Spanish Refugee Aid (Organization)

Variant names

Hide Profile

Spanish Refugee Aid (SRA) was founded in 1953 to assist refugees of the Spanish Civil War who were then residing in France. Nancy Macdonald (1910-1996) was the leading figure in the founding of Spanish Refugee Aid and remained at the organization's helm until her retirement in 1983. SRA maintained an office in New York City and coordinated aid efforts in France from Paris, Toulouse and Montauban. Between 1953 and 2006 when SRA, by then a program of the International Rescue Committee, was dissolved, ...

From the description of Spanish Refugee Aid Records 1941-2006 (bulk 1953-1983). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 183096560

Spanish Refugee Aid (SRA) was founded in 1953 to assist refugees of the Spanish Civil War who were then residing in France. Nancy Macdonald (1910-1996) was the leading figure in the founding of Spanish Refugee Aid and remained at the organization's helm until her retirement in 1983. SRA maintained an office in New York City and coordinated aid efforts in France from Paris, Toulouse and Montauban. Between 1953 and 2006 when SRA, by then a program of the International Rescue Committee, was dissolved, over 5,500 refugees received aid from SRA.

With the defeat of Spain's Republican Army at the hands of Generalisimo Francisco Franco in 1939, five hundred thousand Spanish citizens, often with no more than the clothes on their backs, fled over the Pyrenees to seek asylum in France, which received more Spanish exiles than any other country. Upon arrival in France, most of the refugees were interned at St. Cyprien, Argeles-sur-Mer, Gurs, Barcares, Vernet d'Ariege and other overcrowded camps with few facilities. While a portion of the refugees returned to Spain, in spite of reprisals against Loyalists, and some were transferred to other countries, at least 350,000 refugees remained in France as 1939 drew to a close. As the Second World War loomed the situation of the interned refugees, already precarious, worsened. Tens of thousands of Spaniards were conscripted as laborers in the Groupement de Travailleurs Etrangers, and many were captured at Maginot when the Germans entered France. During the war some refugees joined the French resistance, including General de Gaulle's Free French army, while others joined the French Foreign Legion, most pledging loyalty to the Allies during the North African campaign. Thousands were sent to the Mauthausen concentration camp (where most died), and thousands more were put to work for the Organisation Todt in Nazi-occupied France. In all, an estimated forty-eight thousand Spaniards were sent to Germany -- to labor camps, to work in German industries, or as political prisoners in concentration camps -- and approximately a third died there.

After the war, the surviving Spaniards still in France were given the status of political refugees, and a majority eventually assimilated into the French workforce. The oldest and youngest refugees, as well as those disabled by disease, infirmity, or physical or mental trauma, however, were impoverished and ineligible to receive pensions from their work and military service in Spain. Of the approximately two hundred thousand Spanish refugees in France at the end of World War II, at least ten percent needed some form of assistance. Spanish Refugee Aid (SRA) was founded in 1953 to assist those refugees of the Spanish Civil War who still struggled in France long after the war had ended. Nancy Macdonald (1910-1996), the leading figure in establishing SRA, remained at the organization's helm until her retirement in 1983.

Nancy Gardiner Rodman Macdonald was born into an affluent New York City family. After some years in the care of a Swiss governess, she attended the private Brearley School. A family trust fund long provided her with a financial safety net. Inherited along with the family's trappings of wealth and privilege, however, was the notion that charitable work was mandatory. Macdonald's maternal grandmother, Sarah Van Nostrand Marvin, who volunteered for over thirty years at the Henry Street Settlement House, set a pattern of hands-on philanthropy that would be followed through the generations. Even as a child, Macdonald was expected to assist those less fortunate than herself, by "adopting" orphans of World War I, or by visiting the poorer parishioners of Madison Avenue Presbyterian, her family's church.

In 1934 Nancy Rodman, by then a graduate of Vassar College, married Dwight Macdonald (1906-1982), a graduate of Yale and writer for Fortune Magazine . They would have two children, Michael born in 1938 and Nicholas in 1944, before divorcing in the early 1950s. Although the mores of her day often kept married women and mothers from working outside the home, Nancy Macdonald maintained a career and was active in committee work. Indeed work, politics and committee obligations were a family affair in the Macdonald household.

Already favoring a libertarian orientation and dedicated to social causes, Nancy Macdonald became increasingly politicized throughout the 1930s. In New York, she attended meetings for a variety of Popular Front causes, often accompanied by Dwight, whose nascent critical and political philosophy developed more concrete form during this period. When Dwight Macdonald left Fortune Magazine in 1937 to become an editor of the Partisan Review ( PR ), an independent political and literary magazine, Nancy Macdonald became the business manager of PR . The couple joined the Socialist Workers Party, a Trotskyist group with an anti-war stance, in 1939, and then joined with the minority faction that split off to form the Workers Party in 1940. Nancy Macdonald served as executive secretary of the group's Committee of Emergency Aid to Refugees, her first foray into organized refugee aid. When both Macdonalds left the Workers Party in 1941, Nancy took the refugee committee with her. She was also active in PR 's Fund for European Writers and Artists in the early 1940s and ran its operation out of her home. In 1943 she added the Lynn Committee to Abolish Segregation in the Armed Forces to her roster of committee work.

