Raemaekers, Louis, 1869-1956

Alternative names

Hide Profile

Raemaekers was born on Apr. 6, 1869 in Roermond, Netherlands; States diploma, Art School of Amsterdam, 1891; was director of Art and Craft School, 1895; became professor of Horticultural High School (1896), Agricultural High School (1898), and Ryks Hoogere Burger School (1899) in Wageningen; in 1913, gave up teaching to become a cartoonist; was decorated Officier Legion d'Honneur (France), Chevalier Ordre de Leopold, Commander of the Order of the Crown (Belgium), and Officer of the Order of Orange Nassau (Netherlands); came to the US in 1940; publications include Another peace conference (1912), The Great War : a neutral's indictment (1916), America in the war (1918), and Raemaekers' cartoon history of the war (1918-19); he died in 1956.

From the description of Reproductions of World War I political cartoons, ca. 1914-1918. (University of California, Los Angeles). WorldCat record id: 40979156

Dutch cartoonist.

From the description of Louis Raemaekers papers, 1901-1941. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 754868212

Biography

Raemaekers was born on April 6, 1869 in Roermond, Netherlands; States diploma, Art School of Amsterdam, 1891; was director of Art and Craft School, 1895; became professor of Horticultural High School (1896), Agricultural High School (1898), and Ryks Hoogere Burger School (1899) in Wageningen; in 1913, gave up teaching to become a cartoonist; was decorated Officier Legion d'Honneur (France), Chevalier Ordre de Leopold, Commander of the Order of the Crown (Belgium), and Officer of the Order of Orange Nassau (Netherlands); came to the U.S. in 1940; publications include Another peace conference (1912), The Great War: a neutral's indictment (1916), America in the war (1918), and Raemaekers' cartoon history of the war (1918-19); he died in 1956.

From the guide to the Louis Raemaekers Reproductions of World War I Political Cartoons, ca. 1914-1918, (University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Dept. of Special Collections.)

Biographical Note

  • 1869 April 6: Born at Roermond (Limburg), Netherlands, of a Dutch father (Josephus C. H., editor of a provincial newspaper) and a German mother
  • Studied art in Amsterdam, Brussels, and Paris
  • 1892: Diploma, Art School, Amsterdam
  • Portrait and landscape painter; professor of drawing and architecture at Wagemingen
  • 1902: Married Johanna Petronella van Mansvelt; had one son and two daughters
  • 1907: First cartoons appeared in the Algemeen Handelsblad, Amsterdam
  • 1909 February: Joined the Amsterdam Telegraaf as a political cartoonist and caricaturist
  • 1914 September: Ceased all other professional activity to dedicate himself to his anti-German campaign
  • 1915: Charged in the Dutch courts with endangering the neutrality of Holland - discharged
  • 1915 October - 1915 Nov. : First exhibit of his cartoons given at the Fine Arts Society's Galleries in London
  • 1916 February: "Manifestation Raemaekers" in Paris Presented with the Cross of the Legion of Honor
  • 1916 Spring: Moved from Harlem to Sydenham, near London, in order to supply the Allied press around the world more readily
  • 1916 - 1918 : Made frequent visits to the front in France
  • 1917 July - 1917 December : Toured the United States on the request of David Lloyd George and drew cartoons for various newspapers, most notably the Hearst papers
  • 1919 April 7: Guest of honor at a luncheon party given by the Lord Mayor of London at the Mansion House
  • Inter-war period: Lived in Brussels, Belgium Campaigned in favor of the League of Nations and tried to alert public opinion to the danger of Nazism to world peace
  • 1940 June: Emigrated to the United States via England
  • Drew weekly cartoons for the New York Herald Tribune and the afternoon tabloid PM
  • 1956 July 26: Died at Scheveningen near The Hague, Netherlands

From the guide to the Louis Raemaekers papers and artwork, 1901-1941, (Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace)

[Photo at right: "Slow Asphyxiation" by Louis Raemaekers depicting soldiers who were exposed to irritating gases while fighting in the trenches.]

Louis Raemaekers (1869-1956) was a Dutch painter and cartoonist known for his anti-German cartoons during World War I.

Louis Raemaekers was born in 1869 in Roermond, in the Netherlands. His father was a newspaper editor and his mother was originally from Germany. Raemaekers studied art in Holland and Brussels.

Beginning his career as a painter and illustrator, Raemaekers joined the Algemeen Handelsblad in 1907 and in 1909 starting drawing for the De Telegraaf after the Algemeen Handelsblad became uncomfortable with his strong inclination towards producing anti-German cartoons.

