Mandela, Nelson, 1918-2013

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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (b. July 18, 1918, Umtata, South Africa–d. Dec. 5, 2013, Johannesburg, South Africa) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.

A Xhosa, Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family in Mvezo, British South Africa. He was given the name Nelson by a primary school teacher in accordance with the custom of giving all schoolchildren “Christian” names. Mandela received his Bachelor of Arts degree at the University College of Fort Hare. He enrolled in law school at the University of the Witwatersrand but did not complete his degree; in 1952 he was excluded for non-payment of fees. Eventually, he received his LLB through the University of South Africa in 1989 while in the last months of his imprisonment. Even without a law degree, Mandela could practice law. He was articled by the law firm Witkin, Sidelsky and Eidelman. In August 1952 he and Oliver Tambo established South Africa’s first black law firm, Mandela & Tambo.

He became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1944. After the National Party's white-only government established apartheid, a system of racial segregation that privileged whites, he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow. Mandela was appointed President of the ANC's Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. In 1962, Mandela was arrested charged for leaving the country illegally and inciting workers to strike for which he received a 5 year sentence. Whilst serving his sentence he was charged for sabotage in what became known as the Rivonia Trial and was given a life sentence with seven other leaders on June 12, 1964

Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison, and Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, and with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk led efforts to negotiate an end to apartheid, which resulted in the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became President. Leading a broad coalition government which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela emphasised reconciliation between the country's racial groups and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Economically, Mandela's administration retained its predecessor's liberal framework despite his own socialist beliefs, also introducing measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He declined a second presidential term and in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Speeches Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Dennis Brutus Papers, 1970-1990 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn McNamee, Wally. McNamee, Wally, photographic archive ca. 1955-2000 University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Nelson Mandela's message to Sanya and China (466/64) Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn BENSON, Mary (1919-2000), 1948-1999 Institute of Commonwealth Studies
referencedIn Video of Working Visit by Nelson Mandela George Bush Presidential Library and Museum
referencedIn Joffe, J. G. Rivonia trial typescript, [microform]. Yale University Library
creatorOf Correspondence with Kgalema Motlanthe Nelson Mandela Foundation
creatorOf Lorraine Kimsa Theatre for Young People Theatre Archives (University of Guelph). In The Freedom of Dreams : the story of Nelson Mandela / by Michael Miller ; directed by Guillermo Verdecchia, 2003 - house program. University of Guelph
referencedIn Nelson Mandela meets Bafana Bafana, the South Africa national soccer team Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Accrual to Mandela at 90 - Qunu 1-4 Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Nelson Mandela's full speech in Hyde Park Nelson Mandela Foundation
creatorOf Mandela, Nelson. Libération de Nelson Mandela / annonce de Frederik de Klerk et discours de Nelson Mandela ; Nelson Mandela, participant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Sue Brandt McBee Collection of African American Culture AR. 2001. 020., 1980-2003., 1950-2003. Austin History Center, Austin Public Library..
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Negatives Collection, Bulk, 1968-1990, 1930-2001 Tamiment Library / Wagner Archives
referencedIn Storey, Peter John, 1938-. Peter Storey papers, 1950-2006. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Impact Visuals Photograph Collection., undated, 1964-2000 [bulk 1983-1999]. Archives & Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center.
referencedIn Buthelezi, Chief Mangosuthu Gatsha, 1970-1976 School of Oriental and African Studies
referencedIn Ellison, Ralph. Letter to Bert Krantz, 1990 February 23. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Mandela 'War on Want' Jigsaws, 20th century The Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House
referencedIn Presidential Photographs, ca. 1953 - ca. 1999 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Globalvision, Inc. South Africa Now collection, 1978-1994 (inclusive), 1988-1991 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Vibes 130 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Photographer File, ca. 1882-present © 2011 New-York Historical Society
referencedIn South African apartheid collection, 1961-1991 (inclusive), 1985-1988 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Oliver Tambo, Papers, undated, 1960-1992. Archives and Special Collections at the Thomas J. Dodd Research Center, University of Connecticut Libraries
referencedIn Nelson Mandela message for the Soccer World Cup Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Samuel Dash Papers, 1748-2004, (bulk 1965-2002) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Video Recordings of the White House Television Office (Clinton Administration). 1/20/1993 - 1/20/2001. Video Recordings Relating to the Clinton Administration. 1/20/1993 - 1/20/2001. Video Recording of President William Jefferson Clinton Addressing an African American Religious Leaders Reception