In 1944 Nancy again followed Dwight when he founded the journal Politics, once again in the position of business manager. Politics served as Dwight Macdonald's vehicle for independent expression of his idiosyncratic political views, as well as those of a close circle of writers and intellectuals who contributed to the magazine. As World War II ended, Politics ' European writers and contacts told the Macdonalds of refugees across Europe in need of money, food, clothing, and medicine. In response, the Macdonalds organized Politics ' Packages Abroad (PPA). Much like the relief committee they had established at PR, PPA sent packages of food and clothing, provided limited financial aid, and lent moral support to a handful of refugees, mainly anarchist and socialist activists as well as like-minded writers and intellectuals, throughout Europe. Among the recipients of aid from PPA were many Spanish refugees.

Nancy Macdonald's first contact with Spanish refugees began with her involvement in PPA, but she had long been interested in Spain and the plight of those who fled Spain at the end of the Spanish Civil War. During the Civil War Macdonald, like any self-respecting leftist of the time, attended rallies in support of the Spanish Loyalists and took an avid interest in their cause. Macdonald's interest in Spain, however, preceded the political upheavals. She had made several lengthy trips to Spain before the outbreak of Civil War, having visited the country first in 1932 after her graduation from Vassar, and again the following year on a trip to Europe with her mother. Finally, she and Dwight Macdonald had visited Spain in 1935.

When Dwight Macdonald's journal, Politics, unraveled in 1951--and with it PPA--Nancy Macdonald took a position with the International Rescue Committee (IRC), where she continued the refugee aid work she had initiated more than a decade before as a member of the Workers Party. While at the IRC she began to focus specifically on Spanish refugees, even as the IRC turned its attention increasingly to refugees from Eastern Europe. Within a year, due to lack of funding, Macdonald lost her job with the IRC, but somehow she could not give up on the Spanish refugees. In the summer of 1952 she made a four-month-long exploratory trip to Europe to meet Spanish refugees and to assess their needs. She also began a lengthy correspondence with domestic and international contacts to discuss the feasibility of forming a committee solely to assist Spanish refugees living in France. She returned from Europe with 101 IRC case files and immediately began to organize a committee.

The timing was right for the founding of SRA. The Macdonalds' marriage had ended, the Spanish refugees were competing with a host of causes and refugee groups for the world's attention, and Nancy Macdonald was out of a job. Macdonald's heritage of philanthropy, her experience with committee work, her contacts in activist and political circles, her interest in Spain, combined with her compassion and willingness to do what ever needed to be done to complete a task, all converged in the creation of Spanish Refugee Aid.

By January of 1953, SRA was incorporated to: "improve the health and social conditions and alleviate the human suffering and distress of Spanish non-communist refugees presently residing in France by their physical and mental betterment, by the development of plans for their education and establishment of centers for social services…" SRA's certificate of incorporation was signed by James T. Farrell, Mary McCarthy, Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Norman Thomas and George Shuster. Many of SRA's earliest supporters, including McCarthy, Hannah Arendt, and Albert Camus, were American and European intellectuals and writers well known to the Macdonalds through their work with Politics and other political engagements. The novelist James T. Farrell, for example, had also served as honorary chairman of the Workers Party refugee committee that Nancy McDonald had organized. SRA's office, at 45 Astor Place, was in the same building where Partisan Review, Politics, and PPA had also operated.

Within six months after its incorporation, SRA had case files on 561 refugee families or individuals and had raised over seven thousand dollars for their aid. Over the next few decades SRA handled the cases of over 5,500 Spanish refugees through its New York office and French offices in Paris, Montauban and Toulouse. Along with aid in the form of food, clothing and cash allowances, SRA arranged medical and dental care, and supplied refugees with sewing machines, typewriters, tools and radios. SRA established scholarship funds, acted as a clearinghouse to provide refugees with information and connections to other aid or governmental agencies, and also set up "adoptions" between Americans and refugees in an effort to sustain both the refugees' financial well-being and their morale.

