Taylor, John W., 1784-1854

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Congressman and anti-slavery leader.

From the description of John W. Taylor correspondence and papers, 1804-1846. (New York University). WorldCat record id: 475915303

John W. Taylor (1784-1854) served as Representative from New York for ten consecutive Congresses, from 1813 to 1833, and as Speaker of the House for the sixteenth and nineteenth Congresses (1819-1821 and 1825-1827, respectively). Taylor was a noted anti-slavery leader, arguing against allowing the introduction of slavery in the new territories of Missouri and Arkansas, eventually pushing for the exclusion of slavery in all new territories.

From the description of John W. Taylor papers, 1810-1854. (New Jersey Historical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 53247862

  • 1784: John W. Taylor born March 26, 1784 in Charlton, New York Son of Judge John Taylor
  • 1799: Enrolled at Union College at 15 years of age
  • 1803: Graduated Union College Member of Phi Beta Kappa
  • 1803 - 1807 : Founded and taught at The Ballston Centre Academy Studied law with Samuel Cook
  • 1807: Earned credentials as Attorney at Law in New York State
  • 1810: Earned credentials as Counselor of Law in New York State
  • 1811: Appointed Deputy Post Master of Hadley, Saratoga Country, New York
  • 1812 - 1813 : Served in the New York State Assembly Served as New York State Commissioner of Loans
  • 1813 - 1833 : Elected at 29 years of age for 10 consecutive terms to Congress as the House Representative from Saratoga County
  • 1820 - 1821 : Served as Speaker of the House for the 16th Congress
  • 1825 - 1827 : Served as Speaker of the House for the 19th Congress
  • 1827: Became a member of the New-York Historical Society
  • 1840 - 1842 : Served in the New York State Assembly
  • 1842: Suffered a paralytic stroke Moved to daughter’s home in Cleveland, Ohio
  • 1854: Died September 18, 1854 in Cleveland, Ohio at 70 years of age Buried in Ballston Spa, New York

Historical Context:

Described as a man who advocated “measures and not men... actions and not words”, John W. Taylor was as much a product of his times as he was a creator of them, generating a legacy which while lacking direct recognition nevertheless permeates the American socio-political landscape in seminal and enduring ways. His papers reflect a deep and abiding commitment to service to his country, his constituents and his personal convictions.

Raised in an established American family with roots in Saratoga County, New York dating to 1692, Taylor distinguished himself early as a gifted student and debater. Upon graduation from Union College at the age of 19, he founded the Ballston Academy, engaged in successful business ventures, served as the Deputy Post Master and earned his law credentials. He married a young woman of Scottish descent, Jane Hodges, with whom he raised 5 sons and 3 daughters. Appointed to the State Assembly in 1811, Taylor’s steady independence propelled him to federal office in 1813 as a Republican Congressman. Thus at the age of 29, Taylor joined a group of young, ambitious men including Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun who wrestled with the nuances of the physical, legal, political and spiritual governance of a county only just evolving from its infancy toward its first toddling steps as an individualized political entity.

John W. Taylor entered the national political arena during the second half of the War of 1812 in which the United States failed to extend its territory into Canada but succeeded in establishing itself as a militarily stalwart and politically autonomous country. Thus ensconced in President James Monroe’s Era of Good Feeling, purported as a time of national unity while the country strove to expand, it was James Tallmadge, Jr. and Taylor, both congressmen from New York State, who in 1819 ushered the debate of the abolitionist into the goal of western expansion.

Championing the Restrictionist cause was an ethical imperative for Taylor who fervently promoted and authored amendments aimed at preventing and/or limiting the legally sanctioned institution of slavery into newly created states. Using his considerable parliamentarian talents as a tactful, fluent, concise and effective orator, Taylor’s response to southern Secessionists threats was resolute: “The honorable gentleman greatly mistakes the people of this country if he supposes this Union, cemented by strong interests, consecrated by glorious achievement, sanctified by the blood of heroes, and endeared by victories won by the exertion and treasure of all … can ever be destroyed or in the least impaired by promoting the cause of humanity and freedom in America”.

The results were variable often highlighting yet another seminal and enduringly contentious issue regarding the extent of the power of the Constitution as well as that of the federal government to dictate legislation upon States. Ultimately, many of Taylor’s unsuccessful but core proposals formed the bedrock of the ensuing Missouri Compromises including the establishment of a geographic boundary between slave and free states at the 36/30 parallel known as the Mason-Dixon Line.

John W. Taylor went on to serve as Speaker of the House twice, during the second half of the 16th Congress in 1821 and again for the entire 19th Congress of 1825-1827. A statesman who advocated service to the people above service to a political party, his reluctance to be drawn into the contentious fractioning within the New York State Republican party between the Bucktails led by Martin Van Buren and the supporters of Governor DeWitt Clinton with whom Taylor was ultimately associated nearly cost him the 1821 appointment. By 1825, the machinations required to maintain political footing on the national stage had aligned Taylor solidly with long time ally John Quincy Adams in whose 1825 election Taylor provided pivotal support.

During the years of 1833-1842, intervening his Congressional Service and incapacitation from a paralytic stroke, Taylor returned to Saratoga County where he practiced law, served in the State Assembly and was instrumental in the development of the Whig party. Taylor spent his waning years in Cleveland, Ohio in the care of his daughter. He was buried upon his death at age 70 in Ballston Spa. Despite an absence of 12 years, his memorial at the courthouse was well attended by dignitaries and citizens of every ilk and he was eulogized as a man who "was lauded when he flourished and strengthened when he fainted, as scarce ever was a man before."

Historical Resources:

Alexander, DeAlva Stanwood. "John W. Taylor." Quarterly Journal of the New York State Historical Association 1 (January 1920): 14-37.

