Orr, James Lawrence, 1822-1873

Hide Profile

James Lawrence Orr (May 12, 1822 – May 5, 1873) was an American diplomat and politician who served as the 22nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1857 to 1859. He also served as the 73rd Governor of South Carolina from 1865 to 1868 after a term in the Confederate States Senate.

Orr was born at Craytonville, South Carolina located in Anderson County, South Carolina. He graduated from the University of Virginia in 1841 and became an attorney. He served as a Democratic Congressman from South Carolina from 1849 to 1859, serving as the Speaker of the House from 1857 to 1859. Orr was an advocate of states' rights who used his position to assist those persons who promoted the continuation of slavery. He foresaw the consequences of the decision by South Carolina to attempt to secede from the Union, but he remained loyal to his State. He was one of the three commissioners sent to Washington, D.C. to negotiate the transfer of federal property to South Carolina; the failure of these negotiations led directly to the bombardment of one of the highest-profile federal assets within South Carolina, Fort Sumter.

After Fort Sumter and the outbreak of the American Civil War, Orr organized and commanded Orr's Regiment of South Carolina Rifles, which saw little action before he resigned in 1862 and entered the Confederate Senate, where he served as chairman of the influential Foreign Affairs and Rules committees. The regiment continued to bear his name throughout the war and fought in some of the most prominent battles of the Army of Northern Virginia. In the Confederate Senate, he remained a strong proponent of states' rights.

