Soekarno, 1901-1970

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Soekarno (b. Kusno Sosrodihardjo, June 6, 1901, Surabaya, East Java-d. June 21, 1970, Jakarta, Indonesia) was the first President of Indonesia. He was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands and a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period. Soekarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender, Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945, and Soekarno was appointed as first president.

Soekarno met Tjokroaminoto, a nationalist and founder of Sarekat Islam in 1916 while at school and Tjokroaminoto introduced Soekarno to nationalist ideas. In July 1927 Soekarno with his friends established a pro-independence party, Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI), of which Soekarno was elected the first leader. In December 1930, Soekarno was sentenced to four years in prison. During World War II, Soekarno supported the Japanese and was made head of Tiga-A mass organization movement.

Joined by Mohammad Hatta, Soekarno declared independence of the Republic of Indonesia in 1945. Soekarno agreed to become a figurehead president, which he later resented, while a prime minister controlled day-to-day affairs of the government. Later, he claimed that Western-style parliamentary democracy was unsuitable for Indonesia, he called for a system of "guided democracy." Soekarno argued that at the village level, important questions were decided by lengthy deliberation designed to achieve a consensus, under the guidance of village elders. Soekarno argued it should be the model for the entire nation, with the president taking the role assumed by village elders. By December 1957, Soekarno began to take serious steps to enforce his authority over the country. As Soekarno's domestic authority was secured, he began to pay more attention to the world stage.