Booth, John Chester. Excerpt from Booth's History of Saratoga County, New York: 1858 . Eds. Violet B. Dunn & Beatrice Sweeney. Saratoga County Bicentennial Commission, 1977. 11 December 2009 http://www.townofcharlton.org/CHS/highlightshistory.html

Johnson, William R. "Prelude to the Missouri Compromise: A New York Congressman's Effort to Exclude Slavery from Arkansas Territory." New-York Historical Society Quarterly 48 (January 1964): 31-50.

Spann, Edward K. "The Souring of Good Feeling: John W. Taylor and the Speakership Election of 1821." New York History 41 (October 1960): 379-399.

Sylvester, Nathaniel Bartlett and Cornelius E. Durkee. Excerpt from History of Saratoga County, New York: with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers . Philadelphia: Evert & Ensign, 1878. Interlaken, New York: Hearts of the Lakes Publishers, 1979. www.ancestory.com 11 December 2009 http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nysarato/Sylvester/chap27.html

United States: Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John W. Taylor, 1784-1854 . 11 December 2009 http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=T000091

From the guide to the John W. Taylor Papers, 1798-1852, (© 2011 New-York Historical Society)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Taylor, John W., 1784-1854. Letter, 1818 September 25, to "Officers of the Military Academy at West Point." United States Military Academy, USMA Library
creatorOf Taylor, John W., 1784-1854. John W. Taylor papers, 1810-1854. New Jersey Historical Society Library
referencedIn Papers of Professor Henry William Wilder Foote and Family, 1714-1959 Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Harvard Divinity School
creatorOf John W. Taylor Papers, 1798-1852 © 2011 New-York Historical Society
referencedIn War of 1812 mss., 1776-1879 Lilly Library (Indiana University, Bloomington)
creatorOf Hale family. Papers, 1720-1950. Library of Congress
creatorOf Taylor, John W., 1784-1854. John W. Taylor correspondence and papers, 1804-1846. Churchill County Museum
creatorOf Brooks, John P., fl. 1877. Lawyers' and judges' papers, 1736-1914. New Jersey Historical Society Library
referencedIn Palfrey family papers, 1713-1915. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Adams, John Quincy, 1767-1848 person
associatedWith Boss, Hiram. person
associatedWith Buel, Jesse, 1778-1839. person
associatedWith Clay, Henry, 1777-1852 person
associatedWith Clinton, DeWitt, 1769-1828. person
associatedWith Clothier, Ithamar. person
associatedWith Conkling, Alfred, 1789-1874. person
associatedWith Cooke, Sam. person
associatedWith Cook, Samuel. person
associatedWith Cowen, Esek, 1787-1844. person
associatedWith Cramer, John. person
associatedWith Crawford, William Harris, 1772-1834. person
associatedWith Decatur, Stephen, 1779-1820. person
associatedWith Dix, John A. (John Adams), 1798-1879. person
associatedWith Ely, Isaac M. (Isaac Mills), 1787-1845. person
associatedWith Everett, Edward, 1794-1865 person
associatedWith Fisk, Jonathan, 1778-1832. person
associatedWith Geddes, James, 1763-1838. person
associatedWith Hale family. family
associatedWith Hale, Salma, 1787-1866. person
associatedWith Hammond, Jabez D. (Jabez Delano), 1778-1855. person
associatedWith Hodge, James. person
associatedWith Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826 person
associatedWith Livingston, Richard Montgomery, b. 1773. person
associatedWith Lucas, John B. C., d. 1842 person
associatedWith Martindale, Henry Clinton, 1779?-1860. person
associatedWith McLean, John, 1785-1861. person
associatedWith Miner, Charles, 1780-1865. person
associatedWith Monroe, James, 1758-1821 person
associatedWith Mower, James B. person
associatedWith New York (State). Legislature. Assembly. corporateBody
associatedWith New York (State). Legislature. Senate. corporateBody
associatedWith Niles, Hezekiah, 1777-1839. person
associatedWith Nott, Eliphalet, 1773-1866. person
associatedWith Paine, Lemuel C. person
correspondedWith Palfrey family. family
associatedWith Palmer, George. person
associatedWith Palmer, Thomas. person
associatedWith Richards, John. person
associatedWith Russell, John, 1772-1842. person
associatedWith Sage, Ebenezer, 1755-1834. person
associatedWith Savage, John, 1779-1863. person
associatedWith Spencer, Ambrose, 1765-1848. person
associatedWith Tallmadge, James, 1778-1853. person
associatedWith Taylor, Jane Hodge, d. 1838. person
associatedWith Tompkins, Daniel D., 1774-1825. person
associatedWith Union College (Schenectady, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. House. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. House. Committee on Elections. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. House. Committee on Revisal and Unfinished Business. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. House Speakers. corporateBody
associatedWith Van Buren, Martin, 1782-1862. person
associatedWith Viele, John Ludovicus, 1788-1832. person
associatedWith Webster, Daniel, 1782-1852 person
associatedWith Woodbridge, William, 1780-1861. person
associatedWith Young, Samuel, 1779-1850 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States
Saratoga County (N.Y.)
Ballston Spa (N.Y.)
Cleveland (Ohio)
United States
Ballston Spa (N.Y.)
New York (State)
New York (N.Y.)
Ballston Spa (N.Y.)
Charlton (N.Y. : Town)
Saratoga Country (N.Y.)
Union College (Schenectady, N.Y.)
New York (State)
Subject
Antislavery movements
Abolitionists--United States
Antislavery movements--United States
Lawyers
Abolitionists
Occupation
Politicians
Lawyers
Lawyers--New York (N.Y.)
Function

Person

Birth 1784-03-26

Death 1854-09-18

Information

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