referencedIn Accrual to Mandela at 90 Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Conversations with Madiba – Conversation between Nelson Mandela, Zindzi Mandela and Ahmed Kathrada for the book “Conversations with Myself” Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Dash, Samuel. Samuel Dash papers, 1748-2004 (bulk 1965-2002). Library of Congress
creatorOf Mandela the First Accused Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Grapevine Postcard, [1997] The Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House
referencedIn Andreĭ Sakharov papers, 1852-2002 (inclusive), 1960-1990 (bulk). Houghton Library.
referencedIn The, Daily Worker, and, The Daily World, Photographs Collection, Bulk, 1930-1990, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive
referencedIn Tolerance and Diversity: A Vision for the 21st Century - UNHCHR Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Live proceedings of the London 46664 concert honouring Nelson Mandela at 90 Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Poppell, Karen,. David Russell collection, 1983-2003 1985-1995. Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Library and Archives
referencedIn Mandela at 90 Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Mandela: Patron of Round Square Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Official visit of President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore to South Africa Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn South Africa collection, 1990-2003 (inclusive), 1992-1996 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Photographs Assembled for "Topic" Magazine Coverage of Political, Economic, and Cultural Life in the United States and Africa, 1965 - 1990 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
creatorOf Ahmed Kathrada Interviews with Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Records of New Words, 1974-2002 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
creatorOf Presidential Records: I. Medical Records; II. Personal and Private Correspondence Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Outlook Calendars from Zelda la Grange with Nelson Mandela’s appointments Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn MS Mus. 420. Alan Bush Collection. Vol. xcv. Vocal music with orchestra; [1976-85].ff. 114. 367 x 272mm.1. ff. 1-19. ‘Africa is my Name’ (words, Nancy Bush and from African songs), for mezzo-soprano solo, mixed chorus and accompaniment for piano or o..., 1976-1985 British Library
referencedIn Manchester City visit with Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela Foundation
creatorOf Correspondence with Kofi Annan Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn African Writers Series, 1964-1986 School of Oriental and African Studies
referencedIn Efiong, V., painter. Beelddocument = Visual document.
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior. 1826 - 2009. Photographs Relating to the Secretary's Trips, Speeches, and Other Functions, and Agency Officials, Events, and Managed Sites
referencedIn Nelson Mandela receiving visitors at the NMF: Bafana Bafana Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Nelson Mandela Foundation: Living the Legacy Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn General Records of the Department of State. 1763 - 2002. Photographic Portraits and Events Coverages Relating to Secretaries of State
referencedIn Photographs Relating to Agency Officials, Events, and Activities , 1972 - 2005 United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Briefie vir Madiba Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Nelson Mandela and Graça Machel meet Ariel Dorfman, the 2010 speaker for the Annual Lecture Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn [Nelson Mandela's Security Detail in New York City] United States. National Archives and Records Administration
referencedIn Nelson Mandela at Freedom Park DVD Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Mandela meets World Athletics Championships athletes Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn South Africa collection, 1990-2010, 1992-1996 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn General Records of the Department of State. 1763 - 2002. Central Photographic Assignment Files Relating to U.S. and Foreign Diplomatic Officials, Events, and Facilities
referencedIn Mandela Trials Papers, 1962-1964 Institute of Commonwealth Studies
referencedIn Archive of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, 1956-[ca. 1999] The Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House
referencedIn Endgame Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Prisoner No. 46664 - Nelson Mandela at 90 Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Brutus, Dennis, 1924-2009. Dennis Brutus Papers, 1970-1990. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Speech made by Nelson Mandela at the 46664 concert in Cape Town Nelson Mandela Foundation
creatorOf Ahmed Kathrada Collection Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Nelson, Jill, 1952-. Jill Nelson papers, 1985-2006. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf South African Institute of Race Relations. South African Institute of Race Relations collection of political documents [microform]. Center for Research Libraries, CRL
creatorOf Judge Thumba Pillay Collection Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Footage for "The Bucket List" Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Diploma of Nelson Mandela, 1996-1997 The Bodleian Library of Commonwealth and African Studies at Rhodes House
