Geronimo, 1829-1909

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Geronimo, also known as Goyaałé, also known as The One Who Yawns'; born in Arizpe, Sonora, Mexico, June 1829 – died, Fort Sill, Oklahoma February 17, 1909), prominent leader and medicine man from the Bedonkohe band of the Apache people. From 1850 to 1886, Geronimo joined with members of three other Chiricahua Apache bands—the Tchihende, the Tsokanende and the Nednhi—to carry out numerous raids, as well as fight against Mexican and U.S. military campaigns in the northern Mexico states of Chihuahua and Sonora and in the southwestern American territories of New Mexico and Arizona. Geronimo's raids and related combat actions were a part of the prolonged period of the Apache–United States conflict, which started with American settlement in Apache lands following the end of the war with Mexico in 1848.

While well-known, Geronimo was not a chief of the Chiricahua or the Bedonkohe band. However, since he was a superb leader in raiding and warfare, he frequently led large numbers of men beyond his own following.[3] At any one time, he would be in command of about 30 to 50 Apaches.

During Geronimo's final period of conflict from 1876 to 1886, he surrendered three times and accepted life on the Apache reservations in Arizona. When Geronimo surrendered to General Nelson Miles for the last time in 1886, he said "This is the fourth time I have surrendered". Reservation life was confining to the free-moving Apache people, and they resented restrictions on their customary way of life.

In 1886, after an intense pursuit in northern Mexico by American forces that followed Geronimo's third 1885 reservation breakout, Geronimo surrendered for the last time to Lt. Charles Bare Gatewood, an Apache-speaking West Point graduate who had earned Geronimo's respect a few years before. Geronimo was later transferred to General Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon, just north of the Mexican/American boundary. Miles treated Geronimo as a prisoner of war and acted promptly to move Geronimo, first to Fort Bowie, then to the railroad at Bowie Station, Arizona, where he and 27 other Apaches were sent to join the rest of the Chiricahua tribe, which had been previously exiled to Florida.

While holding him as a prisoner, the United States capitalized on Geronimo’s fame among non-Indians by displaying him at various events. For Geronimo, it provided him with an opportunity to make a little money. In 1898, for example, Geronimo was exhibited at the Trans-Mississippi and International Exhibition in Omaha, Nebraska. Following this exhibition, he became a frequent visitor to fairs, exhibitions, and other public functions. He made money by selling pictures of himself, bows and arrows, buttons off his shirt, and even his hat. In 1905, the Indian Office provided Geronimo for the inaugural parade for President Theodore Roosevelt. Later that year, the Indian Office took him to Texas, where he shot a buffalo in a roundup staged by 101 Ranch Real Wild West for the National Editorial Association. Geronimo was escorted to the event by soldiers, as he was still a prisoner. The teachers who witnessed the staged buffalo hunt were unaware that Geronimo’s people were not buffalo hunters.

