Raphaël, 1483-1520

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Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.

Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his early death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career. The best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking.

After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models. His career falls naturally into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria, then a period of about four years (1504–1508) absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Raphaël, 1483-1520. Tête de jeune homme [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Raphael, 1483-1520. Album of 25 drawings, ca. 1510. Winterthur Library
creatorOf Raphael, 1483-1520. Autograph acknowledgement of receipt, written at the close of an order from the papal treasurer : to Agostino Chigi, 1516 May 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Rauch, Christian Daniel, 1777-1857. Letters, 1833. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Balzani, Giovanni 19th cent.. Papers relating to the fresco Cenacolo di Foligno at S. Onofrio in Florence, 1847-1849. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Giusti, Giuseppe, 1809-1850. [Italian architecture : Mazzoni pamphlet collection]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Salvini, Tommaso, 1829-1916. Letter : Philadelphia, to John Sartain, 1883 Apr. 4. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Raphaël, 1483-1520. La Belle Jardinière [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Essay, ca. 1800. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Raphael, 1483-1520. Autograph signature to a receipt, 1514 Mar. 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf An oil painting on canvas mounted upon a wood panel representing the portrait of Giuliano de' Medici, Duke of Nemours, 1749-1516 : an Italian work of art of the XVI. century by Raphael Sanzio ... National Gallery of Art Library
referencedIn Clément, Charles, 1821-1887. Papers, 1838-1887 [microform]. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Rodriguez, Jose Maria. Historia de Rafael de Urbino (manuscript), Madrid, 1853. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Osvaldo Böhm collection of Venetian art and architecture, 1860-ca. 1988 Fine Arts Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Procaccini, Andrea, 1671-1734,. [Woman carrying water jugs] [graphic]. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Raphaël, 1483-1520. Jeanne d'Aragon [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Biografías de Rafael, Corregio y Rafael Antonio Mengs [Manuscrito]. Biblioteca Nacional de España, Biblioteca Nacional - Madrid
referencedIn Raphael, 1483-1520. School of Athens [manuscript] / engraved by L.A. Ramm from the Univ. of Va. copy which hung in the Rotunda Annex, 1856. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Clark, Kenneth, 1903-1983. Raphael and the classical tradition : lecture typescript, 1956 / Kenneth Clark. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
creatorOf Raphael, Sanzio, 1483-1520 (also called Rafaelle d'Umbin Santi, Raffaella Sanzio) : [miscellaneous ephemeral material]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
creatorOf Raphaël, 1483-1520. La belle Jardinière [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Jeanniot, Pierre-Georges, 1848-1934. Letters, 1897-1925. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Davis, Noah K. (Noah Knowles), 1830-1910. Papers of Noah Knowles Davis 1856, 1873-95, 1906. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Clement VII, Pope, 1478-1534. Documents from Renaissance Italy, 1484-1563. Houghton Library
referencedIn Landi, Gaspare, 1756-1830. Letters : Rome, to Giampaolo Maggi, Piacenza, 1781-1788. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Wicar, Jean-Baptiste Joseph, 1762-1834. Letters, ca. 1803-1823. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Library. Library Collection of Study Photographs and Clippings, ca. 1930-2000. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
referencedIn Paliard, Charles-Benoit. Documents sur Raphael et son oeuvre, 1871-1887, Paris. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Raphaël, 1483-1520. Tête de jeune homme [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Burnet, John, 1784-1868. Practical hints on composition, light and shade, and coloring, illustrated by examples of the great masters of the Dutch Flemish and Italian schools : autograph manuscript signed : [London], [ca. 1827]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Raphael, 1483-1520. Spurious letters : manuscripts, [1515-1516]. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Smirke, Robert, 1752-1845. Robert Smirke papers, 1804-1840. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Campioni, Carlo Antonio, 1720-1788. Autograph letter signed, dated : Florence, 1 January 1780, to Chretien de Mechel in Vienna, 1780 Jan. 1. