Wigfall, Louis T. (Louis Trezevant), 1816-1874

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U.S. senator from Texas.

From the description of Family papers of Louis T. Wigfall, 1858-1909. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 82561857

U.S. Senator and brigadier general in the Confederate Army.

From the description of Letter, 1862. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 39522013

Louis Trezevant Wigfall (1816-1874), educated at South Carolina College and the University of Virginia, became involved in controversial political arguments, culminating in his killing of another man. He and his family moved to Galveston in 1846 and then to Nacogdoches, where he worked in a law firm with Thomas J. Jennings and William B. Ochiltree. He relocated once more to Marshall to open his own law practice.

A secessionist and staunch believer in slavery and the chivalric code, Wigfall was active in Texas politics, taking part in the Galveston County Democratic convention, 1848, and serving in the Texas House of Representatives, 1850-1857. He was best known for his vocal opposition to Sam Houston and may have played an important role in Houston’s loss in the gubernatorial race of 1857. Also in 1857 Wigfall was elected to the Texas Senate and one year later took an active role in the Democratic convention that stressed states’ rights. In 1859 he became a member of the United States Senate, where he supported slavery, states’ rights, and limiting the power of the national government.

Wigfall helped author the Southern Manifesto, urging the need for the secession of the slave states and the creation of a Southern Confederacy. After Texas’s secession, he remained in his position in the Senate, spying on the Union, raising troops to send to South Carolina, and providing arms to Texas Confederates. He acted as an aide to President Jefferson Davis and was a member of the Provisional Congress of the Confederacy before being formally expelled from the U.S. Senate in July 1861. Later that year he became a colonel in the First Texas Infantry and a brigadier general in the Provisional Army. Additionally, he led the Texas Brigade of the Army of Northern Virginia until 1862 when he resigned to join the Confederate Congress. He eventually withdrew his support for President Davis and conspired to strip Davis of his power. After the Confederacy fell, Wigfall returned to Texas for a time before moving to England in 1866 to try to stir up a war between England and the United States, thinking it could also restart a U.S. Civil War. He returned to the states, settling in Baltimore in 1872 for two years before moving once more to Texas, where he died in 1874.

Source:

"Wigfall, Louis Trezevant," Handbook of Texas Online. Accessed August 4, 2010. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/WW/fwi4.html.