While the files do not contain complete demographic information on every refugee, a majority record the refugee's place of birth, birth date, occupation in Spain, and wartime role. The refugees aided by SRA originated from all parts of Spain, with the largest groups coming from Catalonia, Andalusia, and Aragon. More than half the refugees on SRA's rolls were over the age of fifty, as these were the people least able to assimilate into the French workforce; most were in poor health due to the effects of illnesses such as tuberculosis, which many of the refugees contracted while at St. Cyprien, Argeles, and other internment camps in France. The refugees included men and women, both single and in couples, as well as their children, but the majority of primary clients were men. Many were active participants in the Spanish Civil War as Republican soldiers or workers and fled Spain to avoid reprisals by the Franco regime against Loyalists. Others had been largely uninvolved in the war and left Spain when their homes were destroyed or occupied. A significant number of the refugees were members of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), the Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista (POUM), and the Union General de Trabajadores (UGT). Most of the refugees had fled Spain at the end of the Civil War; a small number came to France later after being imprisoned in Spain. While SRA focused primarily on the refugees living in France, it also helped a small number of Spanish refugees living in other countries, the majority in Morocco, Belgium, and Algeria.

The work of SRA was facilitated greatly by organizations, committees and individuals in the United States and Europe. The IRC, based in New York, in addition to handing over the first one hundred cases to SRA, shipped packages of clothing to France gratis, donated food to be distributed among the refugees, made financial contributions and for many years lent the aid of their accountant, Wille Werner, to the SRA. Likewise, Hanne Benzion, head of the IRC in France, made referrals to and worked closely with the SRA.

Two committees, the Aide aux Refugies Espagnoles (ARE) of Switzerland and the Deutsche Komitee zur Hilfe fur Spanische Democratische Fluchtlinger of Germany, were set up specifically to assist the efforts of SRA. ARE was founded in 1956 by Dan and Elizabeth Gallin and the German refugees Henry and Frieda Jacoby. Peter Blachstein and Rose Froelich were the founders of the Deutsche Komitee, which assisted SRA from 1954-1984. SRA also received much assistance, beginning in 1963 and through 1981, from Individuell Manniskohjalp (IM), a Swedish aid organization. Siv Follin, a social worker with IM, spent half of every year in France distributing aid and visiting refugees. IM also provided scholarships to Spanish refugees.

Although Macdonald was unsuccessful in setting up a committee in Great Britain to assist SRA, she did receive assistance for many years from individual British citizens including Chloe Vulliamy, who had sheltered Basque children during the Spanish Civil War and World War II and, in 1961, spent several nights in a Spanish jail after attempting to distribute money to families of Spanish political prisoners. From 1967 to 1973 Vulliamy regularly visited Spanish refugees in remote parts of France and reported to SRA on their well-being. Others in England, including John McNair (secretary of the Independent Labor Party), Sonia Orwell (George Orwell's widow), and Stephen Spender (poet and novelist), assisted SRA by introducing Macdonald to aid agencies and serving as sponsors. Two English organizations, the Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (OXFAM) and Aid to European Refugees (AER), contributed to SRA's work.

Political and labor groups and veterans' organizations also worked with SRA by referring members in need of assistance. SRA's first one hundred cases had been referred to the IRC by the Liga de Mutilados e Invalidos de la Guerra de España / Ligue de Mutilés et Invalides de la Guerre d'Espagne en Exil (LM, a veterans' aid organization), Solidaridad Democratica Espanola (SDE, the solidarity committee of the Spanish Socialists), Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista (SIA, an anarcho-syndicalist group), and Solidaridad Socialista (SS, part of POUM). These organizations, which together represented thousands of members in France, eventually referred over 1,700 cases to SRA. With these initial cases a pattern was set of accepting refugees based primarily on the recommendation of a trusted organization or individual. A mixture of other groups--government, relief, and political--also submitted names for SRA's rolls, including: CNT, UGT, Agrupacio Catalana, Agrupo Republicana Española, Aumonerie des Etrangers Protestants, the Basque Delegation, Croix Rouge, Federación Espanola de Enfermos Cronicos e Invalidos, Service Sociale d'Aide aux Emigrant (SSAE), Solidaridad Confederal, the Pablo Casals Foundation, and the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Morocco. Julio Just, the Interior Minister of the Spanish Republican Government-in-Exile, referred dozens of cases to SRA. José Rodes, a POUM member who had been mayor of Lerida during the Spanish Civil War, was, in exile, serving as head of the Spanish section of the IRC's Paris office, and also referred a number of cases to SRA. A majority of cases were referred by SRA's staff in France, who met refugees in need as they traveled throughout the country visiting areas where large numbers of Spaniards resided.

