D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938

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Italian poet, novelist, and dramatist.

From the description of Ode per la morte del distruttore : autograph manuscript signed, 1900?. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 427418260

From the description of Prima del secondo assalto : electoral politic discourse, pronounced before the Florentine people : autograph manuscript signed, 1900 June 8. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 427409004

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Arcachon, to Madame la Comtesse Venturini, 1911 Jan. 9. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 427542776

From the description of Autograph letter signed : place not specified, to an unidentified recipient, undated. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 427641217

Italian author.

From the description of Report, 1930. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 34070094

Seal of the city of Fiume.

Renowned as a poet and novelist, journalist and dramatist, Gabriele D'Annunzio was considered one of Italy's brightest lights in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Born into a wealthy family of Dalmatian extraction in Pescaro (Abruzzo) in 1863, he enjoyed a life of intrigue and adventure, earning laurels as a powerful and original writer and dipping into politics while still in his thirties. At the peak of his literary fame during the years immediately preceding the First World War, however, he soon carved out a new role for himself as a hypernationalist and proto-Fascist.

Volunteering for wartime service as a fighter pilot, D'Annunzio lived up to his self-proclaimed status as Superman. As a squadron commander, he lost an eye in an accident, but his often outlandish bravado and dramatic gestures were cited as helping to raise the spirits of his fellow Italians during bleak times, winning him a hero's reputation. But that reputation was not sealed until the delicate task of dismembering the Austro-Hungarian empire came to pass after the end of the war, when D'Annunzio's already ardent nationalism was inflamed and he took direct political action.

Incensed by the proposed transfer away from Italy of the port of Fiume (now Rijeka, Croatia) at the Paris Peace Conference, D'Annunzio raised a small force of Royal Italian army veterans, nationalists, and irredentists, and on September 12, 1919, seized the city and expelled the allied occupiers. When his plans to annex the territory to Italy were rebuffed, earning a blockade instead, he declared independence and established the Regency of Carnaro (Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro) with himself as Duce. The government formed drew on a mix of anarchist and proto-Fascist ideas, but D'Annunzio's efforts to gain support for this quixotic enterprise were unavailing both internationally and regionally. After the Treaty of Rapallo in November 1920 resolved the dispute between the Italians and Serbs by declaring Fiume a Free State, D'Annunzio declared war on Italy, surrendering only after Fiume was bombarded by the Italian navy in December 1920.

Often seen as a harbinger of the Fascism to come in Iatly, D'Annunzio retired to his home after the affair in Fiume, surviving an assassination attempt in 1922. Although never again directly involved in politics, he was lauded by Mussolini and cited as a source and inspiration for the distinctive Fascist style in Italian politics. D'Annunzio died of a stroke in 1938.