referencedIn Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1973-2000 Institute of Commonwealth Studies
referencedIn Nelson, Jill, 1952-. Jill Nelson papers, 1985-2002. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Wally McNamee Photographic Archive, AR2002-011; 2002-027; 2002-097; 2002-180; 2003-032; 2003-085., ca. 1955-2000 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn Clips of Mandela speaking on various topics Nelson Mandela Foundation
creatorOf Ahmed Kathrada Collection II Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Dean A. Gallo Congressional Papers, 1982-1994, bulk 1984-1994 Rutgers University Libraries. Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn African Schools Debating Championship Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn CR 756 5, Clarke, John Richard 1927-. Africa Area files 1993-1995 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Church History Library
creatorOf Mandela, Nelson. Libération de Nelson Mandela / annonce de Frederik de Klerk et discours de Nelson Mandela ; Nelson Mandela, participant. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Video Recordings of the White House Television Office (Clinton Administration). 1/20/1993 - 1/20/2001. Video Recordings Relating to the Clinton Administration. 1/20/1993 - 1/20/2001. Video Recording of President William Jefferson Clinton Receiving a Tour of the Robben Island Compound by President Nelson Mandela
referencedIn Rogers, Fred. [Address by Fred Rogers at the Public Broadcasting Service development conference] : speech (document) Saint Vincent College, Saint Vincent Library
referencedIn Bowen, Telitha Cumi. Telitha C. Bowen papers, 1990-1991. Detroit Public Library, Detroit Main Library
referencedIn FIRST, (Heloise) Ruth (1925-1982), 1889-1991 [predominantly 1946-1982] Institute of Commonwealth Studies
creatorOf Burundi Peace Process – Arusha Peace Accord Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Honorary Doctor of Laws ceremony, National University of Ireland, Galway Nelson Mandela Foundation
creatorOf Material from the President's Office Nelson Mandela Foundation
referencedIn Michael Young Papers, 1986-2001 Borthwick Institute for Archives, University of York
referencedIn Office of International Academic Affairs (University of Michigan), records, 1968-1993, 1989-1992 Bentley Historical Library , University of Michigan
referencedIn Campbell, James E., 1925-. James E. Campbell papers, 1930-2009. College of Charleston, Marlene and Nathan Addlestone Library
creatorOf Mandela, Nelson, 1918-. Rivonia sabotage trial, 1963-1964 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
referencedIn Rossano, Cynthia W. Harvard University special convocation in honor of His Excellency Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, President of the Republic of South Africa, September 18, 1998 / interviews conducted and materials assembled by Cynthia W. Rossano for Harvard University Archives. Harvard University, Archives
referencedIn H. K. Banda Archive, 1924-2005, bulk 1950-1997 IU Libraries African Studies Collection
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf It's In Your Hands Nelson Mandela Foundation
Relation Name
associatedWith Ainslie, Rosalynde, Trustee of the Ruth First Trust person
associatedWith ANC, African National Congress corporateBody
associatedWith Anti-Apartheid Movement person
associatedWith Benson, Mary, 1919-2000 person
associatedWith Bowen, Telitha Cumi person
associatedWith Brody, Donald A. person
associatedWith Brody, Paula Rae person
associatedWith Brutus, Dennis, 1924-2009. person
associatedWith Campbell, James E., 1925- person
associatedWith Catholic Institute for International Relations corporateBody
associatedWith Clarke, John Richard 1927- person
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Dash, Samuel. person
parentOf Dlamini, Zenani Mandela person
associatedWith Efiong, V., painter. person
associatedWith Ellison, Ralph. person
associatedWith First, Heloise Ruth, 1925-1982 person
associatedWith Gallo, Dean Anderson, 1935-1994 person
associatedWith Globalvision, Inc. corporateBody
associatedWith Goldberg, Denis, 1933- person
associatedWith Impact Visuals. corporateBody
associatedWith Joffe, J. G. person
associatedWith Joffe, Joel, b 1932 person
associatedWith Kathrada, A. M. (Ahmad M.), 1929-2017 person
associatedWith Lorraine Kimsa Theatre for Young People Theatre Archives (University of Guelph) corporateBody
spouseOf Machel, Graça. person
spouseOf Mandela, Winnie person
associatedWith McBee, Sue Brandt corporateBody
associatedWith McNamee, Wally person
associatedWith McNamee, Wally. person
associatedWith Nelson, Jill, 1952- person
associatedWith New Words corporateBody
associatedWith Non-Aligned Movement corporateBody
associatedWith Publishers, Heinemann person
associatedWith Rogers, Fred. person
associatedWith Rossano, Cynthia W. person
associatedWith Ruth First Memorial Trust corporateBody
associatedWith Sakharov, Andreĭ, 1921-1989 person
Sisulu, Walter, 1912-2003 person
associatedWith South Africa. Supreme Court. corporateBody
associatedWith Storey, Peter John, 1938- person
correspondedWith Tambo, Oliver, 1917-1993 person
founderOf Umkhonto we Sizwe (South Africa) corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf University of Fort Hare. corporateBody
associatedWith University of Michigan. Office of International Academic Affairs corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf University of the Witwatersrand corporateBody
associatedWith Young, Michael Alan. OBE businessman person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Mthatha 05 ZA
Johannesburg 06 ZA
Republic of South Africa 00 ZA
Subject
Sabotage
Political science
Trials (Sabotage)
Occupation
Politicians
Presidents
Function

Person

Birth 1918-07-18

Death 2013-12-05

South Africans

English

Information

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