Mudd, Emily H. (Emily Hartshorne), 1898-1998

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Emily Borie (Hartshorne) Mudd (EHM), marriage counselor, advocate of family planning, researcher, and educator, was born in Merion, Penn., on September 6, 1898, the daughter of Edward Yarnall and suffragist Clementina (Rhodes) Hartshorne. After entering Vassar College in 1917, she worked in the Woman's Land Army and enlisted in the nursing corps of the U.S. Army rather than return to college. A bout of typhoid interfered with her plans to become a nurse or to attend any college that required mostly indoor activity. She transferred to the Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture (Groton, Mass.), where she earned an L.A. degree in 1922. That same year she married Stuart Mudd (SM), whom she had met while he was a fellow in biophysics at Harvard Medical School. They had four children: Emily Borie, Stuart Harvey, Margaret Clark, and John Hodgen.

The Mudds lived briefly in New York City, where they met Margaret Sanger and Dr. Abraham Stone. They moved to the Philadelphia area in the early 1920s, eventually settling in Haverford. There they lived next door to EHM's sister, Clementine Hartshorne Jenney. EHM and CHJ mutually raised the Mudd and Jenney children, making it easier for each of them to do other work. EHM served as microbiologist and SM's unpaid laboratory assistant until the early 1930s. Their research included work on the immunology of spermatozoa, which they hoped might result in a new method of birth control; together they published fourteen articles about their work.

In the late 1920s, the Mudds were among those who founded the Maternal Health Center, a birth control clinic in Delaware County, just outside Philadelphia. As in most states, Pennsylvania laws restricted the availability of birth control devices and information. The Maternal Health Center was unable to find a nurse willing to give out information about birth control; EHM did this as a volunteer. Many of the women she saw were physically, emotionally, or economically burdened by the number of children they had. EHM became convinced that young women should be able to learn about contraception before becoming overwhelmed with more children than they wanted, and that potential marital problems deriving from disagreements over such issues as contraception and mutual expectations should be worked out early in a marriage. Believing that "prevention" is better than a later "cure," she joined a committee that was considering forming an agency to address these concerns. The Marriage Council (until 1947, Counsel) of Philadelphia (MCP) was founded in 1932 or 1933, with EHM as its counselor.

The MCP was only the third such agency in the United States. EHM served as director part-time while working toward a Master in Social Work degree at the University of Pennsylvania. When she earned her degree in 1936, she became executive director of the MCP, a post she held until her retirement in 1967. In 1950 she earned a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. In 1952, the MCP affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. The council became the core of the newly founded Divison of Family Study in the Department of Psychiatry. EHM was director of the division and became a full professor in 1956, the first woman to reach that level in the medical school.

In addition to providing marriage counseling to men and women, the MCP conducted research on clients and other families, and on the results of its services. It became a center for training counselors from the U.S. and abroad. EHM participated in all aspects of the council's work. She counseled clients, taught counselors, and introduced medical students, pastors, and others to marriage counseling techniques. She conducted and oversaw studies, lectured and offered courses in Philadelphia and elsewhere, and wrote or edited six books and well over a hundred articles about the MCP, research results, and other topics, most related to marriage counseling. For a fairly comprehensive list of EHM's publications, see #119. In the 1940s and early 1950s, at the request of the publisher, EHM worked with Alfred Kinsey as one of five consulting editors for the Institute for Sex Research's book, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953).

EHM was also concerned with marriage counseling, family planning, and population control overseas. She enjoyed learning about practices in other countries as well as sharing her own expertise. She and SM travelled around the world giving lectures in their respective fields. Among the countries they visited were the Soviet Union (1946), South America (1950), Japan (1955, 1974), Sweden (1958), Israel (1961), Australia and New Zealand (1964, 1968), Poland (1966), Korea and the Philippines (1967), and India (1968). The Mudds were both active with the Pathfinder Fund, which has founded family planning services around the world (many in developing countries) and supports research on contraceptives.

After EHM's retirement in 1967, she continued to be active in the medical school's Departments of Psychiatry and Obstetrics and Gynecology as well as in the Marriage Council. She was senior advisor of the Teen Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital, which serves teenage girls, their mothers, and their boyfriends. Always involved in professional and other organizations, in the 1970s and early 1980s she increased her volunteer work and served on a number of boards: e.g., the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, Experiment in International Living, College of Physicians of Philadelphia, and the World Academy of Art and Science (as treasurer for eight years, then chair of the Awards Committee). In the early 1970s Governor Milton Shapp appointed her co-chair of the Pennsylvania Abortion Law Commission, and she was co-director of continuing education for the Masters & Johnson Institute (earlier the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation) in St. Louis from 1970 through 1981.