Geronimo died at the Fort Sill hospital in 1909, as a prisoner of war. Geronimo is buried at the Fort Sill Indian Agency Cemetery, among the graves of relatives and other Apache prisoners of war.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
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referencedIn U.S. Western and Military Photograph Collection, 1860-1910 The University of New Mexico, University Libraries, Center for SouthwestResearch
referencedIn Kjelgaard, Jim, 1910-1959. The story of Geronimo : production material, ca. 1958. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
referencedIn Manning, Inez,. Inez Manning photograph collection, 1906. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Lawton, Henry Ware, 1843-1899. Henry Ware Lawton papers, 1849-1930 (bulk 1886-1902). Library of Congress
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referencedIn Stafford, Lily, 1887-1984. Lily Stafford/Lawton High School photograph collection, 1901-1941. Museum of the Great Plains
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referencedIn Pamplin, Neville, 1937-1982,. Neville Pamplin photograph collection, 1905-1960. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Riling, William B. W.B. Riling photograph collection, 1901-1908. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Troop I, First New Mexico Cavalry photograph [picture]. University of New Mexico-Main Campus
referencedIn Negri, Margi Lee. Papers, 1962. Texas Tech University Libraries, Academic Library
referencedIn Daughters of the American Revolution. Lawton Chapter. Daughters of the American Revolution photograph collection, undated. Museum of the Great Plains
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referencedIn American Indian collection, 1647-1940 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Early Texas and Old West Photographs, AR 96-134., 1868-1930 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History
referencedIn Fly, C. S. (Camillus Sidney), 1849-1901,. C.S. Fly photographs of Geronimo, circa 1880s-1890s. Harold B. Lee Library
referencedIn Willson, Roscoe G. (Roscoe George), 1879-1976. Roscoe Willson Photograph Collection, ca. 1860-ca. 1970 [picture]. Arizona State University Libraries
referencedIn Pearce, Joseph Harrison, 1873-1958. Pearce remininscences, 1903-1957. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Ball, Eve, 1890-1984. Eve Ball collection, 1887-1976. University of Texas at El Paso
referencedIn American Indian collection, 1647-1940 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
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creatorOf Geronimo, 1829-1909. Autograph on pencil drawing of Geronimo, undated. Library of Congress
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referencedIn Biography -- Geronimo. Daughters of the Republic of Texas Library
referencedIn Accounts and publications about Indians, 1934-1938. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
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referencedIn Roeder, Arthur, Mrs.,. Accounts and publications about Indians, 1934-1938. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Sinise, Jerry. Jerry Sinise western history collection, 1809-1991. National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum
referencedIn Gatewood, Charles. Gatewood photograph collection, ca. 1867, 1879-1890, 1930s (bulk 1880-1890). Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Chase, George F. The George F. Chase papers, 1867-1901. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
referencedIn Huntington Free Library. Native American biography vertical file [ca.1850-2000.]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Harry H. Bandholtz Papers (Microform), ca. 1890-ca. 1937, 1899-1925 Bentley Historica Library University of Michigan
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referencedIn Early Lawton, Okla., photograph collection, 1905-1915. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Gray, John Plesent, b. 1860. When All Roads Lead to Tombstone [typescript], 1940. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Miles, Nelson Appleton, 1839-1925. Letters and report, 1886. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
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referencedIn Williams, Effie May, 1886-,. Oral history interview, ca. 1971 [sound recording]. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
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referencedIn Stone, Lloyd, b. 1905,. Lloyd Stone interview, 1980 Apr. 4. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Potter, Jack Meyers, 1864-. Jack M. Potter scrapbook, 1943-1944. Museum of New Mexico Library
referencedIn Photoprints, 1880-1910. University of Oklahoma, Bizzell Memorial Library
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referencedIn Henry Ware Lawton Papers, 1849-1930, (bulk 1886-1902) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Fort Bowie, Arizona photograph collection, 1862-1894, 1926-1972. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Chase, D. B. (Dana B.). U.S. western and military photographs collection [picture]. University of New Mexico-Main Campus
referencedIn Kerans, Jack. Lawton, Okla., photograph collection, 1900-1930. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Miles, Nelson Appleton, 1839-1925. The Nelson A. Miles papers, ca 1865-1917. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
referencedIn Mazzanovich, Anton, 1860-1934. Mazzanovich papers, 1926-1934. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Troop I, First New Mexico Cavalry Photograph, 1928 The University of New Mexico, University Libraries, Center for SouthwestResearch
referencedIn Arizona Historical Foundation. Arizona Historical Foundation Microfilm Collection, 1812-1980 1870-1910 [microform]. Arizona State University Libraries
creatorOf Geronimo, 1829-1909. Signature/Geronimo. Dartmouth College Library
