Roberts, B.H. (Brigham Henry), 1857-1933Alternative names
Roberts was a member of the First Council of the Seventy, as well as a writer and historian.
From the guide to the MS 1278 B. H. Roberts collection 1883-1933 (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Church History Library)
Kenney is a Mormon author and historian.
From the guide to the Scott G. Kenney research materials, 1820-1984, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)
Historian, author, and Mormon Church leader.
From the description of Papers, 1877-1923. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122497491
LDS Mission president in the American South, army chaplain during World War I, member of the LDS church's First Council of Seventies, author.
From the description of Papers, 1869-1965. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122495628
Brigham Henry Roberts was born in Lancashire, England, on March 13, 1857. In that year both of his parents converted to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Roberts and one of his sisters left England for Salt Lake City in 1866. He initially worked as a miner until he learned to read and attended the University of Deseret, from which he graduated in 1878. He was arrested in 1886 after marrying a plural wife, and fled on a mission to England before he could stand trial. He returned in 1888 and in 1889 pled guilty to the charges of unlawful cohabitation, which resulted in five months of imprisonment. Upon his release, Roberts moved his families to Colorado and married another wife, Dr. Margaret Curtis Shipp. He resigned as editor of the Salt Lake Herald in 1896 and in 1898 was elected to Congress, but he was refused a seat on the basis of his polygamous lifestyle. He served as a U.S. Army chaplain in France during World War I and was also the Assistant Church Historian for the Mormon Church from 1902 until 1933. Roberts was the author of several historical narratives, biographies, and Mormon theological works, including the six-volume History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints : period I, history of Joseph Smith, the Prophet by himself ( 1904), The truth, the way, the life (1994), and Book of Mormon difficulties : a study (1985). Many of his works were published posthumously since his belief that Joseph Smith may have written the Book of Mormon without divine influence caused a split with the Mormon Church. Roberts died on September 27, 1933, of complications from diabetes.
From the description of A parallel between the Book of Mormon and the View of the Hebrews, 1945, January 12. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 569480769
Carbon of letter to "Presidents and Membership of the Respective Quorums of the Seventy" in response to letter of 23 June 1933 regarding payment of lesson texts for the Seventies Correspondence School.
From the description of B.H. Roberts letter to Seventy, 1933. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 368052253
Brigham Henry Roberts (1857-1933), was a church leader, missionary, representative to Congress, and historian, including writing a comprehensive history of the church.
From the description of Newspaper article speech by B.H. Roberts, 1932. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 367900028
Brigham Henry Roberts was born 13 March 1857 in Warrington, Lancashire, England to Benjamin Roberts and Ann Reed Everington. He married Celia Ann Dibble 2 October 1884 in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Margaret Curtis in April 1900 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Brigham died 27 September 1933.
From the guide to the B.H. Roberts letter, 1933, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)
From the description of B. H. Roberts correspondence, 1925-1927. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 367553664
From the guide to the B. H. Roberts correspondence, circa 1925-1927, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)
B.H. Roberts was an LDS Apostle, U.S. Senator, and historian. Many of the years represented in this collection were spent traveling the United States, doing missionary work.
From the description of B.H. Roberts newspaper clippings and correspondence, 1896-1908. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 367850087
Mormon author, historian, and a member of the First Seven Presidents of the Seventies of the Mormon Church.
From the description of Book draft, correspondence, and biography, 1888-1920. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122494735
From the guide to the B.H. Roberts papers, 1888-1920, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)
Mormon Church leader, author, and historian.
From the description of Notes, 1872-1977. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 86171763
From the guide to the B.H. Roberts notes, 1872-1977, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)
Mormon businessman in Logan, Utah.
From the guide to the Joseph Morrell letters received, 1883-1906, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)
In 1882 Elmer and Ben Underwood set up an office on Ottawa, Kansas to distribute Eastern photographers' stereographs to the Western market with door-to-door salesmen. By 1891, they had established a plant in Ottawa to manufature stereo photographic cameras, stereo views and stereoscopes; moved their headquarters to New York City, opened branch offices in Baltimore, New York, and Liverpool. By 1901, Underwood and Underwood was manufacturing packaged sets of stereo views--25,000 a day (more than seven million a a year), and 300,000 stereoscopes a year.
See Richard Neitzel Holzapfel, "Stereographs and Stereotypes: A 1904 View of Mormonism," Journal of Mormon History 18 (Fall 1992): 155-76.
