Michael Young Papers 1986-2001
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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (b. July 18, 1918, Umtata, South Africa–d. Dec. 5, 2013, Johannesburg, South Africa) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconc...
The African National Congress (ANC) was formed in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress (it changed its name to the ANC in 1923) with the aim of replacing tribal opposition to white rule with a united African force. At first its membership was narrow - its leaders drawn from among traditional chiefs and wealthy Africans, its aims were limited and its activities were law-abiding. An attempt by J.T. Gumede to create a mass anti-imperialist movement was defeated by the moderates in 193...
Oliver Reginald Tambo was born in Mbizana in eastern Pondoland in the Cape Province on 27 October 1917. He attended Ludeke Methodist School, and completed his primary education at Holy Cross Mission near Flagstaff. From there he transferred to St. Peter's Secondary School in Johannesburg. After completing his secondary education, Tambo went to the University College of Fort Hare in Alice [South Africa] and earned a Bachelor of Science degree in 1941. He remained at the U...
Early Career Michael Young graduated from the University of York in 1972 where he read politics. He subsequently worked on the International Desk of the Conservative Research Department and became a foreign affairs adviser to Foreign Secretary Sir Alec Douglas-Home, to former Prime Minister Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher (in opposition), and to Shadow Foreign Secretary, Lord Carrington. Young resigned from the Conservative Party following Thatcher's 1979 election vic...