Stuart Mudd died on May 6, 1975. In 1980 EHM married Frederick Gloeckner, chair of the Board of Directors of the Winchell Company, Printers and Publishers. They live in Haverford, Penn.

For additional biographical information, see published articles in #10-18, particularly those from Current Biography (1956), Health Affairs (1973), Who's Who of American Women (1977-1978), and Who's Who in America (1990-1991), and papers about EHM in #3-9. EHM was interviewed by James W. Reed for the Schlesinger Library's Family Planning Oral History Project; the transcript is available at the library: OH-1/ Mudd. JWR's interview with Stuart Mudd and biographical material about SM are in #17 of the Family Planning Oral History Project collection, MC 223; papers about EHM there duplicate material in this collection.

From the guide to the Papers, 1873-1990, (Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute)

Emily Borie (Hartshorne) Mudd, marriage counselor, advocate of family planning, researcher, and educator, was born in Merion, Pennsylvania, on September 6, 1898, the daughter of Edward Yarnall and suffragist Clementina (Rhodes) Hartshorne. After entering Vassar College in 1917, she worked in the Woman's Land Army and enlisted in the nursing corps of the United States Army rather than return to college. A bout of typhoid interfered with her plans to become a nurse or to attend any college that required mostly indoor activity. She transferred to the Lowthorpe School of Landscape Architecture (Groton, Massachusetts), where she earned an L.A. degree in 1922. That same year she married Stuart Mudd, whom she had met while he was a fellow in biophysics at Harvard Medical School. They had four children: Emily Borie, Stuart Harvey, Margaret Clark, and John Hodgen.

The Mudds lived briefly in New York City, where they met Margaret Sanger and Dr. Abraham Stone. They moved to the Philadelphia area in the early 1920s, eventually settling in Haverford. There they lived next door to Mudd's sister, Clementine Hartshorne Jenney. Mudd and Jenny mutually raised the Mudd and Jenney children, making it easier for each of them to do other work. Mudd served as microbiologist and Stuart Mudd's unpaid laboratory assistant until the early 1930s. Their research included work on the immunology of spermatozoa, which they hoped might result in a new method of birth control; together they published fourteen articles about their work.

In the late 1920s, the Mudds were among those who founded the Maternal Health Center, a birth control clinic in Delaware County, just outside Philadelphia. As in most states, Pennsylvania laws restricted the availability of birth control devices and information. The Maternal Health Center was unable to find a nurse willing to give out information about birth control; Mudd did this as a volunteer. Many of the women she saw were physically, emotionally, or economically burdened by the number of children they had. Mudd became convinced that young women should be able to learn about contraception before becoming overwhelmed with more children than they wanted, and that potential marital problems deriving from disagreements over such issues as contraception and mutual expectations should be worked out early in a marriage. Believing that "prevention" is better than a later "cure," she joined a committee that was considering forming an agency to address these concerns. The Marriage Council of Philadelphia (until 1947, Marriage Counsel of Philadelphia) was founded in 1932 or 1933, with Mudd as its counselor.

The Marriage Council of Philadelphia was only the third such agency in the United States. Mudd served as director part-time while working toward a Master in Social Work degree at the University of Pennsylvania. When she earned her degree in 1936, she became executive director of the Marriage Council of Philadelphia, a post she held until her retirement in 1967. In 1950 she earned a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. In 1952, the Marriage Council of Philadelphia affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. The council became the core of the newly founded Division of Family Study in the Department of Psychiatry. Mudd was director of the division and became a full professor in 1956, the first woman to reach that level in the medical school.

In addition to providing marriage counseling to men and women, the Marriage Council of Philadelphia conducted research on clients and other families, and on the results of its services. It became a center for training counselors from the United States and abroad. Mudd participated in all aspects of the council's work. She counseled clients, taught counselors, and introduced medical students, pastors, and others to marriage counseling techniques. She conducted and oversaw studies, lectured and offered courses in Philadelphia and elsewhere, and wrote or edited six books and well over a hundred articles about the Marriage Council of Philadelphia, research results, and other topics, most related to marriage counseling. For a fairly comprehensive list of Mudd's publications, see #119. In the 1940s and early 1950s, at the request of the publisher, Mudd worked with Alfred Kinsey as one of five consulting editors for the Institute for Sex Research's book, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953).

Mudd was also concerned with marriage counseling, family planning, and population control overseas. She enjoyed learning about practices in other countries as well as sharing her own expertise. She and Stuart Mudd traveled around the world giving lectures in their respective fields. Among the countries they visited were the Soviet Union (1946), South America (1950), Japan (1955, 1974), Sweden (1958), Israel (1961), Australia and New Zealand (1964, 1968), Poland (1966), Korea and the Philippines (1967), and India (1968). The Mudds were both active with the Pathfinder Fund, which has founded family planning services around the world (many in developing countries) and supports research on contraceptives.