From the guide to the Underwood and Underwood stereographs, bulk 1903-1905, 1903-1905, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)
Brigham Henry Roberts, son of Benjamin Roberts and Ann Everington, was born in Warrington, Lancashire, England in 1857. His parents both joined The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that same year although Roberts was not baptized until 1867 after his arrival in Salt Lake City, Utah. In 1878 Roberts married Sarah Louisa Smith and shortly thereafter was ordained a Seventy and called to serve a mission in Iowa and Nebraska. He was later transferred to Tennessee for health reasons. Further church service included a mission to England and a calling as one of the seven presidents of the First Council of the Seventy.
Roberts participated in polygamy and after his marriage to Sarah Smith subsequently married Celia Dibble and Dr. Margaret Curtis Shipp. This practice led to legal problems and Roberts spent several months in prision on charges of unlawful cohabitation. He likewise was denied a seat in the House of Representatives due to his practice of polygamy.
Roberts, however, is perhaps best known for his theological and religious writings. He wrote a six volume work called a Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Century I which was published in 1930 and covered many of the religious developments in the formation of the church in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Other writings include several treatises on the origins of the Book of Mormon which remain in debate today as to Roberts' purposes in defense of or denial of the divine origins of the book.
Other remarkable accomplishments include Roberts' career as editor of The Contributor, his role in establishing the Improvement Era, and his service as a chaplain in the Utah National Guard during WWI.
In his later years, from 1922 to 1927, Roberts served as the president of the Eastern States Mission. He died in 1933 due to complications of diabetes.
From the guide to the B. H. Roberts collection, 1870-1927, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)
Ann Everington Roberts was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon Church) in 1851. When a son was born to her and her husband, Benjamin, on 13 March 1857, in Warrington, Lancashire, England, he was named Brigham Henry Roberts in honor of the current leader of the Mormon Church, Brigham Young. Mrs. Roberts's desire to emigrate to Utah to "gather with the Saints in Zion," and Benjamin's lack of enthusiasm for his wife's religion drove a wedge between them. For some time they lived apart, until 1862 when Ann Roberts took her daughter Ann and baby son Thomas and left for America. The oldest daughter, Mary Ann Martha, was sent to relatives to work as an apprentice milliner, and Brigham Henry was placed with some new LDS Church members from Scotland until such time as their mother could raise funds to send for them.
Brigham Henry Roberts led a difficult, deprived life with the new converts, a stonecutter and his wife who traveled under various names and were not altogether honest. He narrowly escaped being apprenticed to a shoemaker and "sold" into the army as a drummer-boy. It was four years before Brigham Henry and his sister were sent from England to join their mother in Utah. They arrived in Salt Lake City in October of 1866 with the last group of pioneers to make the plains trip completely by wagon.
In the intervening four years a number of changes had taken place in the family. The baby, Thomas, a victim of hydrocephalus, had died and was buried near Chimney Rock. In March of 1863 Ann Roberts had married Wilham Nichols. Their marriage lasted only two and a half years before Nicholas was killed in an accident with a threshing machine. Brigham Henry and Mary Ann Martha arrived in Utah to find their mother a widow with a two-year-old daughter named Elizabeth Auddrey. The family settled in Bountiful in a small, unfinished house.
Brigham Henry was baptized into the LDS Church in 1867 by Seth Dustin and two years later, on April 5, Dustin became his stepfather. He brought his family of sons to live in the small house, completing the roof on the unfinished section. Life was uncomfortable for the two families living together, and Roberts never was close to his stepbrothers. Sometime in the years following, Dustin deserted the family. After several reappearances, he finally disappeared completely, and Ann Dustin was granted a divorce in 1884.
Between 1871 and 1874, B. H. Roberts lived and worked at the Dry Canyon Mine in the Ophir Mining District where his stepfather, Dustin, had financial interests. While he was at the mining camp, a half-sister, Byrnina Ann Dustin, was born July 17, 1872. Through the insistence of his mother, B. H. was brought home and apprenticed to a blacksmith, his father's trade. For three years he lived in Centerville learning to be a blacksmith and acquiring as much formal schooling as possible. Roberts read voraciously as he sought to make up for his neglected education, and attempted to free himself of objectionable habits he acquired living in the rough mining camp.
Because he did not relish the life of a blacksmith, Roberts took a job for the summer of 1877 riding the range for the Centerville Dairy Company. He started school at Deseret University that fall. Roberts studied hard, completing the two-year course at the normal school in one year, graduating as valedictorian.
On 31 January 1878, while completing his studies, Roberts married Sarah Louisa Smith, a daughter of William R. Smith, a member of the LDS Church presidency and prominent farmer. After graduation Roberts was ordained a Seventy in his local church branch. He taught school to support his family, which increased with the birth of Adah Everington Roberts on 17 February 1879. During 1880 Roberts began constructing a house on property acquired in Centerville while he was apprenticed to the blacksmith. The house remained unfinished for some time as Roberts was called on his first mission in March of 1880.