referencedIn Nichols, Charles A., 1878-1970. Nichols manuscripts, ca. 1950. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Schott, John J. (John Joseph), d. 1943. John J. Schott photograph collection, 1880-1953. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn French, H. H. Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge photograph collection, 1870-1984. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Crook, George, 1828-1890. Telegrams, 1886. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Miller, William N., 1860-. Miller papers, 1880-1936. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Geronimo, an American legend script collection, 1992-1993. Gene Autry Western Heritage Museum
referencedIn Arizona Historical Foundation. Documents related to the San Carlos Indian Agency, 1888-1903. Arizona State University Libraries
referencedIn General Photograph collections National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.). Archive Center
referencedIn Louis Kraft Collection, 1982 - (open end) Fray Angélico Chávez History Library, New Mexico History Museum.
referencedIn Owsley, W. D.,. W.D. Owsley photograph collection, 1900-1910. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Gee, Larry. Photographic negatives of Lawton, Okla., and vicinity, 1901-1976. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Lawrence, Arthur R. (Arthur Rolph), 1895-1981. Arthur R. Lawrence photograph collection, 1901-1959. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Carter, William H. (William Harding), 1851-1925. William H. Carter papers, 1886-1919. Library of Congress
referencedIn Strauss, Charles Moses, 1840-1892. Charles Moses Strauss papers, 1823-1892. Judah L. Magnes Memorial Museum, Rabbi Morris Goldstein Library
referencedIn Faris, Chester E. Chester E. Faris Photograph Collection [Picture] University of New Mexico-Main Campus
referencedIn Corwin, Hugh D.,. Hugh D. Corwin interview, 1980 Jan. 11. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Irwin Brothers Studio (Ariz.). Irwin Brothers photograph collection, 1907-1929 (bulk 1925-1929). Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Hughes, Samuel, 1829-1917. Sam Hughes papers, 1861-1951 (bulk 1872-1911). Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Mosher, Frank R., 1886-1969. Frank R. Mosher collection of American Indian postcards, 1909-1967. Princeton University Library
referencedIn Schnautz, Henry. Henry Schnautz letters. Harold B. Lee Library
referencedIn Morton, Charles, 1846-1914. Morton papers, 1870-1963 bulk (1870-1909). Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Miller, William N. Pioneer tells how Geronimo scaled Dragom Mountain Peak / by Wm. N. Miller. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
referencedIn Baird, George William, 1839-1906. George William Baird papers, 1877-1899. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Garvin, Alonzo H., Mrs,. Mrs. Alonzo H. Garvin photograph collection, undated. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Endicott family. Endicott family papers, 1612-1958. Massachusetts Historical Society
referencedIn Adams, Alexander B. Alexander B. Adams writings on the American West, ca. 1971-1981. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Trippe, Silas Orlando,. Photograph collection, ca.(1890-1900). Alabama Department of Archives and History
referencedIn Casanega, T. D. (Thomas David), 1849-1934. Casanega reminiscences, 1883-1935. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Mary Hunter Doane Papers, 1860-1952 MSU-Bozeman Library, Merrill G Burlingame Special Collections
referencedIn Kraft, Louis, 1947-. Louis Kraft collection 1982-[ongoing] Museum of New Mexico Library
referencedIn Buell, Crawford R. Crawford R. Buell papers, 1693-1968. New Mexico State Library
referencedIn Gatewood, Charles Baehr, 1853-1896. Gatewood papers, 1883-1955. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Rickey, Don. The Don Rickey, Jr. collection, 1839-1934. U.S. Army Heritage & Education Center
referencedIn Ford, Winston,. Winston Ford photograph collection, 1900-1905. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Bixby, Helen. Helen Bixby photograph collection, 1835-1959. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Burgess, Opie Rundle. Early Arizona history, 1947. University of Arizona Libraries
referencedIn Addison, George A. George A. Addison photographs and tax document, circa 1890-1907. National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum
referencedIn Capell, Eli J. (Eli Jackson), 1814-1888. Eli J. Capell and family papers, 1817-1932 (bulk 1842-1890). Louisiana State University, LSU Libraries
referencedIn Chester E. Faris Photograph Collection, 1916-1950 The University of New Mexico, University Libraries, Center for SouthwestResearch
referencedIn Barnes, Will C. (Will Croft), 1858-1936. Barnes papers, 1878-1945. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn William W. Wotherspoon collection of Goyathlay (Geronimo) and Chatto photographs National Museum of the American Indian (U.S.). Archive Center
referencedIn Rose, Noah H., 1874-1952. Early Texas and old west photographs, 1868-1930. University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Hollem, C. L., Mrs., 1881-1961. Mrs. Charles L. Hollem photograph collection, circa 1893-1905. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn House, Boyce, 1896-1961. House, Boyce, Papers, 1944-1947 University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Glueck, Sheldon, 1896-1990. Papers, 1916-1972 Harvard Law School Library Langdell Hall Cambridge, MA 02138
referencedIn Kennon, Lyman Walter Vere, 1858-1918. Papers, 1863-1917. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn American Indian collection, 1647-1940 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Adams, Alexander B. Alexander B. Adams writings on the American West, ca. 1971-1981. Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Horton, Charles Lawrence, 1922-1979. Charles Horton collection of negatives, 1888-1901. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Crosby, J. H. J.H. Crosby photograph collection, 1900-1930. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Ayers directory Lawton, Okla., photograph collection, 1901-1903. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Mazzanovich, Anton, 1860-1934. Anton Mazzanovich Papers, 1885-1934 (bulk 1924-1934). University of Arizona Libraries