Soekarno was made president for life by the MPRS in 1963, but in 1963 a military coup lead by Major General Suharto, eventually ousted Soekarno from power in 1967.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf National Press Club (U.S.). Luncheon speakers collection [sound recording]. Library of Congress
referencedIn Jarvis, Helen,. Interviews concerning Tan Malaka [sound recording] : Oct.-Dec. 1972. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Paramount Pictures, Inc., Collection. 1951 - 1951. Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 10/1941 - 3/1957. PARAMOUNT NEWS [FEB. 11]
referencedIn Japanese Efforts of Political Indoctrination of Indonesia, 1943 - 1945 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Paramount Pictures, Inc., Collection. 1951 - 1951. Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 10/1941 - 3/1957. PARAMOUNT NEWS [JUNE 8]
referencedIn Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Operating Dept. Publications and ephemera, 1858-1968. Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Kosmos Club (Columbia, S.C.). Essays and minutes, 1999 Oct. 18 [typescript]. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Fox Movietone News Collection. 1957 - 1963. Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 1957 - 1963. Movietone News, Vol. 44, No. 77
creatorOf Soekarno, 1901-1970. Letter 1947, Mar. 31. University of Queensland, UQ Library
creatorOf Soekarno, 1901-1970. Sukarno speeches, 1958-1959 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
referencedIn Richard B. Cheney Files. 1974 - 1977. Richard Cheney's General Subject Files. 1974 - 1977. Report on CIA Assassination Plots (1)
referencedIn "March of Time" Collection. 1934 - 1951. March of Time Documentary/Newsreel Films Relating to U.S. History, Government, Politics, Culture, and International Affairs. 1935 - 1953. END OF AN EMPIRE
creatorOf Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-aligned Countries. 1st, Belgrade, 1961. Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-aligned Countries, Belgrade, 1961, September 1-6. Speeches. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Hearst Metrotone News, Inc., Collection. 1937 - 1942. News of the Day Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 10/1963 - 12/1967. News of the Day (Jan. 22)
referencedIn Dorsett, Graham C.,. Graham C. Dorsett photograph collection, ca. 1939-1964. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Fox Movietone News Collection. 1957 - 1963. Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 1957 - 1963. MOVIETONE NEWS
creatorOf Soekarno, 1901-1970. [Indonesia : pamphlet vol.]. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
referencedIn Paramount Pictures, Inc., Collection. 1951 - 1951. Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 10/1941 - 3/1957. PARAMOUNT NEWS [FEB. 4]
referencedIn Paramount Pictures, Inc., Collection. 1951 - 1951. Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 10/1941 - 3/1957. PARAMOUNT NEWS [MAY 18]
creatorOf Asian-African Conference (1st : 1955 : Bandung, Indonesia). [Press releases and statements regarding the Asian-African Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955]. Stanford University Libraries
referencedIn Trent, Mary Vance, 1914-1998. Mary Vance Trent papers, 1849-1998 (bulk 1959-1976). Library of Congress
referencedIn Cuban revolution collection, 1955-1970 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn Indonesia miscellany, 1869-1999. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Djakarta: President Soekarno & His Son Before Statue of Abe Lincoln in Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Jones, Howard Palfrey, 1899-1973. Howard Palfrey Jones papers, 1930-1973. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Masters, Edward. September 30 affair / Edward E. Masters University of Wisconsin - Madison, General Library System
creatorOf Soekarno, 1901-1970. [Miscellaneous press releases on Indonesia]. University of Wisconsin - Madison, General Library System
referencedIn Cumming, Hugh S. (Hugh Smith), 1900-1986. Papers of Hugh S. Cumming, 1874-1984, bulk (1937-1984). University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Graham C. Dorsett photograph collection, circa 1939-1964 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Cumming, Hugh S. (Hugh Smith), 1900-1986. Papers of Hugh S. Cumming [manuscript],, 1864-1986. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Mary Vance Trent Papers, 1849-1998, (bulk 1959-1976) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Harlan Henthorne Hatcher Papers, 1837-1998, 1891-1986 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Fischer, Louis, 1896-1970. Louis Fischer papers, 1890-1970. Princeton University Library
referencedIn Louis Fischer Papers, 1890-1977, 1935-1969 Princeton University. Library. Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections.Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library. Public Policy Papers.
referencedIn Cuban revolution collection, 1955-1970 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn General Records of the Department of the Navy. 1941 - 2004. Moving Images Relating to Military Activities. 1947 - 1980. PRESIDENT SUKARNO OF INDONESIA ARRIVES AT PEARL HARBOR, T. H
referencedIn Cumming, Hugh S. (Hugh Smith), 1900-1986. Motion pictures and slides of Hugh S. Cumming 1933-1965 [manuscript]. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Soekarno, 1901-1970. Letter, 1947 Mar 31 [manuscript] : to "Our friends in Australia". Libraries Australia
referencedIn Howard Palfrey Jones papers, 1930-1973 Hoover Institution Archives.
referencedIn Hearst Metrotone News, Inc., Collection. 1937 - 1942. News of the Day Motion Picture Newsreel Films. 10/1963 - 12/1967. News of the Day (Mar. 20)
creatorOf Soekarno, 1901-1970. [Indonesia, 1946-1963 [microform] : miscellaneous publications]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn General Records of the Department of the Navy. 1941 - 2004. Moving Images Relating to Military Activities. 1947 - 1980. ARRIVAL OF PRESIDENT SUKARNO OF INDONESIA AT HICKAM AFB, HAWAII
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Asian-African Conference (1st : 1955 : Bandung, Indonesia) corporateBody
associatedWith Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-aligned Countries. 1st, Belgrade, 1961. corporateBody
associatedWith Cumming, Hugh S. (Hugh Smith), 1900-1986. person
associatedWith Dorsett, Graham C., person
associatedWith Dorsett, Graham C., collector. person
associatedWith Fischer, Louis, 1896-1970. person
associatedWith Hatcher, Harlan Henthorne, 1898- person
associatedWith Hatta, Mohammad, 1902- person
associatedWith Hirohito, Emperor of Japan, 1901-1989 person
associatedWith Imamura, Hitoshi, 1886-1968 person
associatedWith Jarvis, Helen, person
associatedWith Jones, Howard Palfrey, 1899-1973. person
associatedWith Kosmos Club (Columbia, S.C.) corporateBody
associatedWith Masters, Edward. person
associatedWith National Press Club (U.S.) corporateBody
associatedWith Partai komunis Indonesia corporateBody
associatedWith Pennsylvania Railroad Company. Operating Dept. corporateBody
associatedWith Sjahrir, Sutan, 1909-1966 person
associatedWith Soeharto, 1921-2008 person
childOf Soekarnoputri, Megawati, 1947-.... person
associatedWith Tōjō, Hideki, 1884-1948 person
associatedWith Trent, Mary Vance, 1914-1998. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Jakarta 04 ID
Surabaya 08 ID
Subject
Indonesia--History--Revolution, 1945-1949
Occupation
Presidents
Function

Person

Birth 1901-06-06

Death 1970-06-21

Male

Indonesians

English,

Indonesian

Information

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SNAC ID: 62589998