He was sent to Iowa and Nebraska, but because the cold weather was hard on his health, he was transferred to Tennessee in December of 1880. Roberts remained in Tennessee until he was honorably released in May of 1882. During that time he rose to prominence as the president of the Tennessee Conference of the Southern States Mission. His life pattern, working for the Mormon church, was firmly established.
Roberts taught school for a year before being set aside as assistant president of the eleven-states Southern States Mission under John Morgan. In April of 1883 he was back in Chattanooga, Tennessee, while a committee in Centerville completed his house. Six months later, in August, his oldest son Benjamin was born.
On 10 August 1884, an event occurred which shook the foundations of the LDS Church mission in the South. In a small community known as Cane Creek a mob attacked and murdered John H. Giggs and William S. Berry, LDS missionaries, and two of the sons of their host. As resident mission president, Roberts felt it was his responsibility to recover the bodies of the two missionaries and return them home. With the help of friends and disguised as a tramp because of local hostility, he was able to recover the bodies for their families in Utah.
Following the Cane Creek Massacre, Roberts returned to Utah for a brief rest from the tension in Tennessee. While there he married his second wife, Celia Dibble 2 October 1884. Barely two weeks later Roberts started for the South to complete his mission. During the last two months of the year he organized and shepherded a number of Southern Mormon converts from Tennessee to the settlements in the San Luis Valley of Colorado.
Released from his Southern mission, Roberts returned to Utah to spend the first three months of the new year canvassing the state for subscriptions to the Mutual Improvement Association publication the Contributor . On 12 July 1885, a son Thomas was born to Louisa, but he lived only one day. The latter part of the month found Roberts traveling in Missouri for his church. During the year he continued canvassing and lecturing in southern Utah. While he was in the southern part of the state, Celia's first child Lena was born.
Early in 1886 Roberts obtained the position of associate editor of the Salt Lake Herald . In the fall federal warrants were issued for his arrest on the charge of unlawful cohabitation. He eluded the federal marshals and continued to work for the newspaper. In October his daughter, Louisa Emeline, named for her mother, was born, and his mother remarried, this time to John W. Woolley. While working in the offices of the Herald on 5 December 1886, Roberts was arrested and taken before the Third District Court. With the assistance of friends he posted a $1,000 bond and was released to appear in court the next day. Roberts left for a mission to England that night traveling under the name John Reed.
For the next two years in England, Roberts continued his journalistic career as assistant editor of the LDS Church publication the Millennial Star . He also traveled throughout England and Scotland, several times debating with anti-Mormon speakers, notably William Jarman. While in England he completed his first book, The Gospel; An Exposition of Its First Principles, which was published in 1888.
In September of 1888 Roberts was released from his mission. He was chosen to fill a vacant position in the First Council of Seventy, a post he held until his death. He also became editor of the Contributor, and continued his work of writing to promote and strengthen the Mormon church.
Tiring of evading federal authorities, Roberts surrendered in April of 1889. The court instituted proceedings against him for unlawful cohabitation, and he was sentenced to five months in prison with a $400 fine. Because he did not have the money to pay his fine he served an extra month in the Utah Territorial Prison. When he was released, he moved Celia and his second family to Manassa, Colorado. A year later, in October of 1890, Wilford Woodruff, president of the LDS Church, issued the Manifesto abolishing polygamy. Sometime prior to this Roberts married a third wife, Dr. Margaret Curtis Shipp. The Woodruff Manifesto left many church members feeling as if their sacrifices and trials because of their religious convictions had been for nothing.
In 1891 Utah Territory, eager to become a state, finally divided along national party lines rather than religious ones. Roberts declared himself a Democrat, and at times his outspoken support of his party brought him into conflict with the LDS Church leadership. During 1893 and 1894 the church appropriated more of his time by sending him on speaking tours and to visit missions throughout the United States. During this time he represented the LDS Church at the World's Parliament of Religions, whose organizing committee was reluctant to allow him a hearing.
By the time he was elected as the Davis County Delegate to the Utah State Constitutional Convention in 1894, Roberts had published four more books and fathered five more children. His eleventh child was born in January before the convention assembled. Between March 8 and May 4, 1885, the delegates drew up a constitution. Throughout this time B. H. Roberts proved a vocal member, particularly on the issues of woman suffrage, which he did not support, and prohibition.
