Crozier, Francis Rawdon Moira, 1796-1848

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Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier was born in September 1796 at Banbridge, Ireland. He entered the Royal Navy in 1810, serving in Hamadryad and in Briton, before spending nearly two years on the Thames guard ship Meander and the Portsmouth flagship Queen Charlotte . After passing his examination in 1817, he served as mate in the sloop Doterel sailing to the Cape of Good Hope in 1818. On his return to Britain, Crozier accompanied Edward Parry in two successive expeditions in search of a Northwest Passage, as midshipman on board HMS Fury on the British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition, 1821-1823, and in HMS Hecla on the British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition, 1824-1825. On 2 March 1826, Crozier received his lieutenant's commission and rejoined HMS Hecla under Parry on the British Naval North Polar Expedition (1827). During this expedition, Crozier remained onboard the ship, anchored in Treurenburg Bay, Spitsbergen, while Parry and James Clark Ross attempted to reach the North Pole over the ice with two boat-sledges. Between 1831 and 1835, Crozier served in Stag, stationed off the coasts of Spain and Portugal. In December 1835, he was appointed first lieutenant and second-in-command in HMS Cove on the British Relief Expedition from Hull (leader James Clark Ross), sent to rescue the crews of eleven whaling vessels which had been beset and forced to winter in Davis Strait in 1835. Crozier was appointed to command HMS Terror on the British Naval Expedition, 1839-1843 (leader James Clark Ross), organized to conduct a series of magnetic observations in the southern hemisphere and to locate and reach the South Magnetic Pole if possible. Establishing magnetic observatories in St. Helena, Cape Town, and Iles Kerguelen, and taking running observations en route, HMS Terror and HMS Erebus reached Hobart, Tasmania early in 1840. A geophysical observatory 'Rossbank' was established in Hobart with the co-operation of the Governor, Sir John Franklin. Later in the same year, the two vessels headed south into the Southern Ocean, crossing the Antarctic Circle on 1 January 1841 and were the first vessels to force a way through the pack ice of the Ross Sea where extensive discoveries were made including Victoria Land, Ross Island and the Ross Ice Shelf. After wintering in Australia, the expedition returned to the Ross Sea in December 1841, before visiting the South Shetland Islands and the Falkland Islands, and proceeding into the South Atlantic sector of Antarctica, where a number of discoveries were made off the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. Crozier commanded HMS Terror again on the ill-fated British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition, 1845-1848 (leader Sir John Franklin), sent by the Admiralty to search for a Northwest Passage beyond Lancaster Sound and Barrow Strait in the unexplored region south-west of Barrow Strait. Two whalers in northern Baffin Bay last saw the two expedition ships HMS Terror and HMS Erebus (commanded by Franklin) in late July 1845, heading for Lancaster Sound. After that, the expedition disappeared and Europeans never again saw its members alive. Many searches were conducted for the missing expedition between 1847 and 1859, during the course of which the main facts regarding the route taken and final fate of the expedition were established. The two vessels had become beset north of King William Island, where they had spent two winters between September 1846 and April 1848. Franklin died on 11 June 1847 and the command had devolved on Crozier. Abandoning the two vessels on 22 April 1848, the 105 survivors led by Crozier set out toward Back River. All perished during the journey.

From the guide to the Flora Artica of Capt. Francis Crozier, 1821-1824, (Aberdeenshire Museums Service)

Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier was born in September 1796 at Banbridge, Ireland. He entered the Royal Navy in 1810, serving in Hamadryad and in Briton, before spending nearly two years on the Thames guard ship Meander and the Portsmouth flagship Queen Charlotte . After passing his examination in 1817, he served as mate in the sloop Doterel sailing to the Cape of Good Hope in 1818. On his return to Britain, Crozier accompanied Edward Parry in two successive expeditions in search of a Northwest Passage, as midshipman on board HMS Fury on the British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition, 1821-1823, and in HMS Hecla on the British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition, 1824-1825. On 2 March 1826, Crozier received his lieutenant's commission and rejoined HMS Hecla under Parry on the British Naval North Polar Expedition (1827). During this expedition, Crozier remained onboard the ship, anchored in Treurenburg Bay, Spitsbergen, while Parry and James Clark Ross attempted to reach the North Pole over the ice with two boat-sledges. Between 1831 and 1835, Crozier served in Stag, stationed off the coasts of Spain and Portugal. In December 1835, he was appointed first lieutenant and second-in-command in HMS Cove on the British Relief Expedition from Hull (leader James Clark Ross), sent to rescue the crews of eleven whaling vessels which had been beset and forced to winter in Davis Strait in 1835.