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Raphaël, 1483-1520. La Belle Jardinière [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Pratt, William A., b. 1818. Scrapbook of William A. Pratt [manuscript], 1852-1856. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Rinaldi, Antonio. Letters : Milan, to Tommaso Bardini, Florence, 1829-1839. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Castiglione, Baldassarre, conte, 1478-1529. Autograph letter signed : Rome, to the Marquis Federigo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, [1521 Jan. 1]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Noticias sobre la pintura moderna, y los mejores pintores : con las mejores obras que hay en el palacio de Madrid : holograph, [18--]. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Prud'hon, Pierre-Paul, 1758-1823. Letter : Rome, to Jean-Baptiste Raphaël Fauconnier, Paris, 1789. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Johnsoniana; or, Supplement to Boswell: being anecdotes and sayings of Dr. Johnson, extra-illustrated, 1668-1866 (inclusive);, 1738-1836 (bulk). Houghton Library
creatorOf Penni, Giovanni Francesco, ca. 1488-1528. Raphael's monumental tomb for Francesco II Gonzaga. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Uwins, Thomas, 1782-1857. Letters, 1820-1851. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Raphaël, 1483-1520. Tête de jeune homme [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Article about the University of Virginia's acquisition of Raphael's "School of Athens" [manuscript], 1856 Oct 16. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Ruskin, John, 1819-1900. John Ruskin papers, ca. 1837-1904. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Raphaël, 1483-1520. Jeanne d'Aragon [Multimédia multisupport]. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Académie des beaux-arts (France). Miscellaneous documents, 1775-1814. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Johnsonian Miscellanies, extra-illustrated, 1538-1900 (inclusive);, 1738-1866 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Barry, Charles, Sir, 1795-1860. Architectural records, 1818-1846, 1867. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Medici family. Medici family correspondence, 1488-ca. 1620 [microform]. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Reynolds, Joshua, 1723-1792. Working draft manuscript, ca. 1772. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Boswell's Life of Johnson : including Boswell's Journal of a tour to the Hebrides and Johnson's Diary of a journey into North Wales, edited by George Birkbeck Hill, extra-illustrated, 1464-1897 (inclusive), 1724-1874 (bulk). Houghton Library
referencedIn Ariosto, Lodovico, 1474-1533. Rime Italiane, ca. 1530. Getty Research Institute
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Academie des beaux-arts (France) corporateBody
associatedWith Barry, Charles, Sir, architect person
associatedWith Böhm, O. (Osvaldo) person
associatedWith Boswell, James, 1740-1795 person
associatedWith Burnet, John, painter and engraver person
associatedWith Campioni, Carlo Antonio, 1720-1788 person
associatedWith Castiglione, Baldassarre, conte, 1478-1529 person
associatedWith Chigi, Agostino, 1466-1520 person
associatedWith Clément, Charles, 1821-1887. person
associatedWith Coke, Thomas William, Earl of Leicester, 1752-1842 person
associatedWith Croker, John Wilson, 1780-1857 person
associatedWith Davis, Noah K. (Noah Knowles), 1830-1910 person
associatedWith Duveen Brothers corporateBody
associatedWith Hill, George Birkbeck Norman, 1835-1903 person
associatedWith Jeanniot, Pierre-Georges, 1848-1934 person
associatedWith Landi, Gaspare, 1756-1830 person
associatedWith Medici family. family
associatedWith Paliard, Charles-Benoit. person
associatedWith Penni, Giovanni Francesco, ca. 1488-1528. person
associatedWith Ponzete, Ferdinando, cardinal, d. 1527. person
associatedWith Pratt, William A., 1818- person
associatedWith Preston, John Smith, 1809-1881 person
associatedWith Procaccini, Andrea, 1671-1734 person
associatedWith Prud'hon, Pierre-Paul, 1758-1823 person
associatedWith Rauch, Christian Daniel, 1777-1857 person
associatedWith Reynolds, Joshua, Sir, 1723-1792 person
associatedWith Rinaldi, Antonio person
associatedWith Rodriguez, Jose Maria. person
associatedWith Rosenberg, Jakob, 1893-1980 person
associatedWith Ruskin, John, 1819-1900 person
associatedWith Salvini, Tommaso, 1829-1915 person
associatedWith Smirke, Robert, 1752-1845 person
associatedWith Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Library corporateBody
associatedWith Thompson, Charles Thurston, 1818-1868 person
associatedWith Uwins, Thomas, 1782-1857 person
associatedWith Wicar, Jean-Baptiste Joseph, 1762-1834 person
associatedWith Wittkower, Rudolf person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Rome 07 IT
Firenze 16 IT
Perugia 18 IT
Urbino 10 IT
Painters (artists)


Birth 1483

Death 1520-04-06





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