In September of 1895 the State Democratic Convention nominated B. H. Roberts as their candidate for the United States House of Representatives. Roberts lost this election to Republican C. E. Allan. He felt the LDS Church leaders, who were predominately Republicans, had unfairly influenced the election by publicly reprimanding him and fellow Democrat Moses Thatcher for running for office without express permission of the Church authorities. In order to insure against possible repetition of this event, the Mormon church issued what became known as the Political Manifesto of 1895. The manifesto guaranteed individual church members their political freedom, but also clearly stated that no one holding a church position could run for public office without the approval of higher authorities, to insure that their church duties would not be neglected. B. H. Roberts finally signed the political manifesto.
During 1896 and 1897 Roberts again toured the United States giving lectures and holding public meetings for the Church. He also continued working on his manuscripts and articles on religious topics. Celia gave birth to twin daughters, Georgia and Joanna, in April of 1898. Less than a year later their thirteen-year-old daughter Lena died.
Roberts was again nominated by the State Democratic Convention to run for the United States House of Representatives in 1898. Despite the sometimes vicious attacks on him involving his family relationships, Roberts won the election. Because of his Mormon background and polygamous marriages, a number of petitions were circulated and protests made against allowing him to take his seat as Utah's Representative. After a year's battle, the United States House of Representatives, on 25 January 1900, declared his seat vacant. Roberts returned to Utah and William H. King finished his term.
Between 1901 and 1922 Roberts was an active member of the Mormon Church's Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association General Board. He assisted with the Y.M.M.I.A. scouting program and was chairman of the Committee of Vocations and Industries. And he continued his work with the Council of Seventy. Also in these twenty years he wrote and published eleven more books and numerous articles, and lectured for the Mormon church in various cities in the nation. Roberts remained politically vocal, particularly over the issue of whether Reed Smoot, a church apostle, could adequately represent Utah's secular interests in the United States Congress.
Roberts interrupted his church-oriented occupations in 1917 when the United States declared war on Germany on April 6 and Roberts volunteered to serve in the army as a chaplain. Previously, he had been appointed to the military staff of Governor Simon Bamberger as a chaplain with the rank of major in the Utah National Guard. Although the age limit for induction as a chaplain was forty, the rule was waived and on August 4 Roberts became a first lieutenant in the First Utah Field Artillery. In October the First Utah was sent to Camp Kearney, California, as part of the United States 145th Field Artillery, for training. Roberts went along as chaplain to the entire battalion. This group arrived in France in September of 1918 as part of the First American Army under command of General John J. Pershing. Two months later the Armistice was signed, and Roberts arrived home in January of 1919.
In May of 1922 Roberts was appointed president of the Eastern States Mission. He and his third wife Maggie went to New York where both carried on active roles in the LDS Church. Roberts brought some innovations to the mission field, the most notable of which was his mission school. These schools were four-week, intensive programs for missionaries to teach them the most effective ways to present their message. While Roberts was mission president between 1922 and 1927, five of these schools were held, the last in February of 1927.
At the Hill Cumorah Conference held in September of 1923 in commemoration of the Centennial anniversary of the revealed existence of the Book of Mormon, Roberts collapsed. He was suffering from diabetes. After a period of recuperation and treatment involving the relatively new use of insulin, Roberts returned to his position as mission president. About this same time, his first wife Louisa died, leaving a family of six children. While still in New York, Roberts was elevated to the position of president of the First Council of Seventy.
In the spring of 1926, Roberts third wife Margaret died and she was brought home to Utah for interment. A year later Roberts was released as mission president, and he returned to Utah where he continued to work with the Council of Seventy. During the next few years Roberts wrote a number of articles and three more books, including one of his most important works, the Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Century I, published in 1930.
On 27 September 1933, shortly after returning from representing the LDS Church at the World Fellowship of Faiths in Chicago, Roberts died in Salt Lake City from complications related to diabetes. He was survived by thirteen children by his wives Louisa and Celia, and by his second wife Celia (Louisa and Margaret predeceased him).
From the guide to the B. H. Roberts papers, 1869-1965, (J. Willard Marriott Library, University of Utah)
|Place Name||Admin Code||Country|
|New York (State)|
|Saint Louis (Mo.)|
|Los Angeles (Calif.)|
|New York (N.Y.)|
|Utah--Salt Lake City|
|Church and state--Mormonism|
|Missions and Missionaries|
|Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints|
|Church and state--Mormon Church|
|Mormon Church--General Authorities--Correspondence|
|Revelation (Mormon Church)|
|Mormon Church--Historic sites|
|World War, 1914-1918--Chaplains|
|Indians of North America--Fiction|
|Mormon Church--Government relations|
|Authors, American--Utah--History--Reference sources|
|World War, 1914-1918--Personal narratives, American|
|Religious literature, American|
|Mormonism (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints)|
|Mormon Church--History--Pictorial works|
|Mormon Church--Utah--Salt Lake City|
|World War, 1914-1918|