After Mudd's retirement in 1967, she continued to be active in the medical school's Departments of Psychiatry and Obstetrics and Gynecology as well as in the Marriage Council. She was senior advisor of the Teen Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania Hospital, which serves teenage girls, their mothers, and their boyfriends. Always involved in professional and other organizations, in the 1970s and early 1980s she increased her volunteer work and served on a number of boards: e.g., the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, Experiment in International Living, College of Physicians of Philadelphia, and the World Academy of Art and Science (as treasurer for eight years, then chair of the Awards Committee). In the early 1970s Governor Milton Shapp appointed her co-chair of the Pennsylvania Abortion Law Commission, and she was co-director of continuing education for the Masters & Johnson Institute (earlier the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation) in St. Louis from 1970 through 1981.

Stuart Mudd died on May 6, 1975. In 1980 Mudd married Frederick Gloeckner, chair of the Board of Directors of the Winchell Company, Printers and Publishers. They live in Haverford, Pennsylvania.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Mudd, Emily Hartshorne, 1898-. Papers: Series IV-VI, 1927-1990 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn American Council on Education. Records, 1951. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Papers, 1810-1984 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. Papers: Series III, 1909-1942 (inclusive) [microform]. Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Himes, Norman Edwin, 1899-1949. Papers of Norman E. Himes, 1918-1956 (inclusive), 1925-1950 (bulk). Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
referencedIn Records, 1951 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Harvard Law School Forums Records Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
creatorOf Stephen G. Cary papers, 1930-2002 Haverford College Quaker & Special Collections
creatorOf Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America. Schlesinger-Rockefeller oral history project : transcripts, 1973-1975. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Drinker, Sophie Hutchinson, 1888-1967. Additional papers, 1911-1983 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Miller, T. Grier (Thomas Grier), 1885-1981. Papers, 1946-1981. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
creatorOf Papers, 1873-1990 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Mudd, Emily Hartshorne, 1898-. Reminiscences of Emily Hartshorne Mudd : oral history, 1974. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Drinker, Sophie Hutchinson, 1888-1968. Papers, 1911-1981 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947. Papers, 1874-1945 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Mudd, Emily Hartshorne, 1898-. Papers: Series I-III, 1873-1989 (inclusive) Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Family Planning Oral History Project. Records, 1909-1984 (inclusive), 1973-1977 (bulk). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Mudd, Emily Hartshorne, 1898-. Papers, 1873-1990 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Family Planning Oral History Project Records, 1909-1984 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Family Planning Oral History Project. Records, 1909-1984 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Gamble, Sarah Merry Bradley, 1898-1984. Papers, 1810-1984 (inclusive). Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn Additional papers, 1911-1983 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
creatorOf Mudd, Emily H. (Emily Hartshorne), 1898-. Articles and reports, 1932-1980. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Alan Guttmacher Institute corporateBody
associatedWith Alice Paul Centennial Foundation corporateBody
associatedWith American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy corporateBody
associatedWith American Association of Marriage and Family Counselors corporateBody
associatedWith American Council on Education. corporateBody
associatedWith American Council on Education. Conference on Women in the Defense Decade, 1951. corporateBody
associatedWith American Friends Service Committee. corporateBody
associatedWith American Mothers Committee corporateBody
associatedWith American Orthopsychiatric Association corporateBody
associatedWith Appel, Kenneth E. (Kenneth Ellmaker), b. 1896 person
associatedWith Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America. corporateBody
associatedWith Association for Voluntary Sterilization corporateBody
associatedWith Association of Couples for Marriage Enrichment corporateBody
associatedWith Bernard, Roger P. person
associatedWith Bstan-'dzin-rgya-mtsho, Dalai Lama XIV, 1935- person
associatedWith Calderone, Frank A., 1901-1987 person
associatedWith Calderone, Mary Steichen, 1904-1998. person
associatedWith Cary, Elizabeth S. person
associatedWith Cary, Stephen G. person
associatedWith Coleman, John Royston, 1921- person
associatedWith College of Physicians of Philadelphia corporateBody
associatedWith Dearborn, Lester W. person
associatedWith Dearborn, Lester W. person
associatedWith De Camp, L. Sprague (Lyon Sprague), 1907- person