At the end of the war, Orr was elected governor and served from 1865 until the passage of a new state constitution in 1868. In 1872 President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Orr as Minister to Russia in a gesture of post-Civil War reconciliation. Orr died in St. Petersburg, Russia shortly after arriving to begin his service as Minister. He was interred in the First Presbyterian Church Cemetery in Anderson, South Carolina.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Orr, J. L. (James Lawrence), 1822-1873. Papers, 1852-1868. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
contributorOf Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1762 - 1984. Amnesty Papers, 1865 - 1867 National Archives Library, National Archives Records Administration
referencedIn Manning, John Laurence, 1816-1889. John L. Manning papers, 1839-1888 (bulk 1839-1863). South Carolina Historical Society
referencedIn Orr and Patterson family papers, 1779-1915. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
referencedIn McCrady, Edward, 1833-1903. Military papers, 1860-1870. South Carolina Historical Society
creatorOf Orr, James Lawrence, 1822-1873. Autograph signature, clipped from the register of Brown's Hotel : Washington, [n.d.]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Reconstruction scrapbook, 1865 Nov. - 1877 Jan. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
creatorOf Orr, J. L. (James Lawrence), 1822-1873. J.L. Orr papers, 1850-1900; (bulk, 1850-1868). University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Autograph File, O, 1706-1966. Houghton Library
creatorOf Orr, J. L. (James Lawrence), 1822-1873. Letter of J. L. Orr, 1858. Library of Congress
referencedIn Federal Writers' Project (S.C.). [Anderson County, S.C.: Anderson scenes] [picture]; 193u-194u. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn McKay, Robert, d. 1889. Robert McKay papers, 1865-1887. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Marshall, Jehu Foster, 1817-1862. Jehu Foster Marshall papers, 1862. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Trowbridge, Charles Tyler, 1835-1907. Charles T. Trowbridge reminiscences, [ca. 1892]. South Carolina Historical Society
creatorOf Orr, James Lawrence, 1822-1873. Autograph letter signed : Washington, to the President, 1854 Jun. 14. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Cass, Lewis, 1782-1866. Papers, 1774-1924 William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Whaley, Mitchell & Clancy. Whaley, Mitchell & Clancy law firm records, 1853-1871, bulk 1866-1871. South Carolina Historical Society
referencedIn Pickens, F. W. (Francis Wilkinson), 1805-1869. Papers, 1798-1900; (bulk 1809-1886). Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Cass, Lewis, 1782-1866. Papers, 1774-1924 William L. Clements Library
referencedIn Barnwell, Robert Woodward, 1801-1882. Robert Woodward Barnwell (1801-1882) papers, 1833-1879. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Napier, Thomas, 1776 or 7-1860. Thomas Napier papers, 1803-1947; (bulk, 1803-1860). University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Flagg, S. Griswold. S. Griswold Flagg collection, 1825-1938 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn S. Griswold Flagg collection, 1825-1938 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Guerin, Henry C. Henry C. Guerin papers, 1843-1905. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Brooks, Preston S. (Preston Smith), 1819-1857. Preston S. Brooks papers, 1828-1938. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn McGaw family. McGaw family papers, 1859-1867. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
referencedIn Richardson, J. S. (John Smythe), 1828-1894. John Smythe Richardson papers 1767-ca. 1900. University of South Carolina, System Library Service, University Libraries
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Andrew, Johnson, 1808-1875 person
associatedWith Baker, Nathaniel Bradley, 1818-1876. person
correspondedWith Barnwell, Robert Woodward, 1801-1882. person
correspondedWith Bonham, Milledge L. (Milledge Luke), 1813-1890 person
correspondedWith Brooks, Preston S. (Preston Smith), 1819-1857. person
associatedWith Butler, A. P. (Andrew Pickens), 1796-1857. person
associatedWith Calhoun, John C. (John Caldwell), 1782-1850. person
associatedWith Castles, Henry, d.1866 person
associatedWith Confederate States of America. Army corporateBody
memberOf Confederate States of America. Congress. Senate corporateBody
associatedWith Federal Writers' Project (S.C.) corporateBody
associatedWith Flagg, S. Griswold. person
associatedWith Flagg, S. Griswold. person
associatedWith Governor of South Carolina corporateBody
correspondedWith Guerin, Henry C. person
correspondedWith Hagood, James Earle, 1826-1904 person
associatedWith Hickman, W. H. person
correspondedWith Hubbard, Henry person
correspondedWith Jenkins, Charles Jones, 1805-1883 person
correspondedWith Lanman, Charles, 1819-1895 person
associatedWith Manning, John Laurence, 1816-1889. person
associatedWith Marshall, Jehu Foster, 1817-1862. person
correspondedWith McCrady, Edward, 1833-1903. person
associatedWith McGaw family. person
associatedWith McKay, Robert, d. 1889. person
associatedWith Means, Edward John. person
correspondedWith Melton, Cyrus David person
associatedWith Napier, Thomas, 1776 or 7-1860. person
associatedWith Pickens, F. W. (Francis Wilkinson), 1805-1869. person
associatedWith Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869, person
associatedWith Pierce, Franklin, 1804-1869. person
associatedWith Richardson, J. S. (John Smythe), 1828-1894. person
correspondedWith Scoville, Joseph Alfred, 1815-1864 person
memberOf South Carolina. General Assembly. House of Representatives corporateBody
associatedWith South Carolina. Governor (1866-1868 : Orr) corporateBody
associatedWith Stephen, Josephine. person
associatedWith Trowbridge, Charles Tyler, 1835-1907. person
memberOf United States. Congress. House of Representatives corporateBody
alumnusOrAlumnaOf University of Virginia corporateBody
associatedWith Westbrook, Theodoric Romeyn, 1821-1885. person
correspondedWith Whaley, Mitchell & Clancy. corporateBody
associatedWith William L. Clements Library corporateBody
associatedWith William L. Clements Library. corporateBody
associatedWith Worth, Jonathan, 1802-1869. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Saint Petersburg 66 RU
Craytonville SC US
Subject
State universities and colleges--Law and legislation
Politicians--Correspondence
Governor--Correspondence
Agriculture
African Americans--Crimes against
Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)
Freedmen
Agricultural colleges
Occupation
Representatives, C.S.A., South Carolina
Governors--South Carolina
Ambassadors
Jurists
Diplomats
Diplomats
Representatives, U.S. Congress--South Carolina
Activity

Person

Birth 1822-05-12

Death 1873-05-05

Male

Americans

English

Information

Permalink: http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6vr3s18

Ark ID: w6vr3s18

SNAC ID: 84395716