Fitzgerald, Ella, 1917-1996

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Ella Fitzgerald (b. April 25, 1917, Newport News, VA–d. June 15, 1996, Beverly Hills, CA) was an American jazz singer often referred to as the First Lady of Song, Queen of Jazz, and Lady Ella. She was noted for her purity of tone, impeccable diction, phrasing and intonation, and a "horn-like" improvisational ability, particularly in her scat singing.

After tumultuous teenage years, Fitzgerald found stability in musical success with the Chick Webb Orchestra, performing across the country, but most often associated with the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem. Fitzgerald left the band in 1942 to start a solo career.

Her musical collaborations with Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and The Ink Spots were some of her most notable acts outside of her solo career. In 1993, Fitzgerald capped off her fifty-nine year career with her last public performance.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Just a Simple Melody. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Photographs Collection, Bulk, 1930-1990, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Earle, Eugene. Eugene Earle collection, 1939-1980s. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Undecided. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Shine [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Webb, Chick. Heart of mine : unpublished copyright deposit, 1938 / Chick Webb ; Ella Fitzgerald. Library of Congress
referencedIn The Radio Entertainers and Announcers Collection, 1937-1945 (Bulk 1942-1943) © 2011 New-York Historical Society
referencedIn Carver, Wayman A., 1905-1967. Wayman A. Carver Papers. Atlanta University Center, Robert W. Woodruff Library
referencedIn Records of the U.S. Information Agency. 1900 - 2003. Sound Recordings Relating to Willis Conover's quot;History of Jazzquot; Program
creatorOf Ella Fitzgerald Collection, 1956-1992, (bulk 1960-1985) Music Division Library of Congress
referencedIn Richard Rodgers collection of musicals and interviews [sound recording], 1926-1980 The New York Public Library. Rodgers and Hammerstein Archives of Recorded Sound.
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Gotta Pebble in my shoe. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Take another Guess. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. T'Ain't what You Do. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn The Kay Swift Papers, 1894-1993 (inclusive) Irving S. Gilmore Music Library, Yale University
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Take another Guess [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. If dreams come true [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. I Found my Yellow Basket. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Oliver, Robert. Robert Oliver collection, 1916-2005 1970-1990. New York State Historical Documents
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. A ticket a tasket [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. This Time it's Real. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Ella Fitzgerald Collection of photographs and music, 1920-1996 University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Performing Arts Special Collections.
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. My man [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn The Frederick and Rose Plaut Papers, 1907-1986 (inclusive) Irving S. Gilmore Music Library, Yale University
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Chew chew chew [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. My heart belongs to daddy [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Duke Ellington recordings collection Eda Kuhn Loeb Music Library, Harvard College Library
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Keep cool fool [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Chew Chew Chew Chew. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Swift, Kay, 1897-1993. The Kay Swift papers, 1894-1993 (inclusive). Yale University, Music Library
referencedIn Southern New England Telephone Company Records., undated, 1877-2003. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center.
referencedIn Winigrad, Allen J.,. Allen J. Winigrad slides of performing artists, 1973-1989. University of Pennsylvania Library
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. My heart belongs to daddy. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Gotta Pebble in my shoe. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Morton, Hugh M. Hugh Morton photographs and films: People and events, late 1920s-early 2000s (bulk 1940s-1990s) (Series 2). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Neat Stuff Collectables. Jazz Playbill Collection, 1923-1952. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Library and Archives
referencedIn Phoebe Jacobs Jazz collection, 1951-2002 Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Holiday in Harlem. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. I've Got a Guy [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Winigrad, Allen J.,. Allen J. Winigrad photographs of performing artists, 1973-1989. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Eddie Locke Photographs of Jazz Musicians, 1954-1974. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library,
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Sing song swing [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Undecided [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Rock it for me [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Rock it for me [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. This Time it's Real. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn David "Fathead" Newman Collection MSS 375., 1932 to 1989 Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library,
