tubman research material, 1939-1940. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Collection, n.y., n.d., 1775-1943 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Papers, 1890 (1969-1973) Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Franks, Saundra Dunson. Hats : a tribute to Harriet Tubman: typescript, n.d. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Michigan State University. Library. American Radicalism Collection. Harriet Tubman : file of clippings and miscellanea. Michigan State University Libraries, Main Library
referencedIn Florence Woolsey Hazzard papers, 1819-1976, 1925-1965 (bulk) Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
General Affidavit of Harriet Tubman Relating to Her Claim for a Pension United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Records of the Project on the Status and Education of Women (Association of American Colleges), (inclusive), (bulk), 1969-1991, 1971-1985 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Metcalf, George R., 1914-. George R. Metcalf papers, 1956-1971. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Gioffre, Marisa. Bread and roses : a documentary play with music on the history of American women from the 19th century to the present : typescript, 1975. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Elder, Lonne. A woman called Moses. Segment II, The fulfilling : teleplay / by Lonne Elder III. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
referencedIn Cheney, Jane, 1811-1885. Scrapbook, 1852-1873. Connecticut Historical Society
referencedIn Washington University (Saint Louis, Mo.). Ethnic Heritage Studies: Developing a Programmed Literature Unit. Balch Institute for Ethnic Studies Library
referencedIn Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States Commandery of the State of Massachusetts Civil War collection, 1724-1933 (inclusive);, 1861-1912 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Savage, W. Sherman (William Sherman). Collection of W. Sherman Savage, c. 1950-1981. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Lutz, Alma,. Collection of documents by and about abolitionists and women's rights activists, Part 2 (Liv-W), 1775-1943 (inclusive). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Black Theatre Canada Archives. Follow the Drinking Gourd: A Play About Harriet Tubman / by Colleen J. McElroy, 1986 - reading script. University of Guelph
referencedIn Hazzard, Florence Woolsey, 1903-1992. Florence Woolsey Hazzard papers, 1819-1976, 1925-1965 (bulk). Cornell University Library
referencedIn Bobbye S. Ortiz Papers, (bulk, 1919-1993 and undated, 1950-1990) David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
referencedIn Associated Press. [Photograph of Rosa Parks] [picture] / Associated Press. Shenandoah University, Alson H. Smith, Jr. Library
referencedIn Harriet Tubman research material, 1939-1940 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn May, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph), 1797-1871. Samuel Joseph May Diary, 1866. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Records of the U.S. House of Representatives. 1789 - 2015. Accompanying Papers. 1865 - 1903. Accompanying Papers of the 55th Congress. 3/15/1897 - 3/3/1899. Senate Report 1619 to Accompany a Bill Granting a Pension to Harriet Tubman Davis
referencedIn Approved Pension File for Harriet Tubman Davis, Widow of Private Nelson Davis (alias Nelson Charles), Company G, 8th U.S. Colored Troops Infantry Regiment (WC-415288) United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn George R. Metcalf papers, 1956-1971 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn General Affidavit of Harriet Tubman Relating to Her Claim for a Pension United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Hazzard, Florence Woolsey, 1903-. Papers, 1890-1973 (inclusive), 1940-1973 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
referencedIn Wendell Phillips papers, 1555-1882 (inclusive) 1833-1881 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn The 100 Greatest Women of All Time.
referencedIn Lifting as They Climb.
referencedIn Lives of Extraordinary Women: Rulers, Rebels (and What the Neighbors Thought).
referencedIn Women of Distinction: Remarkable in Works and Invincible in Character.
referencedIn Homespun Heroines and Other Women of Distinction.
referencedIn 100 Women Who Shaped World History.
referencedIn Herstory
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
memberOf African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church corporateBody
associatedWith ALMA LUTZ, 1890-1973 person
associatedWith Anthony, Susan Brownell, 1820-1906 person
associatedWith Black Theatre Canada Archives. corporateBody
associatedWith Brown, John, 1800-1859 person
associatedWith Cheney, Jane, 1811-1885. person
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Conrad, Earl person
associatedWith Conrad, Earl. person
associatedWith Elder, Lonne. person
associatedWith Florence (Woolsey) Hazzard, 1903- person
associatedWith Franks, Saundra Dunson. person
associatedWith Garrison, William Lloyd, 1805-1879 person
associatedWith Gioffre, Marisa. person
associatedWith Hazzard, Florence Woolsey, 1903- person
associatedWith Hazzard, Florence Woolsey, 1903-1992. person
associatedWith Howland, Emily, 1827-1929 person
associatedWith Lutz, Alma, person
associatedWith May, Samuel J. (Samuel Joseph), 1797-1871. person
associatedWith Metcalf, George R., 1914- person
associatedWith Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. Commandery of the State of Massachusetts, collector. corporateBody
associatedWith Montgomery, James, 1814-1871 person
memberOf National Association of Colored Women's Clubs (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Ortiz, Bobbye S. person
associatedWith Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884 person
correspondedWith Phillips, Wendell, 1811-1884 person
associatedWith Project on the Status and Education of Women (Association of American Colleges) person
associatedWith Sanborn, F. B. (Franklin Benjamin), 1831-1917. person
associatedWith Savage, W. Sherman (William Sherman). person
associatedWith Seward, William Henry, 1801-1872 person
associatedWith Shaw, Robert Gould, 1837-1863 person
associatedWith Siebert, Wilbur Henry, 1866-1961 person
associatedWith Washington University (Saint Louis, Mo.) corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States 00 US
Auburn NY US
Philadelphia PA US
Dorchester County MD US
Subject
Sufferage
Abolition
Nursing
Civil rights
Underground railroad
Fugitive slaves
American Civil War (1861-1865)
Antislavery movements
Occupation
Nurses
Abolitinists
Suffragettes
Cooks
Civil rights activists
Function

Person

Birth 1822

Death 1913-03-10

Americans

English

Information

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SNAC ID: 83847206