The work of SRA in France was carried on from offices in Paris and Toulouse, and from the Pablo Casals Foyer in Montauban. The Paris office had difficulty initially in sustaining a permanent staff. Francine Camus (wife of Albert Camus), Miriam Chiaromonte (wife of Italian journalist Nicola Chiaromonte) and Cleta Mayer (wife of Daniel Mayer, a prominent French socialist and member of the resistance) were among those who briefly ran the Paris office. Not until 1960, when Suzanne Chatelet left Perpignan to head SRA's office in Paris, did that branch of SRA become fully functioning; she ran the Paris office until her death in 1973. Chatelet's companion, Francois Olivé, was the bookkeeper for the Paris office. Olivé had been a trade union organizer and POUM member in Tarrasa and was helped by PPA after he fled Spain. Olivé and Chatelet were among Nancy Macdonald's earliest connections to the Spanish refugees. After Chatelet's death, Odette Ester (wife of José Ester Borras, a CNT militant and participant in the French resistance who served as secretary general of the Federación Española de Deportados e Internados Politicos ), Ramón Alvarez (a leader in the Spanish anarcho-syndicalist movement and CNT member in Spain and in exile), and Mathilde Droulin maintained the Paris office for various periods until it was closed in 1978.

In 1957, with Anne Marie Berta as its representative, SRA opened an office in Toulouse. Berta was a native of Catalonia who had lived in France since childhood and before joining SRA presided over the Toulouse branch of Croix Rouge Espanole . Jacques Vive, a Spanish refugee and secretary of Solidaridad Internacional Antifascista, joined the Toulouse staff of SRA. Maria Batet, also a Spanish refugee, an anarchist and CNT staff member in Toulouse, continued the work of Berta and Vive after they retired. When Batet grew too old to manage the office, Antoinette Caparros took her place.

SRA established Foyer Pablo Casals, a center for elderly Spanish refugees in Montauban, France, in 1961. The Foyer was named for famed cellist Pablo Caslas, a native of Catalonia, who served as SRA's honorary chairman from its inception. Casals had made an international appeal for the Spanish Republicans during the Spanish Civil War, and after their defeat, vowed never to return to his native country. Montauban was the city where Nancy Macdonald had seen the greatest need among refugees in her exploratory trips there in 1952. By 1960, there were still over a thousand Spanish refugee families living in and around Montauban, many having been there since the end of the Spanish Civil War. The Foyer provided a clean, warm place for relaxation and fellowship, and was SRA's distribution point for packages of food and clothing and monetary aid. Teresa Palacios, who had formerly worked for an office of the Croix Rouge Espanole in Montauban, ran the Foyer with her husband Manuel. The Palacios were natives of Madrid, where they had worked for a Republican government office; in France, Manuel Palacios had helped organize the Spanish Socialist Party-in-exile in Montauban and Toulouse. The work of the Foyer continued until 1983.

From 1984 until 2006 when it was disbanded, SRA, with Margaret Childers as director, operated as a program of the International Rescue Committee. Childers, daughter of former Irish President Erskine Hamilton Childers, immigrated to the United States in 1960 and worked for the Ford Foundation. Fluent in French, she joined the SRA staff in 1973. Before becoming director in 1984, Childers coordinated SRA's adoption and scholarship programs. From this point on, SRA maintained a French office only in Toulouse. Aid was distributed by Antoinette Caparros, based in Toulouse, and Childers on her annual trips to Spain. SRA continued to work closely during this time period with French social service agencies, especially SSAE and Amigos de los Refugiados Espanoles (AARE), a Spanish committee based in Madrid that was established in 1984 to aid exiles remaining in France.

The death of Franco in 1975 and the transition of Spain to a parliamentary monarchy raised hopes that the estimated 40,000 Spanish refugees still in France could return to their native country. While many took advantage of the amnesty to return to Spain, others were too old or ill to relocate, especially if they had no family members residing in Spain. Though the Spanish government agreed in 1976 to provide pensions for disabled Republican veterans, it was often difficult in practice to obtain the pensions. In addition, Spain's widespread poverty, high unemployment rate, and large population over the age of 65 made it difficult to care for an influx of aging refugees. Although France revoked their political refugee status in the late 1970s, the refugees continued to receive basic social service--including health benefits, social security, housing subsidies, and household help--from the French government. These factors led many refugees to choose to remain in France. As a result, SRA continued to aid refugees as long as they lived in France, providing moral support in the form of packages and visits, assistance in navigating France's social service system, and supplemental financial support. In 2006, when the SRA closed, it had less than one hundred individuals remaining on its aid roster. The IRC assumed responsibility for these cases.

