Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880

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Herschel Vespasian Johnson was born on September 18, 1812, in Burke County. Like most of Georgia's antebellum political lights, Johnson passed through the University of Georgia, graduating in 1834. He took up the law and established prosperous practices in Augusta, Louisville, and finally Milledgeville, the state capital. Ambrose Wright, the future Confederate officer and newspaper journalist, began his study of law in Johnson's Louisville office. In 1844, the same year he moved to Milledgeville, Johnson served as a Democratic presidential elector, and in 1847 he tried in vain to secure the party's gubernatorial nomination. In 1848 Johnson was appointed to fill the U.S. Senate seat vacated by Walter Colquitt, which he occupied for a little more than a year before returning home to serve as a superior court judge. After the Nashville Convention of 1850, Georgia governor George W. Towns called for a state convention that would meet in December to consider secession. Johnson, with Towns, led the Southern Rights Democrats, who were opposed by a powerful Constitutional Unionist coalition headed by Howell Cobb, Alexander Stephens, and Robert Toombs. However, sectionalist sentiment was not yet strong enough in historically moderate Georgia, and the Constitutional Unionists buried the states' rights men at the polls, guaranteeing that Georgia would not secede at that time and dampening enthusiasm for the separatist movement throughout the South. Nevertheless, the 1850s turned out to be an extraordinarily active political decade for Johnson, one in which the man who had once plumped vigorously for Georgia's states' rights would undergo an astonishing conversion. In 1852 he served once again as a presidential elector, and in 1853 he was elected governor. He was reelected in 1855. By mid-decade, the possibility of Southern secession was again being openly rumored. But this time Governor Johnson - disabused of his former belief in the vitality of separatism by the events of 1850 - dismissed the idea that any sizeable number of southerners harbored ambitions to sever their region's ties to the Union. This stance won Johnson a reputation for moderation, which led in turn to his nomination for vice president by the Douglas Democrats in 1860. When the secession issue emerged after the election, Johnson spoke out forcefully against disunion. Although he certainly embodied the Southern ambivalence toward the North, his path from secessionist in 1850 to unionist in 1860 inverted the trajectory of the South as a whole over the same period. Johnson changed his mind not out of any great fondness for the North but because he had become convinced that slavery was much more secure within the Union than outside of it. Johnson served the rest of his career with quiet distinction. Once the decision for disunion was made, he reluctantly went along with his state, even serving as a Confederate senator from 1862 to 1865. After the war, he was elected, along with Alexander Stephens, to the U.S. Senate under Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction scheme, but like all of those elected to Congress from Georgia in early 1866, he was not seated. He then returned to Louisville and resumed his career as an attorney. After 1873 he served as a judge until his death on August 16, 1880. The New Georgia Encyclopedia. http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2491&hl=y Retrieved 3/16/2009.

From the description of Johnson, Herschel Vespasian - letter, 1869. (University of Georgia). WorldCat record id: 316221514

Herschel V. Johnson (1812-1880), Confederate States of America Senator.

From the description of Letter to Jefferson Davis, 1863 Dec. 11. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 38476587

Herschel Vespasian Johnson (1812-1880), politician and judge, born in Burke County, Georgia.

From the description of Herschel Vespasian Johnson papers, 1832-1894. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 38476559

Georgia senator and governor.

From the description of Letter signed : Augusta, Ga., to A.H. Stephens, [n.d.]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270494992

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Sandy Grove, Bartow P.O., Ga., to A.H. Stephens, 1877 Jan. 30. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270489656

U.S. Foreign Service officer.

From the description of Papers, 1929-1953. (Harry S Truman Library). WorldCat record id: 70944314

U.S. and Confederate senator from and governor of Georgia.

From the description of Papers of Herschel V. Johnson, 1847-1877. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79423920

Georgia governor and senator.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Milledgeville, Georgia, to President Pierce, 1853 Jun. 25. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270488478

Planter, governor of Georgia, and Confederate senator; from Bartow (Jefferson Co.), Ga.