referencedIn Goodwin, Grenville, 1907-1940. Reminiscences from the life of John Rope, 1935-1937. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Wear, Newman, 1904-1983. Newman Wear photograph of Geronimo, undated. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Burbank, E. A. (Elbridge Ayer), 1858-1949. E.A. Burbank Papers, 1897-1949. Newberry Library
referencedIn Young, Pauline Harrold, d. 1966,. Margaret Updegrove Harrold interviews prepared for the Federal Theatre Project, 1935-1939. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Henry Schnautz letters, 1956-1980 L. Tom Perry Special Collections20th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts
referencedIn Heard Museum. Lithograph and print collection. The Heard Museum Library
referencedIn Wood, Charles Morgan, d. 1927. Wood photograph albums, ca. 1880s, 1923-1927. Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn DeVane, Albert (George Albert), 1893?-1969?. Albert DeVane Collection, 1950-1966. University of Florida
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Adams, Alexander B. person
associatedWith Addison, George A. person
associatedWith Adkisson, Maud. person
associatedWith Arizona Historical Foundation. corporateBody
associatedWith Arthur, Roeder person
associatedWith Baird, George William, 1839-1906. person
associatedWith Ball, Eve, 1890-1984. person
associatedWith Bandholtz, Harry Hill, 1864-1925 person
associatedWith Barnes, Will C. (Will Croft), 1858-1936. person
associatedWith Bennett, Frank P. person
associatedWith Bixby, Helen. person
associatedWith Buell, Crawford R. person
associatedWith Burbank, E. A. (Elbridge Ayer), 1858-1949. person
associatedWith Burgess, Opie Rundle. person
associatedWith Capell, Eli J. (Eli Jackson), 1814-1888. person
associatedWith Capron, Allyn K. person
associatedWith Carter, William H. (William Harding), 1851-1925. person
associatedWith Casanega, T. D. (Thomas David), 1849-1934. person
associatedWith Chapman, Berlin Basil, person
associatedWith Chase, George F. person
associatedWith Chrisman, Clarence. person
associatedWith Corwin, Hugh D., person
associatedWith Crook, George, 1828-1890. person
associatedWith Crosby, J. H. person
associatedWith Cunningham, Robert E. (Robert Earl), 1906- person
associatedWith Daughters of the American Revolution. Lawton Chapter. corporateBody
associatedWith DeVane, Albert (George Albert), 1893?-1969? person
associatedWith Doane, Mary Hunter, 1859-1952. person
associatedWith Endicott family. family
associatedWith Faris, Chester E. person
associatedWith Faris, Chester E. person
associatedWith Fly, C. S. (Camillus Sidney), 1849-1901. person
associatedWith Ford, Winston, person
associatedWith Forrest, Earle R. (Earle Robert), 1883-1969 person
associatedWith Garvin, Alonzo H., Mrs, person
associatedWith Gatewood, Charles. person
associatedWith Gatewood, Charles Baehr, 1853-1896. person
associatedWith Gee, Larry. person
associatedWith Glueck, Sheldon, 1896- person
associatedWith Goodwin, Grenville, 1907-1940. person
associatedWith Gray, John Plesent, b. 1860. person
associatedWith Hollem, C. L., Mrs., 1881-1961. person
associatedWith Horton, Charles Lawrence, 1922-1979. person
associatedWith House, Boyce, 1896-1961 person
associatedWith Hughes, Samuel, 1829-1917. person
associatedWith Huntington Free Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Irwin Brothers Studio (Ariz.) corporateBody
associatedWith Irwin, William E., 1871-1935. person
associatedWith Johnston, James W., person
associatedWith Kennon, Lyman Walter Vere, 1858-1918. person
associatedWith Kjelgaard, Jim, 1910-1959. person
associatedWith Kraft, Louis person
associatedWith Lawrence, Arthur R. (Arthur Rolph), 1895-1981. person
associatedWith Lawton, Henry Ware, 1843-1899. person
associatedWith Manning, Inez, person
associatedWith Matte, Jacqueline Anderson, 1935- person
associatedWith Mazzanovich, Anton, 1860-1934. person
associatedWith Mazzanovich, Anton, 1860-1934. person
associatedWith Miles, Nelson Appleton, 1839-1925. person
associatedWith Miller, William N. person
associatedWith Miller, William N., 1860- person
associatedWith Moreno, Benito. person
associatedWith Morton, Charles, 1846-1914. person
associatedWith Mosher, Frank R., 1886-1969. person
associatedWith Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Naiche, Christian. person
associatedWith Negri, Margi Lee. person
associatedWith Nichols, Charles A., 1878-1970. person
associatedWith Owings, Grace S. (Grace Sunderland) person
associatedWith Owsley, W. D., person
associatedWith Pamplin, Neville, 1937-1982, person
associatedWith Pearce, Joseph Harrison, 1873-1958. person
associatedWith Potter, Jack Meyers, 1864- person
associatedWith Read-Strauss family. family
associatedWith Rickey, Don. person
associatedWith Riling, William B. person
associatedWith Roeder, Arthur, Mrs., person
associatedWith Rose, Noah H., 1874-1952 person
associatedWith Schnautz, Henry person
associatedWith Schnautz, Henry person
associatedWith Schott, John J. (John Joseph), d. 1943. person
associatedWith Sinise, Jerry. person
associatedWith Stafford, Lily, 1887-1984. person
associatedWith Stone, Lloyd, b. 1905, person
associatedWith Strauss, Charles Moses, 1840-1892. person
associatedWith Trippe, Silas Orlando, person
associatedWith Wagner, Sallie R. person
associatedWith Watson, Elmo Scott, 1892-1951. person
associatedWith Wear, Newman, 1904-1983. person
associatedWith Williams, Effie May, 1886-, person
associatedWith Willson, Roscoe G. (Roscoe George), 1879-1976. person
associatedWith Wood, Charles Morgan, d. 1927. person
associatedWith Young, Pauline Harrold, d. 1966, person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Subject
Occupation
Activity

Person

Birth 1829

Death 1909-02-17

Apache languages

Information

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