Although SRA received money over the years from foundations and individual bequests, the vast majority of its contributions were from individual donors. At its peak, SRA received contributions from thirteen thousand individuals whose average donation was ten dollars. In addition to its regular appeal letters and annual reports to donors, SRA occasionally sent special appeals signed by prominent sponsors of SRA, including Pablo and Marta Casals, Salvador de Madariaga and Mary McCarthy. Fundraising benefits such as parties, concerts and especially art sales also enriched SRA's coffers. The most important contributor to the art sale phenomenon was Alexander Calder. Calder made his first contribution to SRA, a monetary one, in 1954, but over the years he donated prints and sets of lithographs. By the time of his death in 1977, SRA had received half a million dollars from the sale of Calder's donated prints. Louise Crane, publisher of Iberica magazine, was one of SRA's earliest and most sustained major donors; some of her contributions to SRA helped sustain the work of the Ligue de Mutiles in France. Margaret De Silver (wife of Albert De Silver, a founder of the American Civil Liberties Union, and later of the Italian anarchist Carlo Tresca), served as SRA's treasurer and was also a regular contributor.

SRA personalized the aid that Spanish refugees received through a program of "adoptions." Donors were matched with a particular refugee or family. They were encouraged to correspond with their "adoptees" and to send packages of food or clothing as well as provide financial assistance in quarterly payments. SRA served as a clearing house, translating the letters between adopters and refugees to and from Spanish, and ensuring that payments were made regularly to the adopted refugees.

In addition to its staff in France and New York, SRA was supported by both a board of directors and a group of sponsors. Prior to its merger with IRC, SRA had five chairpersons: Hannah Arendt, James T. Farrell, Dwight Macdonald, Nancy Macdonald, and Mary McCarthy. Alexander Calder, Luisa Calder, General Lazaro Cardenas, Pablo Casals, Marta Casals Istomin, and Salvador de Madariaga served as honorary chairpersons. SRA's sponsors included Roger Baldwin, Herman Badillo, John T. Bernard, Hans Bethe, Claude G. Bowers, Fenner Brockway, Albert Camus, Noam Chomsky, Dorothy Day, Jesus de Galindez, Waldo Frank, Erich Fromm, Michael Harrington, Lillian Hellman, Irving Howe, Christopher Isherwood, Alfred Kazin, James Loeb Jr., Robert Lowell, Allard K. Lowenstein, Juan Marichal, A. Phillip Randolph, Victor G. Reuther, Arthur Schlesinger Jr., Adelaide Schulkind, Ramón Sender, José Luis Sert, Ignazio Silone, Norman Thomas, and George Woodcock.

From its inception, SRA reflected Macdonald's anti-communist bias. Although SRA's incorporation papers did not expressly prohibit assisting communist refugees, they did state the organization's intention to help "non-communist refugees." SRA did help individual refugees who were communists, but it concentrated on non-communists and did not work with any political or relief agencies perceived to be communist-affiliated. This anti-communist position dated to Nancy and Dwight Macdonald's Trotskyist activism in the late 1930s and to their earliest refugee aid work in 1940 on behalf of Victor Serge, a Belgian-born anarchist and former staff member of the Communist International who was accused of leading a Trotskyist conspiracy and imprisoned in Russia in 1933. Released and living in France in 1940, Serge, who had written for PR, contacted the Macdonalds for assistance as he tried to flee Nazi-occupied France. Several of PPA's cases were referred by Serge, establishing a pattern of focusing on anarchist and socialist refugees.

When Macdonald was coordinating relief for the handful of Spanish refugees on PPA's aid roster, she asked Erma Arnstein, a supporter of PPA and resident of San Francisco, to research the Spanish Refugee Appeal (part of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee) in Berkeley. Macdonald did not wish to ask the Spanish Refugee Appeal for support if it was a "Stalinist organization." (The Macdonald-Arnstein correspondence can be found in the Case Files, PPA 46, Lorenzo.) In addition, the Appeal's work was increasingly hampered by the House Un-American Activities Committee's ongoing investigations of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee. Macdonald concluded that a new organization was needed to focus specifically on non-communist refugees, whom she feared were being neglected by existing organizations. Throughout her years at SRA, Macdonald was particularly sympathetic to Spanish anarcho-syndicalists and former members of the POUM, a small revolutionary party opposed to the Popular Front, most of whose members were Catalans.

Decisions about whether to aid Communist refugees or whether SRA should accept any affiliation with individuals or groups who were even rumored to have connections with communism kept the board of SRA busy until the early 1980s. In particular, debates over whether to keep as sponsors Waldo Frank and Lillian Hellman, both believed to remain close to the Communist Party in the 1960s and 1970s, divided the SRA board. Gabriel Javsicas, an anarchist and SRA sponsor, and Mary McCarthy, who feuded with Hellman in the late 1970s, both opposed Hellman's involvement in SRA.

Although it is evident that the needs of the Spanish refugees were always paramount to Nancy Macdonald and to the staff and supporters of SRA, the SRA records are more than simply a source of information on the distribution of aid and on the fates of individual Spanish Civil War refugees and their families. The political allegiances and activism of those involved with SRA, and of Nancy Macdonald in particular, are clearly reflected in much of the SRA correspondence and other documents. Macdonald's correspondence with prominent trade union leaders, social critics, and political activists documents SRA's connections to leftwing and radical individuals and organizations in the United States and Europe.