Raemaekers became known for his biting portrayals of the cruelty of war, particularly as brought about by the German military’s actions in Belgium. Germany was outraged by Raemaekers’ works and the Netherlands charged him with endangering the country's neutrality in the war (although he was never convicted) while a bounty was put on him by Kaiser Wilhelm II. Raemaekers' work was well received among allied countries. Raemaekers fled to Britain and was welcomed by British dignitaries and journalists. France presented Raemaekers with the Cross of the Legion of Honour and hosted a reception for him at the Sorbonne. In 1917 he toured the United States and being critical of the United States' neutrality, urged the United States to intervene in the war.

Raemaekers’ cartoons were widely popular throughout the world and heavily reproduced. Some were compiled in books and reprinted as posters and postcards. An estimated 1200 cartoons were reproduced in allied countries and an estimated 1 billion copies were published in the United States during 1917. Several books about the war were published with his cartoons including the 1916 work, Raemaeker’s Cartoons (1916) and Raemaeker’s Cartoon History of the War (1919).

During World War I, Raemaekers’ cartoons were exhibited throughout the world including in Spain, Britain, France and the United States and in 1942, he lent works to the “Cartoons of the Day” exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Raemaekers, also critical of widespread fascism and Nazism in the 1930s, ended his career in the early 1940s.

Louis Raemaekers died on July 26, 1956 in Scheveningen, Netherlands.

From the guide to the Louis Raemaekers Cartoons, 1914-1918, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Louis Raemaekers Cartoons, 1914-1918 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
referencedIn Ohio State University. Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum. Louis Raemaekers 1869-1956 biographical file. Ohio State University Libraries
creatorOf Levi, Ettore. [World War I : Mazzoni pamphlet collection]. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn War Posters Collection, 1913-1945 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
referencedIn Gray, Bowman,. Papers relating to World War I, 1915-1916. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn Harriman, Florence Jaffray, 1870-1967. Florence Jaffray Hurst Harriman papers, 1857-1982 (bulk 1910-1960). Library of Congress
referencedIn Raemaekers, Louis, 1869-1956 : [miscellaneous ephemeral material]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
creatorOf Louis Raemaekers Reproductions of World War I Political Cartoons, ca. 1914-1918 University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Dept. of Special Collections.
creatorOf Louis Raemaekers papers and artwork, 1901-1941 Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace
referencedIn Frankenhuis poster collection, 1914-ca.1926. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Raemaekers, Louis, 1869-1956. Cartoon album. Raemaekers. 1915 May 1-1916 Apr. 30. Williams College, Sawyer Library
referencedIn World War I cartoon collection, 1914-1918. Johns Hopkins University, Sheridan Libraries and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library
creatorOf Raemaekers, Louis, 1869-1956. Reproductions of World War I political cartoons, ca. 1914-1918. University of California, Los Angeles
creatorOf Raemaekers, Louis, 1869-1956. Louis Raemaekers papers, 1901-1941. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn [Cartoons of Louis Raemaekers : pamphlet collection]. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn [Cartoons of Louis Raemaekers pamphlet collection] [microform]. Stanford University, Hoover Institution Library
referencedIn Florence Jaffray Hurst Harriman Papers, 1857-1982, (bulk 1910-1960) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Gray, Bowman, person
associatedWith Harriman, Florence Jaffray, 1870-1967. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Netherlands
Germany.
Belgium
Netherlands.
Germany
Subject
World War, 1914-1918--Caricatures and cartoons
World War, 1914-1918--Belgium--Caricatures and cartoons
World War, 1914-1918--Germany--Caricatures and cartoons
World politics--20th century--Caricatures and cartoons
Cartoonists
Political cartoons--20th century
World War, 1914-1918--Propaganda
Caricatures and cartoons--Europe
War crimes--Caricatures and cartoons
Belgian wit and humor, Pictorial
World politics--Caricatures and cartoons
Propaganda, Anti--German
World politics 20th century Caricatures and cartoons
Military--Caricatures and cartoons
Cartoonists--Netherlands
World War, 1914-1918--Humor, caricatures, etc
World War, 1914-1918
Art--Cartoonists
War--Religious aspects--Christianity
Dutch wit and humor, Pictorial
Imperialism--Caricatures and cartoons
Occupation
Cartoonists--Netherlands
Cartoonists
Function

Person

Birth 1869-04-06

Death 1956-07-26

Dutch

Dutch; Flemish,

French,

English

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6697d29

Ark ID: w6697d29

SNAC ID: 11898068