Tax, Sol, 1907-1995

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Sol Tax (1907-1996) was a prominent cultural anthropologist. He completed a Bachelor's degree at the University of Wisconsin in Madison in 1931, a M.A. and Ph.D. at the University of Chicago (1932 and 1935). He took a faculty position at University of Chicago in 1940 and remained there until 1977. Tax founded the academic journal Current Anthropology (1959), served on the National Research Council Committee on Latin American Anthropology (1946-1954), served on the President's Task Force on Indian Affairs (1965-1969), was Director of the Smithsonian Institute's Center for the Study of Man (1969-1977), served as President of the American Anthropological Association (1958-1959) and edited that Association's Journal, American Anthropologist (1953-1956). He was a pioneer in the field of action anthropology, published many academic articles and corresponded with researchers and activists. Tax was an active organizer of the 1961 American Indian Chicago Conference (AICC, also called the American Indian Charter Convention or Conference), which produced the path-breaking Declaration of Indian Purpose, and worked to coordinate pan-tribal research on education. Tax was instrumental in the creation of the Native American Educational Services (NAES) in 1970 as an offshoot of earlier organizing efforts by Chicago Indians and their supporters

From the description of Native American Educational Services Sol Tax Papers, 1908-1993 (inclusive) (University of Chicago Library). WorldCat record id: 733352594

The "Origin of Man" symposium was held April 2-4, 1965, at the Center for Continuing Education. It was organized and convened by Sol Tax, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Chicago, and sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.

The symposium was a working conference of anthropologists, designed to assist the participants in re-thinking and reformulating their views on the origin of man in the light of new information on the subject.

The symposium was occasioned by Louis S.B. Leakey's visit to the United States. L.S.B. Leakey was the principal anthropologist involved with the archeological work at the Olduvai Gorge in Tanganyika, where the partial remains of several early men were discovered. It was Leakey's theory that three types of early man-like beings, habilis, Pithecanthropis, and Australopithecus, were living in the gorge simultaneously. This view of man's origin in opposed to the view traditionally held by anthropologists that of a single line of descent for man.

From the guide to the Origin of Man Symposium. Records, 1965, (Special Collections Research Center University of Chicago Library 1100 East 57th Street Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.)

Sol Tax (1907-1996) was a prominent cultural anthropologist. He completed a Bachelor's degree at the University of Wisconsin in Madison in 1931, a M.A. and Ph.D. at the University of Chicago (1932 and 1935). He took a faculty position at University of Chicago in 1940 and remained there until 1977. Tax founded the academic journal Current Anthropology (1959), served on the National Research Council Committee on Latin American Anthropology (1946-1954), served on the President's Task Force on Indian Affairs (1965-1969), was Director of the Smithsonian Institute's Center for the Study of Man (1969-1977), served as President of the American Anthropological Association (1958-1959) and edited that Association's Journal, American Anthropologist (1953-1956). He was a pioneer in the field of action anthropology, published many academic articles and corresponded with researchers and activists.

Tax was an active organizer of the 1961 American Indian Chicago Conference (AICC, also called the American Indian Charter Convention or Conference), which produced the path-breaking Declaration of Indian Purpose, and worked to coordinate pan-tribal research on education. Tax was instrumental in the creation of the Native American Educational Services (NAES) in 1970 as an offshoot of earlier organizing efforts by Chicago Indians and their supporters.

From the guide to the Native American Educational Services. Tax, Sol. Papers, 1908-1993, (Special Collections Research Center University of Chicago Library 1100 East 57th Street Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.)

Established in Chicago in 1974, NAES College (Native American Educational Service) aimed to improve the leadership of Native communities and to ensure that tribal knowledge, traditions and values play a major role in the higher education of Native students. Before closing its doors in 2007, NAES College offered a single degree, a Bachelor's of Arts in General Studies with an emphasis in Public Policy, and tribal knowledge, community service, community development and leadership.

