Kalākaua (b. Nov. 16, 1836, Honolulu, Kingdom of Hawai'i–d. Jan. 20, 1891, San Francisco, CA) was the last king and penultimate monarch of the Kingdom of Hawai'i. Born to Caesar Kaluaiku Kapaʻakea and Analea Keohokālole from the reigning House of Kamehameha. Kalākaua married Kapiʻolani, December 8, 1863 and had no children.
Kalākaua studied law under Charles Coffin Harris in 1853 and received his military training under the Prussian officer, Major Francis Funk. In the army, Kalākaua served as first lieutenant and was eventually promoted to colonel in 1858. In 1856, Kalākaua was appointed a member of the Privy Council of State by Kamehameha IV. In government, Kalākaua was appointed to the House of Nobles (1858-1873), served in the the Department of the Interior (1859-1863), was Postmaster General (1863-1865), and appointed the King's Chamberlain (1865-1869).
Kalākaua was elected King in 1874. During his reign, he helped negotiate the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875 between the US and Hawaii. Kalākaua's reign is generally regarded as the first Hawaiian Renaissance, for both his influence on Hawaii's music, and for other contributions he made to reinvigorate Hawaiian culture. After his death his sister Liliuokalani ascended the throne as the last ruler of the Kingdom of Hawai'i.