Crozier was appointed to command HMS Terror on the British Naval Expedition, 1839-1843 (leader James Clark Ross), organized to conduct a series of magnetic observations in the southern hemisphere and to locate and reach the South Magnetic Pole if possible. Establishing magnetic observatories in St. Helena, Cape Town, and Iles Kerguelen, and taking running observations en route, HMS Terror and HMS Erebus reached Hobart, Tasmania early in 1840. A geophysical observatory 'Rossbank' was established in Hobart with the co-operation of the Governor, Sir John Franklin. Later in the same year, the two vessels headed south into the Southern Ocean, crossing the Antarctic Circle on 1 January 1841 and were the first vessels to force a way through the pack ice of the Ross Sea where extensive discoveries were made including Victoria Land, Ross Island and the Ross Ice Shelf. After wintering in Australia, the expedition returned to the Ross Sea in December 1841, before visiting the South Shetland Islands and the Falkland Islands, and proceeding into the South Atlantic sector of Antarctica, where a number of discoveries were made off the east coast of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Crozier commanded HMS Terror again on the ill-fated British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition, 1845-1848 (leader Sir John Franklin), sent by the Admiralty to search for a Northwest Passage beyond Lancaster Sound and Barrow Strait in the unexplored region south-west of Barrow Strait. Two whalers in northern Baffin Bay last saw the two expedition ships HMS Terror and HMS Erebus (commanded by Franklin) in late July 1845, heading for Lancaster Sound. After that, the expedition disappeared and Europeans never again saw its members alive. Many searches were conducted for the missing expedition between 1847 and 1859, during the course of which the main facts regarding the route taken and final fate of the expedition were established. The two vessels had become beset north of King William Island, where they had spent two winters between September 1846 and April 1848. Franklin died on 11 June 1847 and the command had devolved on Crozier. Abandoning the two vessels on 22 April 1848, the 105 survivors led by Crozier set out toward Back River. All perished during the journey.

From the guide to the Francis Crozier collection, [15--]-1907, (Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Graham Gore collection, 1847 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Dr John Robertson collection, 1841 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn James Fitzjames collection, 1825-1845 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir William Edward Parry collection, 1800-1855 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Flora Artica of Capt. Francis Crozier, 1821-1824 Aberdeenshire Museums Service
referencedIn John Gregory collection, 1845 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Francis Crozier collection, [15--]-1907 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Flora Artica of Capt. Francis Crozier, 1821-1824 Aberdeenshire Museums Service
referencedIn Richard Cyriax collection, 1937-1944 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir James Clark Ross collection, 1812-1860 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Edward Griffiths collection, 1847 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Graham Crozier collection, 1856 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Edward Couch collection, 1845 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker collection, 1839 - 1906 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Charles Osmer collection, 1845 Scott Polar Research Institute
creatorOf Francis Crozier collection, [15--]-1907 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Alexander McDonald collection, 1841-1845 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Earl of Auckland collection, 1847 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn British Naval Expedition, 1839-1843, 1839-1843 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn John Colston collection, 1849 Scott Polar Research Institute
referencedIn Seven Stanley collection, 1845 Scott Polar Research Institute
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith British Naval Expedition Antarctic 1839-1843 corporateBody
associatedWith British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition Canadian Arctic 1845-1848 corporateBody
associatedWith Charles Hamilton Osmer person
associatedWith Colston, John person
associatedWith Couch, Edward person
associatedWith Crozier Graham P person
associatedWith Dr John Robertson person
associatedWith Fitzjames, James person
associatedWith Francis Rawdon Moira Crozier person
associatedWith Franklin John 1786-1847 person
associatedWith George Eden, Earl of Auckland person
associatedWith Gore, Graham person
associatedWith Graham P Crozier person
associatedWith Gregory, John person
associatedWith Griffiths, Edward person
associatedWith McDonald, Alexander person
associatedWith Richard Julius Cyriax person
associatedWith Sir James Clark Ross person
associatedWith Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker person
associatedWith Sir William Edward Parry person
associatedWith Steven Samuel Stanley person
associatedWith Terror (Ship) corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
Antarctic Discovery and exploration
Arctic Discovery and exploration
Antarctic
Subject
Explorers
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1796-08-16

Death 1848

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