Gregory XIV, Pope, 1535-1591

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Pope Gregory XIV was known as Nicolo Sfondrati before he became pontiff in 1590. Nicolo studied law, became a cleric, and held numerous Church positions. He was named a cardinal by Pope Paul II in 1550. He was named Bishop of Cremona in 1560 and, in that capacity, attended the Council of Trent from 1561 to 1563. He was Pope from 1590 to 1591.

From the description of Letters, 1561-1562. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122699419

Gregory XIV (1535-1591) served as Pope from 1590 to 1591.

Pope Gregory XIV was born Niccolò Sfondrati on February 11, 1535 in Somma Lombardo, near Milan, to Francesco Sfondrati and Anna Visconti. His father had taught law in Padua before being appointed a cardinal in 1544, and Niccolò followed a similar path. He studied law in Perugia and Padua, and in 1560 was appointed bishop of Cremona. In this role he attended the Council of Trent between 1561 and 1563. In 1583 he was appointed a cardinal by Pope Gregory XIII, before being selected as pope on December 5, 1590.

During his pontificate, Gregory XIV generally maintained the policies set by his predecessors. He opposed the reign of Henry IV of France, sending an army under the command of his nephew Ercole Sfondrati to support the Catholic League. He also made his nephew Paolo Camillo Sfondrati a cardinal, and appointed him as his secretary of state. These appointments generated some dissatisfaction among other cardinals, being seen as nepotism. Pope Gregory XIV died in Rome on October 16, 1591.

Paolo Sfondrati (1514-1587) was a Milanese senator and diplomat.

Paolo Sfondrati was born in 1514 to Francesco Sfondrati and Anna Visconti. The Sfondrati family were prominent politicians in Milan, and he followed his father into public service. Sfondrati was baron of Valsassina and count of Riviera, and married Sigismonda d'Este, daughter of the Marquis of S. Martino. They had six children, including Paolo Camillo, Ercole, and Francesco.

In Milan Sfondrati served as a senator, as well as a diplomat to the court of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. He also remained in contact with his brother, Niccolò, who would become pope Gregory XIV in 1590. Paolo Sfondrati died in Turin on April 23, 1587.

From the guide to the Paolo Sfondrati correspondence, 1561-1562, 1600s, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)

Gregory XIV (1535-1591) served as Pope from 1590 to 1591.

Pope Gregory XIV was born Niccolò Sfondrati on February 11, 1535 in Somma Lombardo, near Milan, to Francesco Sfondrati and Anna Visconti. His father had taught law in Padua before being appointed a cardinal in 1544, and Niccolò followed a similar path. He studied law in Perugia and Padua, and in 1560 was appointed bishop of Cremona. In this role he attended the Council of Trent between 1561 and 1563. In 1583 he was appointed a cardinal by Pope Gregory XIII, before being selected as pope on December 5, 1590.

During his pontificate, Gregory XIV generally maintained the policies set by his predecessors. He opposed the reign of Henry IV of France, sending an army under the command of his nephew Ercole Sfondrati to support the Catholic League. He also made his nephew Paolo Camillo Sfondrati a cardinal, and appointed him as his secretary of state. These appointments generated some dissatisfaction among other cardinals, being seen as nepotism. Pope Gregory XIV died in Rome on October 16, 1591.

Paolo Sfondrati (1514-1587) was a Milanese senator and diplomat.

Paolo Sfondrati was born in 1514 to Francesco Sfondrati and Anna Visconti. The Sfondrati family were prominent politicians in Milan, and he followed his father into public service. Sfondrati was baron of Valsassina and count of Riviera, and married Sigismonda d'Este, daughter of the Marquis of S. Martino. They had six children, including Paolo Camillo, Ercole, and Francesco.

In Milan Sfondrati served as a senator, as well as a diplomat to the court of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy. He also remained in contact with his brother, Niccolò, who would become pope Gregory XIV in 1590. Paolo Sfondrati died in Turin on April 23, 1587.

From the guide to the Paolo Sfondrati correspondence, 1561-1562, 1600s, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Gregory XIV, Pope, 1535-1591. Pope Gregory XIV bull, 1594. University of Pennsylvania Library
referencedIn Maretti, Lelio, 16th/17th cent. Strozzi transcript of Conclavi overo Relazioni historiche dell'assontioni al pontificato di Gregorio, ca. 1590, 17th or 18th century. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Gregory XIV, Pope, 1535-1591. Letters, 1561-1562. American Primers
referencedIn Sfondrati, Paolo Camillo, 1561-1618. Correspondence, 1600?-1800? American Primers
creatorOf Pescara, Francesco Ferdinando Avalos, marchese di, 1530-1571. Letter signed : Milan, to the Bishop of Cremona (Nicolo, cardinal Sfondrati, later Pope Gregory XIV), 1563 Apr. 18. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Alberini, Marcello, 1511-1580. Discorso di Marcello Alberino Rom ̊sopra il sacco di Roma in tempo di Papa Clemente VII con altre particolarità successe innanzi e doppo detto sacco : manuscript, [16--?]. Princeton University Library
creatorOf Paolo Sfondrati correspondence, 1561-1562, 1600s L. Tom Perry Special Collections20th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts
creatorOf Paolo Sfondrati correspondence, 1561-1562, 1600s L. Tom Perry Special Collections20th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts
referencedIn Catholic Church. Collegio dei cardinali. Littere post obitum Innocenti IX : Exemplum litterarum sacra collegio, 1585-1592. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
referencedIn Crimmins, John D. (John Daniel), 1844-1917. The papal autograph collection / collected by John D. Crimmins. Catholic University of America
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Alberini, Marcello, 1511-1580. person
associatedWith Catholic Church. Collegio dei cardinali. corporateBody
associatedWith Council of Trent (1545-1563) corporateBody
associatedWith Crimmins, John D. (John Daniel), 1844-1917. person
associatedWith Maretti, Lelio, 16th/17th cent. person
associatedWith North, Frederick, Earl of Guilford, 1766-1827, person
associatedWith Pescara, Francesco Ferdinando Avalos, marchese di, 1530-1571. person
associatedWith Phillipps, Thomas, Sir, 1792-1872, person
associatedWith Piccolomini, Ascanio, person
associatedWith Politi, Clemente. person
associatedWith Sfondrati family family
associatedWith Sfondrati family family
associatedWith Sfondrati family family
associatedWith Sfondrati, Paolo, 1514-1587 person
associatedWith Sfondrati, Paolo Camillo, 1561-1618. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Italy
Grosseto (Italy)
Subject
Catholicism
Cardinals--Correspondence
Clergy--Appointment, call, and election--Early works to 1800
Bishops--Correspondence
Catholic Church--History--16th century--Sources
Religion
Bishops--Italy--Correspondence
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1535-02-11

Death 1591-10-16

Italians

Latin

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