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Taking a chance on love [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Muffin Man [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Rock it for me. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Melinda the mouse [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Three little words [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Sugar blues [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn De Herrera, Gloria, 1929-1985. Gloria de Herrera papers, 1936-1996 (bulk 1947-1985). Getty Research Library
referencedIn Riddle, Nelson. Orchestrations, undated. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Taking a chance on love [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella. Papers, 1996, n.d. Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. I've Got a Guy. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. I've Got a Guy. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Keep cool fool [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. I Found my Yellow Basket. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Crying my heart out for you [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Records of, Sojourner, (inclusive), (bulk), 1920-2004, 1975-2002 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Melinda the mouse [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Take another Guess. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Sing song swing [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Ambassador Auditorium Collection, 1974-1995 Archive of Recorded Sound, Stanford University Libraries
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. A ticket a tasket [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Paramount Theatre stage manager's records, 1936-1956 The New York Public Library. Billy Rose Theatre Division.
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. ELla [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. A tisket, a blasket. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Gryin' Mood. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. I Let a Tear Fall in the River. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Just a Simple Melody [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Collection on Ella Fitzgerald, circa 1960-1988 University of Idaho Library Special Collections and Archives
referencedIn Jacobs, Phoebe,. Phoebe Jacobs Jazz collection, 1951-2002. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Records of the U.S. Information Agency. 1900 - 2003. Sound Recordings Relating to Willis Conover's Jazz Program quot;Music with Friendsquot;
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Gryin' Mood. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Little white lies [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Plaut, Frederick, 1907-1985. The Frederick and Rose Plaut papers, 1907-1986 (inclusive). Yale University, Music Library
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. A tisket, a blasket [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Undecided. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Witman, Arthur, 1902-1991. 35mm negative collection, 1936-1969. University of Missouri - St Louis, University Libraries, Thomas Jefferson, St. Louis Mercantile Library, (former branch Ward E. Barnes)
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. My man [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Holiday in Harlem [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn The Bell Telephone Hour collection of sound recordings [sound recording], 1940-1968 The New York Public Library. Rodgers and Hammerstein Archives of Recorded Sound.
referencedIn Pittsburgh Courier Publishing Co. Washington Bureau. Pittsburgh Courier, Washington Bureau collection, 1946-1968. Moorland-Spingarn Resource Center
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Holiday in Harlem. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Crying my heart out for you [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Plaut, Frederick, 1907-1985. The Frederick and Rose Plaut papers, 1907-1986 (inclusive). Yale University, Music Library
referencedIn Ella Fitzgerald sheet music collection, 1920-1996. University of California, Los Angeles
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Little white lies [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Records of District Courts of the United States. 1685 - 2009. Civil Case Files. 1938 - 1983. Ella Fitzgerald, John Lewis, Georgiana Henry, and Norman Granz vs Pan American World Airways, Inc., Civil 97-356
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Organ grinder's swing [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Chew Chew Chew Chew [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Hugh Morton Photographs and Films,  , late 1920s-2006, (bulk 1940s-1990s) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. North Carolina Collection.
referencedIn Ochs, Michael, 1943-. Michael Ochs Collection, 1948-1997, undated. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Library and Archives