Sources

International Rescue Committee. "Spanish Refugee Aid." http://www.theirc.org/media/overviews/spanish_refugee_aid.html. (15 Aug 2006) Macdonald, Dwight. The Memoirs of a Revolutionist. New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1957. Macdonald, Nancy. Homage to the Spanish Exiles: Voices from the Spanish Civil War. New York: Human Sciences Press, Inc., 1987. "Outside, Inside." TimeJune 19, 1939. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,761503-1,00.html (20 Aug 2007) Républicains espagnols en Midi-Pyrénées: Exil, Histoire et Memoire. Presses Universitaires du Mirail. Toulouse. 2004. Sumner, Gregory D. Dwight Macdonald and the politics Circle. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996. Wreszin, Michael. A Rebel In Defense of Tradition: The Life and Politics of Dwight Macdonald. New York: Basic Books, 1968.

From the guide to the Spanish Refugee Aid Records, Bulk, 1953-1983, 1941-2006, (Bulk 1953-1983), (Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archive)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn McCarthy, Mary, 1912-1989. Mary McCarthy papers 1925-1990 (bulk 1960-1989). Vassar College
referencedIn Milton, Harry. Spanish Civil War material, 1937-1989. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Constant, George. George Constant papers, 1912-2007, bulk 1932-1978. Archives of American Art
creatorOf Spanish Refugee Aid. Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1940-1968, n.d. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn McCarthy, Mary, 1912-1989. Letter : Paris, to Nancy Macdonald, New York, NY, 1964 March 16. University of California, San Diego, UC San Diego Library; UCSD Library
referencedIn Bluestein, Abe. Abe and Selma Bluestein papers, 1930-1991. University of Michigan
referencedIn Camus, Albert, 1913-1960. Letter, 1959 Dec. 31, to Mr. Charles B. Smith, Los Gatos (Calif.). Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Spanish Refugee Aid (Organization). Spanish Refugee Aid Records 1941-2006 (bulk 1953-1983). Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
referencedIn George Constant papers, 1912-2007, bulk 1932-1978 Archives of American Art
creatorOf Camus, Albert, 1913-1960. Correspondence : with Marian Anderson, 1958. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Constant, George. George Constant papers, 1912-2007, bulk 1932-1978. Archives of American Art
creatorOf Spanish Refugee Aid Records, Bulk, 1953-1983, 1941-2006, (Bulk 1953-1983) Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Abad Abad, Emilio person
associatedWith Abad Alastruey, Lorenzo person
associatedWith Abad Conesa, Manuela (née Magallon) person
associatedWith Abad Conesa, Raimundo person
associatedWith Abad, Francisca (née Castedo) person
associatedWith Abad Gutierrez, Mario person
associatedWith Abad Hiraldo, J-Luis person
associatedWith Abadia Barrechi, Mariano person
associatedWith Abadia, Filomena (née Rueda) person
associatedWith Abadia, Juan person
associatedWith Abad, Maria person
associatedWith Abad Urruzino, Ignacio person
associatedWith Abella, Balbina (née Sebastia-Marin) person
associatedWith Abella Murt, José person
associatedWith Abellan, Hermenegilda (née Vicente) person
associatedWith Abella Pla, Mario person
associatedWith Abenia Abenia, Esteban person
associatedWith Abenia, Pilar (née Alonso Usón) person
associatedWith Abril, Carmen (née Borras Valls) person
associatedWith Abril Senent, Juan-Antonio person
associatedWith Abril Suarez, Tomas person
associatedWith Aceituno, Felix person
associatedWith Aceituno, Saturnino person
associatedWith Acerete, Rosario (née Arpal) person
associatedWith Acero Cofré, Ruperto person
associatedWith Acero, Pedro person
associatedWith Achotegui Larrea, Narciso person
associatedWith Acitores, Luis person
associatedWith Acitores Ruiz, Louis person
associatedWith Aclubilla Blanco, Julio person
associatedWith Acon Laguna, Victoriano person
associatedWith Acon, Purificacion (née Sebastian) person
associatedWith Acosta, Andres person
associatedWith Acosta, Joseph person
associatedWith Adam, Maria (née Sancliment) person
associatedWith Adam, Maurice Francois person
associatedWith Adam Vilella, Lorenzo person
associatedWith Adell Flos, Rafael person
associatedWith Adrian Trenas, Angel person
associatedWith Adria, Rosa (née Borras-Carreras) person