associatedWith Dennett, Mary Ware, 1872-1947 person
associatedWith Drinker, Sophie Hutchinson, 1888-1967 person
associatedWith Experiment in International Living corporateBody
associatedWith Family Planning Oral History Project. corporateBody
associatedWith Friends Association for Higher Education (U.S.). corporateBody
associatedWith Friends General Conference (U.S.) . corporateBody
associatedWith Friends World Committee for Consultation. corporateBody
associatedWith Gamble, Richard B. person
associatedWith Gamble, Richard B. person
associatedWith Gamble, Sarah Merry Bradley, 1898-1984 person
associatedWith Garcia, Celso-Ramon, 1921- person
associatedWith Gillis, Phyllis L., 1945- person
associatedWith Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family corporateBody
associatedWith Guttmacher, Alan F. (Alan Frank), 1898-1974. person
associatedWith Hansen, Christian M. person
associatedWith Hansen, Christian M. person
associatedWith Hartshorne, Clementina Rhodes, 1871-1970 person
correspondedWith Harvard Law School Forum corporateBody
associatedWith Haverford College. corporateBody
associatedWith Heden, Carl-Goran person
associatedWith Himes, Norman Edwin person
associatedWith Himes, Norman Edwin, 1899-1949. person
associatedWith Institute for Religion and Wholeness corporateBody
associatedWith Institutes of Religion and Health (New York, N.Y.) corporateBody
associatedWith Jamaica Family Planning Association corporateBody
associatedWith Kaslow, Florence Whiteman person
associatedWith Kaslow, Florence Whiteman. person
associatedWith Kinsey, Alfred C. (Alfred Charles), 1894-1956 person
associatedWith Krich, Aron M., 1916- person
associatedWith Laidlaw, Robert W., 1901- person
associatedWith Mace, D. R. (David Robert) person
associatedWith Marriage Council of Philadelphia corporateBody
associatedWith Masters & Johnson Institute corporateBody
associatedWith McGovern, George S. (George Stanley), 1922- person
associatedWith McPherson, Mary Patterson, 1935- person
associatedWith Meschan, Rachel M. F. Farrer-, 1915- person
associatedWith Miller, T. Grier (Thomas Grier), 1885-1981. person
associatedWith Mudd, Stuart, 1893- person
associatedWith Nathanson, Constance A. person
associatedWith Nathanson, Constance A. person
associatedWith National Abortion Rights Action League corporateBody
associatedWith Pathfinder Fund. corporateBody
associatedWith Physicians for Social Responsibility (U.S.). Philadelphia Chapter corporateBody
associatedWith Pickett, Clarence, 1884-1965 person
associatedWith Planned Parenthood corporateBody
associatedWith Planned Parenthood-World Population (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Public Affairs Committee corporateBody
associatedWith Pugh, Thomas J. person
associatedWith Reproductive Biology Research Foundation (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Sacks, Sylvia person
associatedWith Sacks, Sylvia. person
associatedWith Sagiroglu, Nuri person
associatedWith Sagiroglu, Nuri. person
associatedWith Sanger, Margaret, 1879-1966 person
associatedWith Sarrel, Philip M., 1937- person
associatedWith Schumacher, Sallie S. person
associatedWith Schumacher, Sallie S. person
associatedWith Seeley G. Mudd Foundation corporateBody
associatedWith Sex Information and Education Council of the U.S. corporateBody
associatedWith Shapp, Milton J., 1912-1994. person
associatedWith Shapp, Muriel Matzkin person
associatedWith Shapp, Muriel Matzkin. person
associatedWith Society for the Scientific Study of Sex corporateBody
associatedWith Stevenson, Robert Louis, 1850-1894 person
associatedWith Stone, Abraham, 1890-1959. person
associatedWith Sussman, Marvin B. person
associatedWith Temple of Understanding (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. Dept. of Psychiatry corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. Dept. of Psychiatry. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Pennsylvania. School of Medicine. Division of Family Study in Psychiatry. corporateBody
associatedWith Virginia Gildersleeve International Fund for University Women corporateBody
associatedWith Virginia Gildersleeve International Fund for University Women. corporateBody
associatedWith Whitehead, John C., 1922- person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Philadelphia PA US
Poughkeepsie NY US
Merion PA US
Haverford PA US
New York City NY US
Subject
Abortion--Government policy--Citizen participation
Women--Health and hygiene
Women's health services
Birth control clinics
Sex (Psychology)
Contraceptives
Family life education--Study and teaching
Abortion
Vasectomy
Birth control
Sexology--Research
Abortion--Law and legislation
Women executives--Interviews
Family--Study and teaching
Quakers
Pathfinder Fund
Families--Health and hygiene
Mental health
Charities, Medical
Family therapists--Supervision of
Marriage counseling
Divorce--Government policy
Family services
War tax resistance
Sex instruction
Sex counseling
Sex educators--Interviews
Public health
Poor--Medical care
Population policy
Vietnam War, 1961-1975--Protest movements--United States
Intrauterine contraceptives
Occupation
College teachers
Social workers
Family counselors
Marriage counselors
Activity

Person

Birth 1898-09-06

Death 1975-05-06

Female

Americans

English

Information

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