From the guide to the Wigfall (Louis Trezevant) Papers 1934; 1935., 1839-1874, (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Wigfall, Louis Trezevant. Wigfall, Louis Trezevant Papers, 1833-1874 University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
creatorOf Wigfall, Louis T. (Louis Trezevant), 1816-1874. Louis T. Wigfall papers 1861-1868. Texas A&M University, Evans Library & Annex; Main campus library complex
referencedIn Photographs of Confederate generals and Civil War political leaders, 1861-1865. University of Georgia, University of Georgia, Main Library
referencedIn Ferguson, Samuel Wragg, 1834-1917. Papers, 1964. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
creatorOf Wigfall (Louis Trezevant) Papers 1934; 1935., 1839-1874 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn Campbell, John E. Letters, 1858-1861 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn Burt, A. (Armistead), 1802-1883. Papers, 1759-1933. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Wigfall, Louis T. (Louis Trezevant), 1816-1874. Family papers of Louis T. Wigfall, 1858-1909. Library of Congress
referencedIn Confederate officers photograph album, n.d. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn McBee, Vardry E., 1849-1923. Scrapbook, 1881-1923. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Lee, Robert Edward, 1807-1870. Lee, Robert Edward, Letters, 1859-1868, 1883 University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Biography -- Wigfall, Louis T. Daughters of the Republic of Texas Library
referencedIn Lee, Robert Edward, Letters 93-127., 1859-1868, 1883 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn Custis, George Washington Parke, 1781-1857. Custis-Lee family papers, 1700-circa 1928 (bulk 1770-1870). Library of Congress
referencedIn Frederick M. Dearborn collection of military and political Americana, Part II: The Civil War and the Confederacy, 1832-1915. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard
creatorOf Lee, Fitzhugh, 1835-1905. Letters : of Fitzhugh Lee, 1859-1897. Gunston Hall Plantation
referencedIn Custis-Lee Family Papers, 1700-circa 1928, (bulk 1770-1870) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Longstreet, James, 1821-1904. James Longstreet papers, 1862-1863. Navarro College
referencedIn Cantey family. Cantey family papers, 1771-1913. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn Lowndes, James, 1835-1910. James Lowndes papers, 1861 July 26-Oct. 23. University of South Carolina, University Libraries
referencedIn University of Virginia. Chairman of the Faculty. Journals of the Chairman of the Faculty [manuscript], 1827-1864. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Wigfall, Louis T. (Louis Trezevant), 1816-1874. Letter, 1862. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Wright, Mrs. Sketch of Louis T. Wigfall, 1934 [manuscript]. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Pollard, Charles T. (Charles Teed), 1842-1873. Confederate officers photograph album, undated. Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn Anonymous. Patriotic covers collection, 1861-1862. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Longstreet, James, 1821-1904. Papers, 1862-1863. Navarro College
referencedIn Campbell, John E. Campbell, John E., Letters, 1858-1861 University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Houston Endowment Texana collection MC042. 48149722., 1805-1936, (Bulk: 1839-1848) Albert and Ethel Herzstein Library,
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Anonymous. person
associatedWith Bagwell, J. L. person
associatedWith Beauregard, G. T. (Gustave Toutant), 1818-1893 person
associatedWith Bonham, Milledge L. (Milledge Luke), 1813-1890 person
associatedWith Breckinridge, John C. (John Cabell), 1821-1875 person
associatedWith Brooks, Preston S. (Preston Smith), 1819-1857 person
associatedWith Brooks, Whitfield, 1790-1851 person
associatedWith Burt, A. (Armistead), 1802-1883 person
associatedWith Campbell, John E. person
correspondedWith Cantey family. person
associatedWith Clay, C. C. (Clement Claiborne), 1816-1882 person
associatedWith Clay, C. C. (Clement Claiborne), 1819-1882. person
associatedWith Confederate States of America. Army. corporateBody
associatedWith Confederate States of America. Congress. Senate corporateBody
associatedWith Confederate States of America. War Dept. corporateBody
correspondedWith Custis Family family
associatedWith Davis, Jefferson, 1808-1889. person
associatedWith Dearborn, Frederick M. (Frederick Myers), b. 1876 person
associatedWith Ferguson, Samuel Wragg, 1834-1917. person
associatedWith Hampton, Wade, 1818-1902 person
associatedWith Hood, John Bell, 1831-1879. person
associatedWith Houston Endowment Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Houston, Sam, 1793-1863 person
associatedWith Johnson, Andrew, 1808-1875 person
correspondedWith Johnston, Joseph E. (Joseph Eggleston), 1807-1891 person
correspondedWith Lee Family family
associatedWith Lee, Fitzhugh, 1835-1905. person
associatedWith Lee, Robert E. person
associatedWith Lee, Robert Edward, 1807-1870 person
associatedWith Longstreet, James, 1821-1904 person
associatedWith Lowndes, James, 1835-1910. person
associatedWith Lyons, James, 1801-1882 person
associatedWith McBee, Vardry E., 1849-1923. person
associatedWith McCulloch, Ben, 1811-1862 person
associatedWith Ochiltree, William B. (William Beck) person
associatedWith Pollard, Charles T. (Charles Teed), 1842-1873. person
associatedWith Preston, William, 1816-1887 person
associatedWith Reagan, John H. (John Henninger), 1818-1905 person
associatedWith Seddon, James A. (James Alexander), 1815-1880 person
associatedWith United States. Congress. Senate corporateBody
associatedWith University of Virginia. Chairman of the Faculty. corporateBody
associatedWith Wigfall, Arthur person
associatedWith Wigfall, Charlotte Maria Cross. person
associatedWith Wigfall family. family
associatedWith Wigfall, Francis Halsey, b. 1844. person
associatedWith Wigfall, Halsey person
associatedWith Wigfall, Louis Trezevant person
associatedWith Woodson, Hortense person
associatedWith Wright, Mrs. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Washington (D. C.)
Richmond (Va.)
Austin (Tex.)
Edgefield County (S. C.)
Texas
United States
Confederate States of America
Texas
Manchester (England)
Harrison County (Tex.)
Texas
United States
Paris (France)
Virginia
Texas
Subject
States' rights (American politics)--History--19th century
Slavery--United States--History--19th century--Congresses
Politicians--Texas--History--19th century
Secession--Texas
Legislators--United States--History--19th century
Lawyers--Texas--History--19th century
Legislators--Texas--History--19th century
Exile (Punishment)--England
Occupation
Senators, U.S. Congress--Texas
Function

Person

Birth 1816-04-21

Death 1874-02-18

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