The American Indian Chicago Conference wash held in 1961. Most of the 460 conference participants were indigenous and they used the congress to address their common concerns. The conference was organized by Native American people with the sponsorship of the University of Chicago, Professor of Anthropology Sol Tax, and the National Congress of American Indians. The conference occurred at a time when federal policy regarding the termination of tribal trust status seriously threatened the recognition of tribes by the federal government. The conference provided support for the development of new inter-tribal organizations that helped to write the Declaration of Indian Purpose which was present to President John F. Kennedy and has helped to inform the federal government of the Native American view point regarding policy.

From the guide to the Native American Educational Services. American Indian Chicago Conference. Records, 1960-2001, (Special Collections Research Center University of Chicago Library 1100 East 57th Street Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Collier, John, 1884-1968. John Collier papers, 1910-1987 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn American Indian Chicago Conference (1961 : University of Chicago). Native American Educational Services American Indian Chicago Conference records, 1960-2001 (inclusive) University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Tax, Ervin Hanwit. Papers, 1910-1950 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn University of Chicago. Community Service Workshop. Records, 1966-1967 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences Records, 1970-1984 (inclusive) University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Eggan, Joan Rosenfels. Papers, 1958-1998 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. Panajachel, Guatemala. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Andrade, Manuel José, 1885-1941. Manuscripts on Middle American Cultural Anthropology, 1590-1976. American Philosophical Society Library
creatorOf Native American Educational Services. American Indian Chicago Conference. Records, 1960-2001 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. Changing consumption in Indian Guatemala / Sol Tax. Elmer Holmes Bobst Library
referencedIn John Collier papers, 1910-1987 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf Origin of Man Symposium. Records, 1965 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn NAES College Press. Native American Educational Services Press records, 1955-1994 (inclusive) University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Tax, Ervin H., 1910-. Papers, [ca. 1939]-[ca. 1946]. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. Records, 1970-1984 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. [Map showing change in white and non-white population in Hyde Park, 1950-1956] / map prepared by Sol Tax for paper on problems of the local community, given Feb. 4, 1957 ; data from urban renewal survey, N.O.R.C., & Chic. Community Inventory. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Margaret Mead Papers and the South Pacific Ethnographic Archives, 1838-1996, (bulk 1911-1978) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978. Margaret Mead papers and South Pacific Ethnographic Archives, 1838-1996 (bulk 1911-1978). Library of Congress
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. [Map showing change in white and non-white population in Hyde Park, 1950-1956] [electronic resource] / map prepared by Sol Tax for paper on problems of the local community, given Feb. 4, 1957 ; data from urban renewal survey, N.O.R.C., & Chic. Community Inventory. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Records, 1952-1972. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Papers of Robert Graves: Critical prose and journalism, 1927 to 2003 St John's College, Oxford
referencedIn Current Anthropology. Records, 1957-1987 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. [Map showing change in black and white population in Hyde Park, 1950-1956] / map prepared by Sol Tax for paper on problems of the local community, given Feb. 4, 1957 ; data from urban renewal survey, N.O.R.C., & Chic. Community Inventory. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Dell H. Hymes Papers, 1947-1992 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Collier, John, 1884-1968. John Collier papers, 1910-1987 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn University of Chicago. Committee on Education, Training, and Research in Race Relations. Records, 1944-1962 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. Map of the pueblo of Chichicastenango, Depto. de Quiché, Guatemala, C.A. / made from observation by Sol Tax for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, spring 1935. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Manuscripts on Middle American Cultural Anthropology, 1590-1976, 1590-1976 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. Panajachel, Guatemala. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn International Congress of Americanists. Records, 1949-1953 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. Papers, 1923-1989 (inclusive). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Community Service Workshop (1966-1967 : University of Chicago). Records, 1966-1967 (inclusive). University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Redfield, Robert. Papers, 1917-1958 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
