Moral Re-armament (Organization)

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Worldwide movement dedicated to spiritual and ethical reawakening.

From the description of Records of the Moral Re-armament, 1812-1991 (bulk 1873-1966). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71131695

Biographical Notes and Organizational History

Frank Nathan Daniel Buchman

  • 1878, June 4: Born, Pennsburg, Pa.
  • 1899: B.A., Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pa.
  • 1899 - 1902 : Attended Mt. Airy Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa.
  • 1902: Ordained Lutheran minister
  • 1905: In charge of Luther Hospice, Philadelphia, Pa.
  • 1908: Traveled to Europe and England
  • 1909 - 1915 : Secretary, YMCA at Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pa.
  • 1915 - 1919 : Toured Asia under YMCA auspices
  • 1916 - 1922 : Part-time lecturer, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn.
  • 1921: Visited Cambridge and Oxford, England, where the foundation was laid for the fellowship later called the Oxford Group
  • 1926: Honorary doctorate, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pa.
  • 1929: Traveled to South Africa with the Oxford Group
  • 1931 - 1938 : Led Oxford Group teams to Scandinavia, Holland, Canada, and the United States
  • 1938: Inaugurated campaign for Moral Re-armament at East Ham Town Hall, London, England
  • 1939: Launched campaign for Moral Re-armament in New York, Washington, D.C., and California
  • 1940: Initiated You Can Defend America program
  • 1942: Suffered paralytic stroke
  • 1942 - 1947 : Conducted Moral Re-armament summer training sessions, Mackinac Island, Mich.
  • 1946: Presented first annual World Assembly for Moral Re-armament, Caux, Switzerland, headquarters
  • 1952 - 1957 : Traveled with Moral Re-armament teams throughout Asia, Australia, and Europe
  • 1961, Aug. 7: Died, Freudenstadt, West Germany

Ray Foote Purdy

  • 1889: Born, Brooklyn, N.Y.
  • 1920: B. A., Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
  • 1920 - 1922 : Master, Taft School, Watertown, Conn.
  • 1923: Assistant to the president, Eastman Dillon & Co., New York, N.Y.
  • 1923 - 1924 : Attended Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton, N.J.
  • 1923 - 1927 : General Secretary, Philadelphian Society, Princeton, N.J.
  • 1925: Married Elsa Toennies
  • 1927: Attended Mansfield College, Oxford, England
  • 1928: Ordained to ministry, Throop Avenue Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, N.Y.
  • 1928 - 1965 : Full-time service and director, Oxford Group and Moral Re-armament; director, Oxford Group and Moral Re-armament
  • 1965, Oct. 30: Died, Atlanta, Ga.

Kenaston Twitchell

  • 1903, Apr. 8: Born, Brooklyn, N.Y.
  • 1924: B.A., Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
  • 1927: Married Marian Dominick Smith
  • 1929: Traveled to South Africa with the Oxford Group
  • circa 1930: M. A., Balliol College, Oxford University, Oxford, England
  • 1947: Convened meeting of Konrad Adenauer and other postwar German leaders, Caux, Switzerland
  • 1950: Traveled to Japan, where he brought the mayors of Nagasaki and Hiroshima and a later prime minister, Yasushiro Nakasone, to a Moral Re-Armament conference
  • 1973: Retired from Moral Re-armament
  • circa 1981: Published Regeneration in the Ruhr: The Unknown Story of a Decisive Answer to Communism in Postwar Europe. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press
  • 1988, Oct. 30: Died, Princeton, N.J.

Organizational History of Moral Re-armament

  • 1918: Houseparty strategy of conversion begun in China by Frank Nathan Daniel Buchman
  • 1921: Foundation laid for First Century Christian Fellowship and later the Oxford Group
  • 1925 - 1926 : "Buchmanism" investigated by Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
  • 1929: Oxford Group toured South Africa
  • 1931 - 1937 : Oxford Group teams sent to Scandinavia, Holland, Canada, the United States, and South America
  • 1933 - 1940 : Oxford Group supplement published in the New Witness
  • 1936: National Assembly, Stockbridge, Mass.
  • 1937: Rising Tide published
  • 1938: Campaign for Moral Re-armament begun at East Ham Town Hall, London, England World Assembly for Moral Re-armament, Interlaken, Switzerland
  • 1939: Moral Re-armament movement launched in the United States World Assembly for Moral Re-ReArmament, Monterey, Calif.
  • 1940: Peter Howard joined movement (died 1965)
  • 1941 - 1945 : “You Can Defend” America program
  • 1942: Premier of the movie, The Forgotten Factor
  • 1943 - 1945 : Controversy regarding Selective Service deferments for members of Moral Re-armament
  • 1946: First annual World Assembly for Moral Re-armament at Caux, Switzerland, headquarters New World News published
  • 1947: Purchase of Westminster Theatre, London, England
  • 1948: Production of the play, The Good Road in Germany World Conference for Moral Re-armament, Los Angeles, Calif.
  • 1949: The College of the Good Road organized
  • 1951: Assembly for the Reconstruction of Pacific Relations, Los Angeles, Calif. Production of the play An Idea Takes Wings Production of the play Jotham Valley
  • 1952: Assembly of the Americas, Miami, Fla.
  • 1953: Condemned by the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
  • 1954 - 1955 : Report on Moral Re-armament issued by the Church of England Social and Industrial Council
  • 1955: Production of the play Vanishing Island
  • 1955 - 1956 : Statesmen's missions to Europe and Asia
  • 1957: Production the plays Freedom and The Crowning Experience
  • 1961: Peter Howard assumed worldwide leadership of the movement Production of the play, The Tiger
  • 1963 - 1964 : Production of the play, Space Is So Startling
  • 1964: Production of the motion picture, Tomorrow's American
  • 1965: Up With People launched First of several yearly Up With People "Sing Outs" Founding of Mackinac College, Mackinac, Mich. Peter Howard died and no successor appointed; each country developed own leadership
  • 1970: All Moral Re-armament publications ceased
  • 1975: Up With People separates from Moral Re-armament
  • 1976: Moral Re-armament presents Buchman's Allentown, Pa., home to Lehigh County Historical Society, which opened it to the public
  • 1989: United States President George H. W. Bush commemorated MRA on its fiftieth anniversary International conference, Caux, Switzerland