From the guide to the Gabriele D'Annunzio Collection MS 763., 1919-1920, (Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Sympathy letters for victims of the Messina and Reggio earthquakes, 1908-1911. Houghton Library.
referencedIn National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.). National Collection of Fine Arts research material on Romaine Brooks, 1874-1969. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Speranza, Gino Charles, 1872-1927. Gino Charles Speranza papers, 1911-1925. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Gino Charles Speranza papers, 1911-1925 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Roberto Papini Papers, 1906-1957. A Finding Aid., 1910-2005 Biblioteca Berenson, Villa I Tatti - The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. [Italian history : Mazzoni pamphlet collection]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Leon Bakst designs, ca. 1911-1923 The New York Public Library. Billy Rose Theatre Division.
referencedIn Dunn, Lucius C. (Lucius Claude), 1885-1963. Papers, 1902-1957 (bulk 1918-1934). Library of Congress
referencedIn Correspondence received, 1902-1939 The New York Public Library. Music Division.
creatorOf Officina Bodoni. Officina Bodoni ephemera collection of proofs and correspondence for the publication of "L'Oleandro", "San Zeno" and others, 1936-1937. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Marsilius, of Padua, d. 1342?. [Italian politics and government : Mazzoni pamphlet collection]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Boggiani, Guido, d. 1903. Giornale di bordo della "Fantasia" : viaggio intorno alla Grecia, 1895-1898. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Prima del secondo assalto : electoral politic discourse, pronounced before the Florentine people : autograph manuscript signed, 1900 June 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Haldeman-Julius, E. (Emanuel), 1888-1951. Sketches / by E. Haldeman-Julius. Pittsburg State University, Leonard H. Axe Library
referencedIn Koch, Frederick R. (Frederick Robinson),. Frederick R. Koch collection, 1640-1983. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Hitler, Adolf, 1889-1945. [World War II : Mazzoni pamphlet collection]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Autograph letter signed : Settignano, to "Dear Sir", 1903 Dec. 31. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Page, Thomas Nelson, 1853-1922. Papers of Thomas Nelson Page [manuscript], 1865-1920. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Jones, Myrta Leonora. Letters : New York [N.Y.], to Copeland and Day, 1896 22 Mar.-17 Apr. Newberry Library
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Autograph note on his visiting card : [n.p., n.d.], [n.d.]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Autograph letter signed : Marina di Pisa, to Alfredo Fabrizii, 1910 Feb. 4. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Autograph on postcard, ca. 1930. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso, 1876-1944. Marinetti correspondence and papers, 1886-1974. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Autograph letter signed : Arcachon, to Madame la Comtesse Venturini, 1911 Jan. 9. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Ode per la morte del distruttore : autograph manuscript signed, 1900?. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Filippo Tommaso Marinetti student notebooks and other papers, 1891-1943 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Report, 1930. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso, 1876-1944. Marinetti student notebooks and other papers, 1891-1936. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Ralph Graves papers, 1936-1938 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Comando di Fiume d'Italia. Bolletino ufficiale, 1919-1920 Hoover Institution Archives.
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Sogno d'un tramonto d'autunno : poema tragico / translated by Arthur Symons : manuscript, 18-- Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Bryant, Louise, 1885-1936. Louise Bryant papers, 1908-1938 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Barzun, 1881-1973. Henri Martin Barzun papers 1909-1967. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. La canzone d'oltremare : ms. text, [191-?]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Bakst, Léon, 1866-1924. Leon Bakst designs, ca. 1911-1923. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Sur une image de la France croisée peinte par Romaine Brooks ... Princeton University Library
creatorOf Toscanini, Arturo, 1867-1957. Correspondence received, 1902-1939. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Papini, Roberto, 1883-1957. Papers, 1906-1957. The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies. Biblioteca Berenson - Villa I Tatti, Biblioteca Berenson - Villa I Tatti
referencedIn Fonds Edward Gordon Craig Bibliothèque nationale de France. Département des arts du spectacle
referencedIn Barney, Natalie Clifford. Natalie Barney collection, ca. 1890-1954 Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Boggiani, Guido, 1861-1902. Giornale di bordo della "Fantasia" : viaggio intorno alla Grecia, 1895-1898. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Comando di Fiume d'Italia. Bolletino ufficiale : printed, 1919-1920. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Papers related to Gabriele D'Annunzio and the seizure of Fiume, 1918-1926. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Graves, Ralph. Ralph Graves papers, 1936-1938. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Livingston, Arthur, 1883-1944. Arthur Livingston Papers, 1474-1986, (bulk 1904-1944). Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center
referencedIn Barney, Natalie Clifford. Natalie Barney collection, ca. 1890-1954. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Note. Dartmouth College Library
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. One hundred and one hundred and one hundred and one hundred pages of the secret book of Gabriele D'Annunzio who tried to die : typescript, [19--] Harvard University, Houghton Library