From the description of Papers, 1812-1880. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 19933959

Perhaps most famous as Stephen Douglas's 1860 vice presidential candidate, Herschel Johnson played an anomalous but central role in the heated sectional politics of the 1850s and 1860s. Taken as a whole, his contradictions encapsulate the intense ambivalence Georgians felt toward disunion, especially in the years before the Civil War (1861-65). Johnson County, in east central Georgia, is named in his honor. Herschel Vespasian Johnson was born on September 18, 1812, in Burke County. Like most of Georgia's antebellum political lights, Johnson passed through the University of Georgia, graduating in 1834. He took up the law and established prosperous practices in Augusta, Louisville, and finally Milledgeville, the state capital. Ambrose Wright, the future Confederate officer and newspaper journalist, began his study of law in Johnson's Louisville office. In 1844, the same year he moved to Milledgeville, Johnson served as a Democratic presidential elector, and in 1847 he tried in vain to secure the party's gubernatorial nomination. In 1848 Johnson was appointed to fill the U.S. Senate seat vacated by Walter Colquitt, which he occupied for a little more than a year before returning home to serve as a superior court judge. Nevertheless, the 1850s turned out to be an extraordinarily active political decade for Johnson, one in which the man who had once plumped vigorously for Georgia's states' rights would undergo an astonishing conversion. In 1852 he served once again as a presidential elector, and in 1853 he was elected governor. He was reelected in 1855. By mid-decade, the possibility of Southern secession was again being openly rumored. But this time Governor Johnson--disabused of his former belief in the vitality of separatism by the events of 1850--dismissed the idea that any sizeable number of southerners harbored ambitions to sever their region's ties to the Union. This stance won Johnson a reputation for moderation, which led in turn to his nomination for vice president by the Douglas Democrats in 1860. When the secession issue emerged after the election, Johnson spoke out forcefully against disunion. Although he certainly embodied the Southern ambivalence toward the North, his path from secessionist in 1850 to unionist in 1860 inverted the trajectory of the South as a whole over the same period. Johnson changed his mind not out of any great fondness for the North but because he had become convinced that slavery was much more secure within the Union than outside of it. Johnson served the rest of his career with quiet distinction. Once the decision for disunion was made, he reluctantly went along with his state, even serving as a Confederate senator from 1862 to 1865. After the war, he was elected, along with Alexander Stephens, to the U.S. Senate under Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction scheme, but like all of those elected to Congress from Georgia in early 1866, he was not seated. He then returned to Louisville and resumed his career as an attorney. After 1873 he served as a judge until his death on August 16, 1880. Herschel V. Johnson (1812-1880) - New Georgia Encyclopedia http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org (Retrieved March 10, 2009)

Elizur K. Hart, a Representative from New York; born in Albion, Orleans County, N.Y., April 8, 1841; attended the Albion Academy; engaged in banking; member of the State assembly in 1872; director Niagara Falls International Bridge Co.; elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fifth Congress (March 4, 1877-March 3, 1879); was not a candidate for renomination in 1878; resumed his former business pursuits; founder and president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Post-Express in 1882; president of Orleans County National Bank 1890-1893; died in Albion, N.Y., February 18, 1893; interment in Mount Albion Cemetery. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress http://bioguide.congress.gov (Retrieved May 21, 2009)

From the description of Herschel V. Johnson letter, 1868. (University of Georgia). WorldCat record id: 334655735