From the guide to the Moral Re-armament Records, 1812-1991, (bulk 1873-1966), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Moral Re-Armament (Organization). Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1979. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Zimbabwe: Pressure Groups Material, 1953- Institute of Commonwealth Studies
creatorOf Moral Re-armament (Organization). Records of the Moral Re-armament, 1812-1991 (bulk 1873-1966). Library of Congress
creatorOf Byrd, Richard Evelyn, 1888-1957. Richard E. Byrd personal papers, 1882-1974. Ohio State University Libraries
referencedIn Forrest Coggan collection. State Archive of Michigan
referencedIn Ely, Albert H. (Albert Heman), 1894-1964. Albert Heman Ely, Jr. family papers, 1847-2007 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Moral Re-armament Records, 1812-1991, (bulk 1873-1966) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
creatorOf Moral Re-armament. [Minor publications] Yale University Library
referencedIn Albert Heman Ely, Jr. family papers, 1847-2011 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
correspondedWith Adenauer, Konrad, 1876-1967 person
associatedWith Bedford, Eugene. person
associatedWith Bedford, Janet. person
correspondedWith Blake, Howard Carson, 1904- person
associatedWith Buchman, Frank Nathan Daniel, 1878-1961. person
associatedWith Byrd, Richard Evelyn, 1888-1957. person
associatedWith Capper, Arthur, 1865-1951. person
correspondedWith Chiang, Kai-shek, 1887-1975 person
correspondedWith Chiang, May-ling Soong, 1897-2003 person
correspondedWith Cornell, Douglas person
correspondedWith Day, Sherwood E. person
associatedWith Du Maurier, Daphne, Dame, 1907-1989. person
correspondedWith Edison, Mina Miller, 1865-1947 person
correspondedWith Ely, Albert H. 1894-1964 person
associatedWith Ford, Clara Bryant, 1866-1950. person
correspondedWith Gandhi, Rajmohan person
associatedWith Hagedorn, Hermann, 1882-1964. person
correspondedWith Haines, Charles Henry, b. 1851 person
correspondedWith Hicks, William Cleveland, 1900-1944 person
associatedWith Hofmeyr, Bremer. person
correspondedWith Howard, Peter, 1908-1965 person
associatedWith Institute of Commonwealth Studies corporateBody
associatedWith Jung, C. G. 1875-1961. person
associatedWith Magsaysay, Ramon, 1907-1957. person
associatedWith Marcel, Gabriel, 1889-1973. person
correspondedWith Marie, Queen, consort of Ferdinand I, King of Romania, 1875-1938 person
correspondedWith Menzies, Ivan, b. 1896 person
associatedWith Mott, John R. 1865-1955. person
associatedWith Ngô, Đình Diệm, 1901-1963. person
associatedWith Oxford Group. corporateBody
associatedWith Oxford Group. corporateBody
associatedWith Princeton Theological Seminary. corporateBody
associatedWith Purdy, Elsa Toennies. person
associatedWith Purdy, Frederick H. person
associatedWith Purdy, Ray Foote person
associatedWith Purdy, Ray Foote, person
correspondedWith Riffe, John, 1904-1958 person
correspondedWith Roots, John McCook person
correspondedWith Schuman, Robert, 1886-1963 person
correspondedWith Shoemaker, Samuel M. 1893-1963 person
correspondedWith Smith, H. Alexander 1880-1966 person
correspondedWith Thant, U, 1909-1974 person
correspondedWith Tjader, Margaret T. 1864-1952 person
associatedWith Truman, Harry S., 1884-1972. person
associatedWith Twitchell, Kenaston. person
associatedWith Twitchell, Kenaston. Kenaston Twitchell papers. person
correspondedWith West, George Algernon, 1893-1980 person
associatedWith Wiley, Alexander, 1884-1967. person
correspondedWith Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands, 1880-1962 person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Spiritual life
Television scripts
World War, 1939-1945
Young Men's Christian associations
Families of royal descent
Families of royal descent
Moral re-armament
Moral re-armament
Moral re-armament
Moral re-armament
Motion picture plays
National socialism
Radio scripts

Corporate Body

Active 1882

Active 1974



Ark ID: w6hn003c

SNAC ID: 51560080