creatorOf Briggs, Ernest, 1905-1967. Papers, 1940-1967 [manuscript] University of Queensland, UQ Library
referencedIn Illica, Luigi, 1857-1919. Autograph letters signed (9), dated : [Venice, 24 November 1900], Genoa, 14 November 1911, [Castell'Arquato, 29 April 1912], and [n.p., n.d.], to Giulio Ricordi, [1900 Nov. 24], 1911 Nov. 14, [1912 Apr. 29], and n.d.]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Brunelleschi, Umberto, 1879-1949. Letters from the war, 1917-1918. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Debussy, Claude, 1862-1918. Autograph letters signed (24), and autograph postcards signed (4), dated [Paris, Hannover, and other places], 22 May 1912-[July 1917], to D.E. Inghelbrecht. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Incidental dances. Le martyre de Saint Sébastien [clippings]. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Duse, Eleonora, 1858-1924. Eleonora Duse letters to Gabriele d'Annunzio, 1895-1897. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Cavalcanti, Guido, d. 1300. [Italian poetry : Mazzoni pamphlet collection]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Paris, Gaston Bruno Paulin, 1839-1903. [Songs : Mazzoni pamphlet collection]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Letter. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Anne Hampton Brewster papers, Bulk, 1845-1892, 1777-1892 Library Company of Philadelphia
referencedIn Koch, Frederick R. (Frederick Robinson),. Frederick R. Koch collection, 1640-1983. Yale University Library
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Autograph letter signed : place not specified, to an unidentified recipient, undated. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. [Letter] 1920 Aprile 6 [to] Mio caro Capitano / Gabriele D'annunzio. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn Calore, Pier Luigi. Pier Luigi Calore collection concerning the Italian monastery, San Clemente di Casauria, 1891-1893. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Duse, Eleonora, 1858-1924. Eleonora Duse letters to Gabriele d'Annunzio, 1895-1897. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. The daughter of Iorio [microform] / by Gabriele D'Annunzio ; translated by Henry St. Ives. University of Missouri -- Columbia, MU Libraries; University of Missouri; MU; Ellis Library; University of Missouri Columbia
creatorOf D'Annunzio, Gabriele, 1863-1938. Notes to Isadora Duncan, 1913, 2 folders. New York Public Libraries for the Performing Arts, Dance Collection
referencedIn Filippo Tommaso Marinetti correspondence and papers, 1886-1974, 1900-1944 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Gabriele D'Annunzio Collection MS 763., 1919-1920 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries
referencedIn Morpurgo, Nelson. Marinetti in Egitto : carbon typescript with corrections, ca. 1970. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.). National Collection of Fine Arts research material on Romaine Brooks, 1874-1969. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Frederick R. Koch collection, 1640-1983 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Bakst, Léon, 1866-1924. person
associatedWith Barney, Natalie Clifford. person
associatedWith Barzun, 1881-1973. person
associatedWith Boggiani, Guido, 1861-1902. person
associatedWith Boggiani, Guido, d. 1903. person
associatedWith Bradstreet's, corporateBody
associatedWith Bradstreet's, corporateBody
associatedWith Brewster, Anne M. H., (Anne Maria Hampton), 1819-1892 person
associatedWith Briggs, Ernest, 1905-1967. person
associatedWith Brooks, Romaine. person
associatedWith Brunelleschi, Umberto, 1879-1949. person
associatedWith Bryant, Louise, 1885-1936. person
associatedWith Calore, Pier Luigi. person
associatedWith Cocles, Angleo, person
associatedWith Comando di Fiume d'Italia. corporateBody
associatedWith Craig, Edward Gordon (1872-1966) person
associatedWith Debussy, Claude, 1862-1918. person
associatedWith Division of Aeronautics. corporateBody
associatedWith Druscovich, Marco. person
associatedWith Duncan, Isadora, 1877-1927. person
associatedWith Dunn, Lucius C. (Lucius Claude), 1885-1963. person
associatedWith Duse, Eleonora, 1858-1924. person
associatedWith Fabrizii, Alfredo, person
associatedWith Graves, Ralph. person
associatedWith Haldeman-Julius, E. (Emanuel), 1888-1951. person
associatedWith Illica, Luigi, 1857-1919. person
associatedWith Jones, Myrta Leonora. person
associatedWith Koch, Frederick R. (Frederick Robinson), person
associatedWith Kuzmik, Livia, 1898-1976 person
associatedWith Livingston, Arthur, 1883-1944. person
associatedWith Macdonald, corporateBody
associatedWith Macdonald, corporateBody
associatedWith Manzutto, Romano. person
associatedWith Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso, 1876-1944. person
associatedWith Mary Flagler Cary Music Collection (Pierpont Morgan Library) corporateBody
associatedWith Morpurgo, Nelson. person
associatedWith National Collection of Fine Arts (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1844-1900. person
associatedWith Officina Bodoni. corporateBody
associatedWith Page, Thomas Nelson, 1853-1922. person
associatedWith Papini, Roberto, 1883-1957. person
associatedWith Ray, Gordon Norton, 1915- person
associatedWith Speranza, Gino Charles, 1872-1927. person
associatedWith St. Ives, Henry. person
associatedWith Symons, Arthur, 1865-1945, person
associatedWith Toscanini, Arturo, 1867-1957. person
associatedWith Venturini, Countess, person
associatedWith Zoll, Corrado. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Free State of Fiume
Italy
Italy
Rijeka (Croatia)
Subject
World War, 1914-1918 Baltic States
Drama--Collections
Italian literature--20th century
World War, 1914-1918--Italy
Aeronautics, Military
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1863-03-12

Death 1938-03-01

Italians

English,

Italian

Information

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Ark ID: w6mp5955

SNAC ID: 13664508