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Letter, 1856. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Herschel Vespasian Johnson papers, 1832-1894. Georgia Newspaper Project
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Herschel V. Johnson letter, 1868. University of Georgia, University of Georgia, Main Library
referencedIn Jefferson Davis collection, Davis, Jefferson collection, 1861-1865 William L. Clements Library , University of Michigan
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel Vespasian, 1812-1880. Letter signed : Augusta, Ga., to A.H. Stephens, [n.d.]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Alexander H. Stephens papers, 1823-1954 (bulk 1823-1883) David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Johnson, Herschel Vespasian - letter, 1869. University of Georgia, University of Georgia, Main Library
referencedIn Mitchell, William L. (William Letcher), 1805-1882. William L. Mitchell family papers, 1819-1901. Georgia Newspaper Project
referencedIn Read, Keith M., 1880-1940,. Keith M. Read collection, 1732-1905. Georgia Newspaper Project
referencedIn Graves family. Graves family papers, 1818-1939 (bulk 1836-1910). Emory University Library, Special Collect Department
creatorOf Schley, Robert. Financial records, 1839-1871. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
referencedIn Cobb, Howell, 1815-1868. Howell Cobb letters Georgia Historical Society
referencedIn Alexander Hamilton Stephens Papers, 1784-1886, (bulk 1850-1883) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Herschel Vespasian Johnson papers, 1869-1973. University of Georgia, University of Georgia, Main Library
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Letter to Jefferson Davis, 1863 Dec. 11. Georgia Newspaper Project
referencedIn John Johnston Parker Papers (#3464), 1920-1956 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection
creatorOf Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889. Autograph letter signed : Washington, D.C., to John Young Mason, n.p., 1848 Dec. 27. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Papers, 1812-1880. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Robert E. Sherwood papers, 1917-1968 (inclusive), 1934-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Stephens, Alexander Hamilton, 1812-1883. Alexander Hamilton Stephens papers, 1784-1886 (bulk 1850-1883). Library of Congress
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Papers, 1929-1953. Harry S Truman Library
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel Vespasian, 1812-1880. Autograph letter signed : Sandy Grove, Bartow P.O., Ga., to A.H. Stephens, 1877 Jan. 30. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Robbins, Henry Clay, 1836-. Papers, 1860-1885. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Truman Library documents [microform], 1945-1956. Wisconsin Historical Society Archives
referencedIn Fort, Tomlinson, 1787-1859. Family papers, 1808-1882. Emory University, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn Bragg, Braxton, 1817-1876. Braxton Bragg correspondence, 1861-1864. Emory University Library, Special Collect Department
referencedIn Stephens, Alexander Hamilton, 1812-1883. Letters, 1860, 1861, and 1872. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Cobb family. Cobb family papers, 1837-1913. Georgia Newspaper Project
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Truman Library documents [microform], 1945-1956. Wisconsin Historical Society Archives
referencedIn Fort, Tomlinson, 1787-1859. Tomlinson Fort family papers, 1808-1882. Emory University Library, Special Collect Department
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel Vespasian, 1812-1880. Autograph letter signed : Milledgeville, Georgia, to President Pierce, 1853 Jun. 25. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Robert E. Sherwood papers, 1917-1968 (inclusive), 1934-1955 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn Stephens, Alexander Hamilton, 1812-1883. Alexander Hamilton Stephens papers, 1834-1872. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
creatorOf William L. Clements Library. Jefferson Davis collection, 1861-1865. University of Michigan, William Clements Library
referencedIn Cuyler, Telamon Cruger Smith, 1873-1951. Papers, 1847-1967. Atlanta History Center, Kenan Research Center / Cherokee Garden Library
creatorOf Johnson, Herschel V. (Herschel Vespasian), 1812-1880. Papers of Herschel V. Johnson, 1847-1877. Library of Congress
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Barnes, George Thomas, 1833-1901. person
associatedWith Bragg, Braxton, 1817-1876. person
associatedWith Cobb family. family
associatedWith Cobb, Howell, 1815-1868. person
associatedWith Confederate States of America. corporateBody
correspondedWith Cuyler, Telamon Cruger Smith, 1873-1951. person
associatedWith Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889. person
associatedWith Flippin, Percy Scott, 1874- person
associatedWith Fort, Tomlinson, 1787-1859. person
associatedWith Georgia. Constitutional Convention (1865) corporateBody
associatedWith Georgia. Governor (1853-1857 : Johnson) corporateBody
associatedWith Graham, William A. (William Alexander), 1804-1875. person
associatedWith Graves family. family
correspondedWith Hart, Elizur K., 1841-1893 person
associatedWith Horne, Pearce. person
associatedWith Horne, Tallulah. person
associatedWith Johnson, Gertrude. person
associatedWith King, John Pendleton, 1799-1888. person
associatedWith Mitchell, William L. (William Letcher), 1805-1882. person
associatedWith Parker, John Johnston, 1885-1958 person
associatedWith Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869, person
associatedWith Polk, James K. (James Knox), 1795-1849. person
associatedWith Read, Keith M., 1880-1940, person
associatedWith Robbins, Henry Clay, 1836- person
associatedWith Schley, Robert. person
correspondedWith Sherwood, Robert E. (Robert Emmet), 1896-1955 person
correspondedWith Stephens, Alexander Hamilton, 1812-1883. person
associatedWith United Nations. Security Council. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Congress. Senate. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Foreign Service. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Georgia corporateBody
associatedWith Walsh, Patrick, 1840-1899. person
associatedWith William L. Clements Library. corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Georgia
Southern States
Confederate States of America
Georgia
Georgia
United States
Sweden
United States
Georgia
United States
Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
United States
Brazil
Georgia
New York
Georgia
Subject
Governor--Correspondence
Legislators--Correspondence
Tobacco taxation
Legislators
Lawyers--Correspondence
Governor
Lawyers
Cotton trade
Politicians--Correspondence
Reconstruction
Occupation
Governors--Georgia
Senators, Confederate--Georgia
Diplomats--United States
Senators, U.S. Congress--Georgia
Ambassadors--United States
Function

Person

Birth 1812-09-18

Death 1880-08-16

Information

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