Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923

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Zitkala is the Indian name for Gertrude Bonnin, 1876-1938.

From the guide to the National Council of American Indians records, 1926-1938, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)

Carlos Montezuma, whose Indian name was Wassaja, was a Yavapai Indian from central Arizona. He was captured by Pima Indians and sold to a photographer. He was educated in Arizona and New York City. He graduated from the University of Illinois in 1884 and attended Chicago Medical College. Carlos Montezuma served as a reservation physician working for the Indian Services (BIA). While working on reservations he encouraged Native American children to go to school. He eventually became a Yavapai advocate for Native Americans and helped organize the Society of American Indians, a national lobbying group; and published Wassaja, a monthly indictment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

From the guide to the Carlos Montezuma papers, 1890-1922, (University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections)

Physican, Yavapai advocate for Native Americans. Born in Arizona Territory; educated at Chicago Medical College; served in U. S. Indian Service; practiced medicine in Chicago; helped organize Society of American Indians, a national lobbying group; and published "Wassaja."

From the description of Carlos Montezuma papers, 1899-1922. (University of Arizona). WorldCat record id: 30636876

Physician and Indian rights activist.

From the description of Carlos Montezuma collection, 1887-1980 (bulk 1887-1922). (Scottsdale Public Library). WorldCat record id: 30058203

Native American activist and physician of Arizona and Chicago.

Born as Wassaja, a Yavapai Indian, around 1866, Carlos Montezuma was sold to an Italian photographer and taken to New York and Illinois, where he was educated at the University of Illinois and the Chicago Medical College (MD). After working several years on reservations for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Montezuma became a critic of the government's policy and began a long association with the Society of American Indians. In 1896 Montezuma began to practice medicine in Chicago and to publish Wassaja, in which he crusaded for a place for Indians in American society. Montezuma died of tuberculosis in Arizona in 1923.

From the description of Carlos Montezuma papers, 1888-1936, (bulk 1888-1922). (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 53326221

Carlos Montezuma, physician and Indian Rights activist, was born near the Four Peaks in the Superstition Mountains of Central Arizona in approximately 1866. He was the son of the Yavapai Indians Co-cu-ye-vah and Thil-ge-ya. In 1871, Montezuma was captured by Pima Indians and sold to Carlos Gentile, who gave him his Anglo name. Gentile brought Montezuma to Washington, D.C., and then to Chicago, where he attended public schools. Before committing suicide, Gentile turned Montezuma over to Reverend G. W. Ingalls of the American Baptist Home Mission Society.

Montezuma completed his high school education at Urbana High School in Illinois and went on to graduate Magna Cum Laude from the University of Illinois. He entered the Chicago Medical School of Northwestern University and eventually established a private medical practice in Chicago. Montezuma became a leading spokesman for Indian Rights, founding a journal entitled Wassaja to address these issues. In his later years, he became ill with diabetes and tuberculosis and returned to the Fort McDowell Indian Reservation. He died on the reservation on January 31, 1923.