associatedWith Agraz Mayral, Joaquin person
associatedWith Aguade, Antonia (née Marca) person
associatedWith Aguado, Madeleine (née Lafforit) person
associatedWith Aguado Perez, José person
associatedWith Aguado Valientes, Pablo person
associatedWith Agudo Cano, Nemesio person
associatedWith Agudo Delabar, Angel person
associatedWith Agudo, Francisco person
associatedWith Agudo, Pedro person
associatedWith Aguera, Antonio person
associatedWith Agui Ayllon, Julio person
associatedWith Aguilar Albert, Esteban person
associatedWith Aguilar Albert, Miguel person
associatedWith Aguilar Briones, José person
associatedWith Aguilar, Dolores (née Morata) person
associatedWith Aguilar Escala, José person
associatedWith Aguilar, Francisco person
associatedWith Aguilar Lopez, Juan person
associatedWith Aguilar Meseguer, Sylvestre person
associatedWith Aguilar, Rosa (née Regalado) person
associatedWith Aguilar, Teofila (née Cadeua) person
associatedWith Aguilera, Maria (née Sanchez) person
associatedWith Aguilera Vizcaino, Joseph person
associatedWith Aguilo Giol, Juan person
associatedWith Aguilo Muntaner, Camilio person
associatedWith Aguion Chaves, José person
associatedWith Aguirre Herrera, J? José person
associatedWith Aguirre Sainz, Gregorio person
associatedWith Agullo de la Escosura, Francisco person
associatedWith Agullo, José person
associatedWith Agullo Sempere, Manuel person
associatedWith Agusti Gebelli, Ventura person
associatedWith Agustín, María person
associatedWith Agustin, Ramon person
associatedWith Aid to European Refugees. corporateBody
associatedWith Aisa Ezquerra, Luis person
associatedWith Aissa Marco, Angel person
associatedWith Aja Baratey, Juan person
associatedWith Ajenjo Reyes, Salvador person
associatedWith Ajuria Pascual, Lorenzo person
associatedWith Alabart Bargallo, José person
associatedWith Alaiz y Pablo, Felipe person
associatedWith Alanes, Antonio person
associatedWith Alanes, Francesca person
associatedWith Alarcon, Juliana (née Parra) person
associatedWith Alarcon Munos, Antonio person
associatedWith Alarcon Sanchez, Antonio person
associatedWith Albacenol, Francisco person
associatedWith Albaladejo Garcia, Francisco person
associatedWith Alba, Maria (née Perez) person
associatedWith Albarca Soriano, Luis person
associatedWith Albareda, Dolores person
associatedWith Albeilan, Blanes person
associatedWith Alberich, Ramona (née Valle) person
associatedWith Alberich, Vicente person
associatedWith Albero Cidraque, Ignacio person
associatedWith Alberola Catala, Isidore person
associatedWith Albert, Emilia (née Mosquera) person
associatedWith Albert, Francisco person
associatedWith Albert, Victoria (née Vicente) person
associatedWith Albesa Foz, Emilio person
associatedWith Albiol Sanchez, Tomas person
associatedWith Albo Bellicrosa, Jose person
associatedWith Albo, Catalina (née Calleja) person
associatedWith Albo Cuesta, Pablo person
associatedWith Albos Franci, Juan person
associatedWith Alcacer Sales, Vicente person
associatedWith Alcaide, Maria person
associatedWith Alcaide Rodriguez, Domingo person
associatedWith Alcaina, Gaetan person
associatedWith Alcaina Grau, Manuel person
associatedWith Alcala Bolos, Gregorio person
associatedWith Alcalde Dominguez, Gregorio person
associatedWith Alcalde Fernandez, Juan person
associatedWith Alcalde Garcia, Rosendo person
associatedWith Alcaraz Amoros, Elie person
associatedWith Alcaraz Salas, Antonio (I) person
associatedWith Alcaraz Salas, Antonio (II) person
associatedWith Alcarez, Ascension person
associatedWith Alcarez, Juan person
associatedWith Alcarez, Nemesio person
associatedWith Alcazar Escamillo, Antonio person
associatedWith Alcazar Gallego, Nemesio person
associatedWith Alcazar, Isabel (Viuda de Cobacho) person
associatedWith Alcazar Navia, Alvaro person
associatedWith Alcazar Terrero, Cruz person
associatedWith Alcobendas Magan, Valentin person
associatedWith Alcobendas, Victoria (née Fuentes) person
associatedWith Alconchel Fleta, German person
associatedWith Alcoverro Oriol, Salvador person
associatedWith Alcubilla Blanco, Maria person
associatedWith Aldama Lopez, Ramon person
associatedWith Aldama, Polanco (née Perez) person
associatedWith Aldaren Perez, Candido person
associatedWith Aldave Garcia de Medrano, Elias person