referencedIn University of Chicago. Committee on Education, Training, and Research in Race Relations. Records, 1944-1962. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Tax, Ervin H., 1910-. Papers, [ca. 1939]-[ca. 1946]. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Native American Educational Services. Tax, Sol. Papers, 1908-1993 Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. Families as corporations : a proposal / Sol Tax. University of Chicago Library
creatorOf McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977. D'Arcy McNickle papers, 1913-1986 (bulk 1924-1977). Newberry Library
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. Map of the pueblo of Chichicastenango, Depto. de Quiché, Guatemala, C.A. / made from observation by Sol Tax for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, spring 1935. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn International Congress of Americanists. International Congress of Americanists Records, 1949-1953 (inclusive) University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Eggan, Joan Rosenfels, 1906-1999. Joan Rosenfels Eggan papers, 1958-1998 (inclusive) University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. Records of the Origin of Man Symposium, 1965 April 2-4. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Park, Susan B. Susan B. Park papers, 1967-1968. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Redfield, Robert, 1897-1958. Papers, 1925-1958 (inclusive). University of Chicago Library
creatorOf Wax, Murray Lionel, 1922-. Murray L. Wax papers, 1944-1992 (bulk 1962-1969). Newberry Library
creatorOf Tax, Sol, 1907-1995. Native American Educational Services Sol Tax Papers, 1908-1993 (inclusive) University of Chicago Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith American Indian Center of Chicago. corporateBody
associatedWith American Indian Chicago Conference corporateBody
associatedWith American Indian Chicago Conference (1961 : University of Chicago) corporateBody
associatedWith Andrade, Manuel José, 1885-1941 person
associatedWith Carr, Malcolm person
associatedWith Chicago Community Inventory. corporateBody
associatedWith Collier, John, 1884-1968. person
associatedWith Community Service Workshop (1966-1967 : University of Chicago) corporateBody
associatedWith Conference on Consumption and Economic Development (1955 : Princeton University) corporateBody
associatedWith Current anthropology corporateBody
associatedWith Doll, Eugene E. person
associatedWith Eggan, Joan Rosenfels, 1906-1999. person
associatedWith Goubaud Carrera, Antonio person
associatedWith Graves, Robert Ranke, 1895-1985 person
associatedWith Guiteras Holmes, Calixta, 1905-1988 person
associatedWith Hymes, Dell H. person
associatedWith International Congress of Americanists. corporateBody
associatedWith International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences. corporateBody
associatedWith Key, Harold H. person
associatedWith Kline, Howard F. person
associatedWith Lepine, Jeanne person
associatedWith Lincoln, Jackson Steward, 1902-1941 person
associatedWith McNickle, D'Arcy, 1904-1977. person
associatedWith Mead, Margaret, 1901-1978. person
associatedWith NAES College. corporateBody
associatedWith NAES College Press. corporateBody
associatedWith National Opinion Research Center. corporateBody
associatedWith Noyes, Ernest, 1903- person
associatedWith Park, Susan B. person
associatedWith Redfield, Robert, 1897-1958. person
associatedWith Starr, Betty Warren, 1906-1964 person
associatedWith Tax, Ervin H., 1910- person
associatedWith Tumin, Melvin Marvin, 1919-1994 person
associatedWith University of Chicago corporateBody
associatedWith University of Chicago. Committee on Education, Training, and Research in Race Relations. corporateBody
associatedWith Wax, Murray Lionel, 1922- person
associatedWith Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. corporateBody
associatedWith Whorf, Benjamin Lee, 1897-1941 person
associatedWith Wisdom, Charles person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Guatemala--Panajachel (Sololá)
Illinois--Chicago
Panajachel (Sololá, Guatemala)
Hyde Park (Chicago, Ill.)
Kenwood (Chicago, Ill.)
Guatemala--Chichicastenango
Hyde Park (Chicago, Ill.)
Chichicastenango (Guatemala)
Guatemala
Chichicastenango (Guatemala)
Illinois--Chicago
Kenwood (Chicago, Ill.)
Kenwood (Chicago, Ill.)
Guatemala--Panajachel (Sololá)
Illinois--Chicago
Panajachel (Sololá, Guatemala)
Hyde Park (Chicago, Ill.)
Guatemala--Chichicastenango
Subject
Families--Economic aspects
Indians of Central America--Economic conditions
Anthropology--Research--United States
Indians of Central America--Social life and customs
Ethnology--Maps
Consumers
Indians of Mexico--Languages
Indians of North America--Education (Higher)
Indians of Central America--Languages
Land use--Maps
Indians of Mexico--Social life and customs
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1907-10-30

Death 1995-01-04

Americans

English

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SNAC ID: 40554167