From the guide to the Carlos Montezuma Collection, 1887-1980, 1887-1922, (Arizona State University Libraries Arizona Collection)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Iverson, Peter. Peter Iverson collection, 1898-2002. Arizona State University Libraries
creatorOf Zitkala-S̈a, 1876-1938. National Council of American Indians records, 1926-1938. American Primers
referencedIn Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924. Richard Henry Pratt papers, 1862-1956. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Arnold, Oren. Papers, 1951-1970. Arizona State University Libraries
creatorOf Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923. Carlos Montezuma papers, 1888-1936, (bulk 1888-1922). Newberry Library
creatorOf Carlos Montezuma papers, 1890-1922 University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections
referencedIn Pomerance, Bernard. Melons / Bernard Pomerance, 1987. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Richard Henry Pratt papers, 1862-1956 Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf National Council of American Indians records, 1926-1938 L. Tom Perry Special Collections20th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts
creatorOf Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923. Carlos Montezuma collection, 1887-1980 (bulk 1887-1922). Arizona State University Libraries
creatorOf Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923. The papers of Carlos Montezuma, M.D. including the papers of Maria Keller Montezuma Moore and the papers of Joseph W. Latimer, 1871-1952 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
creatorOf Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923. Carlos Montezuma papers, 1899-1922. University of Arizona Libraries
creatorOf Jones, Wesley Livsey, 1863-1932. Wesley L. Jones papers 1896-1932 (bulk 1908-1932). University of Washington Libraries
referencedIn Cleveland, Arlyss. Printed materials, 1977-1983. University of Oklahoma, Bizzell Memorial Library
creatorOf Montezuma, Carlos, 1866-1923. Papers, 1892-1937. Wisconsin Historical Society, Newspaper Project
creatorOf Smiley family. Papers, 1885-1930. Haverford College Library
creatorOf Nuñez, Bonita Wa Wa Calachaw, 1888-1972. Bonita Wa Wa Calachaw Nuñez papers, undated. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Carlos Montezuma Collection, 1887-1980, 1887-1922 Arizona State University Libraries Arizona Collection
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith American Association on Indian Affairs. corporateBody
correspondedWith American Indian Association corporateBody
associatedWith American Indian Association. corporateBody
associatedWith American Indian Defense Association corporateBody
associatedWith Arnold, Oren. person
associatedWith Atwood, Stella M. person
associatedWith Bonnin, Raymond, 1880-1942 person
associatedWith Cayou, Francis M. person
associatedWith Cloud, Henry Roe. person
associatedWith Collier, John, 1884-1968 person
associatedWith Eastman, Charles Alexander, 1858-1939. person
associatedWith Eastman, Elaine Goodale, 1863-1953. person
associatedWith Edward E. Ayer Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library) corporateBody
associatedWith General Federation of Women's Clubs corporateBody
associatedWith Indian Rights Association corporateBody
associatedWith Iverson, Peter. person
associatedWith Jones, Wesley Livsey, 1863-1932. person
associatedWith La Flesche, Francis, 1932. person
associatedWith La Flesche, Rosa. person
associatedWith Latimer, Joseph William, 1871- person
associatedWith Leupp, Francis Ellington, 1849-1918. person
associatedWith Mayo, Charles Horace, 1865-1939. person
associatedWith McCutcheon, John T. (John Tinney), 1870-1949. person
associatedWith McKenzie, Fayette Avery, b. 1872. person
associatedWith Montezuma, Carlos, 1886-1923. person
associatedWith Moore, Maria Keller Montezuma. person
associatedWith National Council of American Indians corporateBody
associatedWith Newberry Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Nuñez, Bonita Wa Wa Calachaw, 1888-1972. person
correspondedWith Pokagon, Simon, 1830-1899 person
associatedWith Pomerance, Bernard. person
associatedWith Pomeroy, Lucy Gaylord. person
associatedWith Pratt, Richard Henry, 1840-1924. person
correspondedWith Progressive Indian Association corporateBody
associatedWith Sloan, Thomas. person
associatedWith Smiley family. family
associatedWith Society of American Indians. corporateBody
associatedWith Standing Bear, Henry. person
associatedWith United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Indian Claims Commission corporateBody
associatedWith United States Indian School (Carlisle, Pa.) corporateBody
associatedWith United States. Office of Indian Affairs. corporateBody
associatedWith Wheelock, Dennison. person
associatedWith Wilkinson, Ernest L., 1899-1978 person
associatedWith Zitkala-S̈a, 1876-1938. person
associatedWith Zitkala-S̈a, 1876-1938. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Fort McDowell Indian Reservation (Ariz.)
Concho (Okla.)
Sedan (Okla.)
Lawton (Okla.)
Clinton (Okla.)
United States
Andarko (Okla.)
United States
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (S.D.)
United States
Standing Rock Indian Reservation (N.D. and S.D.)
Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation (Utah)
Washington (D.C.)
Lake Traverse Indian Reservation (N.D. and S.D.)
Subject
Yankton Indians
Indian physicians
Manuscripts, American
Indians of North America--Politics and government
Indians of North America--Government relations--1869-1934
Yavapai Indians
Indians, treatment of
Indians of North America--Cultural assimilation
Yavapai Indians--Sources
Political activists
Indian activists
Indians of North America--History
Ute Indians
Indians of North America--Civil rights
Indians of North America--Government relations
Indians of North America--Legal status, laws, etc
Indians of North America--Government relations--1869-1934--Sources
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1866

Death 1923

Information

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SNAC ID: 69251167