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. My last affair [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. You'll Have to Swing it. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn R. C. Hickman Photographic Archive 85-43, 90-135, 85-152, 85-260, 86-301, 87-214, 88-164, 94-120., 1945-1970 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Three little words [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Chew chew chew [Multimédia multisupport] / Ella Fitzgerald, chant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Chew Chew Chew Chew. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Muffin Man [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. I Let a Tear Fall in the River [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn R. C. Hickman Photographic Archive 85-43, 90-135, 85-152, 85-260, 86-301, 87-214, 88-164, 94-120., 1945-1970 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn [Collection of contracts and correspondence relating to joint appearance of Duke Ellington and Ella Fitzgerald on 5 October 1966 at the University of Texas, Austin, as well as other Ellington Texas appearances.] Harvard University, Loeb Music Library
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. I Let a Tear Fall in the River. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Rodgers, Richard, 1902-1979. Collection of musicals and interviews [sound recording], 1926-1980. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. ELla. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Just a Simple Melody. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. ELla. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Southern Folklife Collection Artist Name File, 1940-2005 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Folklife Collection.
referencedIn American Vaudeville Museum collection, 1845-2007, (bulk 1910-1940) University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella. Ella Fitzgerald collection, 1956-1992 (bulk 1960-1985). Library of Congress
referencedIn Bracco, Francis Paul. Paramount Theatre stage manager's records, 1936-1956. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. A-Tisket, A-Tasket. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Gloria de Herrera papers, 1936-1996, 1947-1985 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Fitzgerald, Ella, 1918-1996. Gryin' Mood [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith American Museum of Vaudeville corporateBody
associatedWith American society of composers, authors and publishers corporateBody
associatedWith Bracco, Francis Paul person
associatedWith Bracco, Francis Paul. person
associatedWith Bregman, Buddy. person
associatedWith Bregman, Buddy. person
associatedWith Bulling, Erich. person
associatedWith Bulling, Erich. person
associatedWith Carson, Tee. person
associatedWith Carson, Tee. person
associatedWith Carter, Benny. person
associatedWith Carter, Benny. person
associatedWith Carver, Wayman A., 1905-1967. person
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Cullen, Frank, 1936- person
associatedWith Davis, Aldeen Louise. person
associatedWith Decca record company corporateBody
associatedWith De Herrera, Gloria person
associatedWith De Herrera, Gloria, 1929-1985. person
associatedWith DeVol, Frank. person
associatedWith DeVol, Frank. person
associatedWith Dodge, Joseph Jeffers person
associatedWith Dodge, Joseph Jeffers person
associatedWith Doggett, Bill, 1916-1996 person
associatedWith Doggett, Bill, 1916-1996. person
associatedWith Earle, Eugene. person
associatedWith Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974 person
associatedWith Ellington, Duke, 1899-1974. person
associatedWith Feller, Sid. person
associatedWith Feller, Sid. person
associatedWith Frederick and Rose Plaut person
associatedWith Gabler, Milt, 1911-2001 person
associatedWith Garcia, Russell. person
associatedWith Garcia, Russell. person
associatedWith Hickman, R. C., 1922- person
associatedWith Hickman, R. C., 1922- person
associatedWith Holman, Bill. person
associatedWith Holman, Bill. person
associatedWith Hughart, Jim. person
associatedWith Hughart, Jim. person
associatedWith Jacobs, Phoebe, person
associatedWith Jacobs, Phoebe, collector. person
associatedWith Jazz at the Philharmonic (Musical group) corporateBody
associatedWith Locke, Eddie. person
associatedWith May, Billy. person
associatedWith May, Billy. person
associatedWith McNeilly, Donald, 1945- person
associatedWith Morton, Hugh M. person
associatedWith Morton, Hugh M. person
associatedWith Newman, David person
associatedWith Ochs, Michael, 1943- person
associatedWith Oliver, Robert. person
associatedWith Paich, Marty. person
associatedWith Paich, Marty. person
associatedWith Pittsburgh Courier Publishing Co. Washington Bureau. corporateBody
associatedWith Plaut, Frederick, 1907-1985. person
associatedWith Riddle, Nelson. person
associatedWith Riddle, Nelson. person
associatedWith Rodgers, Richard, 1902-1979 person
associatedWith Rodgers, Richard, 1902-1979. person
associatedWith Sojourner (Cambridge, Mass.) corporateBody
associatedWith Southern New England Telephone Company. corporateBody
associatedWith Swift, Kay, 1897-1993 person
associatedWith Swift, Kay, 1897-1993. person
associatedWith University of Idaho. Library. Special Collections Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Webb, Chick. person
associatedWith Weston, Paul, 1912-1996 person
associatedWith Weston, Paul, 1912-1996. person
associatedWith Wilson, Gerald, 1918- person
associatedWith Wilson, Gerald, 1918- person
associatedWith Winigrad, Allen J., person
associatedWith Witman, Arthur, 1902-1991. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
United States 00 US
Newport News VA US
Beverly Hills CA US
Subject
Singers--United States
Music--Manuscripts--United States
African American cooking
Singers
Jazz musicians--United States
Arrangers (Musicians)
Jazz vocals
Arrangers (Musicians)--United States
Popular music
Music--Manuscripts
Popular music--United States
Jazz
Jazz musicians
Women jazz singers--United States--Archival resources
Occupation
Singers
Singers
Jazz musicians
Performer
Function

Person

Birth 1917-04-25

Death 1996-06-15

Americans

English

Information

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Ark ID: w6h23r0d

SNAC ID: 83512223