associatedWith Aldea del Val, Santiago person
associatedWith Aldecoa, Maria Isabel person
associatedWith Alegre Bara, Maria person
associatedWith Alegre, Emile person
associatedWith Aler, Justo person
associatedWith Alerm Pomares, Blaise person
associatedWith Ales Diaz, Andres person
associatedWith Ales Diaz, Andres (I) person
associatedWith Ales Diaz, Andres (II) person
associatedWith Alesina Moreno, Blas person
associatedWith Alferez, Carmen (née Alcaraz Salvador) person
associatedWith Alfonso Antunez, Julian person
associatedWith Alfonso Castaner, Ramon person
associatedWith Alfonso, Leandra (née Poveda) person
associatedWith Alfonso Valle, José person
associatedWith Alfos, Antonio person
associatedWith Alfos, Melchor person
associatedWith Aliacar Garralaga, German person
associatedWith Alias Pino, Juan José person
associatedWith Alias Pino, Maria person
associatedWith Alierto Pardinas, Ponciano person
associatedWith Alloza-Quilez, Pascual person
associatedWith Alloza Sese, Luis person
associatedWith Allue, Carmen (née Escartin) person
associatedWith Allue Escartin, Enrique person
associatedWith Allueva Martin, Inocencio person
associatedWith Almaden Rodriguez, Cecilia (née Orgaz) person
associatedWith Almaden Rodriguez, Rafael person
associatedWith Almazor Cascara, Santiago person
associatedWith Almela, Juan person
associatedWith Almellones Ramirez, Francisco person
associatedWith Almellones Serrano, Antonio person
associatedWith Almohalla, Maria (née Lopez) person
associatedWith Almohalla Ramos, Diego person
associatedWith Almunia Gombau, Salvador person
associatedWith Alonso Alonso, Andrea (Viuda de Perodia) person
associatedWith Alonso Alonso, Ponciano person
associatedWith Alonso, Angel person
associatedWith Alonso Belmonte, Diego person
associatedWith Alonso, Benitez person
associatedWith Alonso Checa, Nicholas person
associatedWith Alonso Checa, Raimunda person
associatedWith Alonso Chinchilla, Nicolas person
associatedWith Alonso Egio, José person
associatedWith Alonso, Emilia (née Carrion) person
associatedWith Alonso, Encarnacion (née Lopez) person
associatedWith Alonso Fernandez, Damaso person
associatedWith Alonso, Francisco person
associatedWith Alonso Gomez, José person
associatedWith Alonso, Guillaime person
associatedWith Alonso Noval, Belarmina person
associatedWith Alonso Perez, Julia person
associatedWith Alonso, Ramona person
associatedWith Alonso Requena, Anastasio person
associatedWith Alonso Requena, Sagrario person
associatedWith Alonso Revilla, Juan person
associatedWith Alonso Rodriguez, José person
associatedWith Alonso, Rosa (née Gutierrez) person
associatedWith Alonso, Salvador person
associatedWith Alonso Sanchez, Santiago person
associatedWith Alonzo Polo, José person
associatedWith Alos, Daniel person
associatedWith Alot Gonzalez, Pédro person
associatedWith Alsina, Alberto person
associatedWith Alsina Vilartimo, Antonio person
associatedWith Altafulla Masgrau, Ignacio person
associatedWith Alted Palomares, Francisco person
associatedWith Altes Sune, Gregorio person
associatedWith Altes Sune, Magdalena person
associatedWith Altimiras, José person
associatedWith Altisen Alcadia, José person
associatedWith Alujas Huguet, Ramon person
associatedWith Alujas, Ramon person
associatedWith Alvares, Celestino person
associatedWith Alvares, Josefina person
associatedWith Alvarez, Amelia (née Faya) person
associatedWith Alvarez, Basilisa (née Martinez) person
associatedWith Alvarez Carrocera, Araceli person
associatedWith Alvarez Chamorro, Teresa person
associatedWith Alvarez Coque, Juan person
associatedWith Alvarez Cota, Manuel person
associatedWith Alvarez de Escobedo, Gloria person
associatedWith Alvarez de la Rosa, Joaquin person
associatedWith Alvarez, Fernando person
associatedWith Alvarez, Francisca person
associatedWith Alvarez Garcia, Antonio person
associatedWith Alvarez Garcia, Celestino person
associatedWith Alvarez Garcia, Pauline person
associatedWith Alvarez Garcia, Paulino person
associatedWith Alvarez Garcia, Pedro person
associatedWith Alvarez, José person
associatedWith Alvarez, Julia (née Cebollada) person
associatedWith Alvarez Lecina, Julian person
associatedWith Alvarez, Manuel person
associatedWith Alvarez Manzano, Justo person
associatedWith Alvarez Martin, Severino person
associatedWith Alvarez Menendes, Cesar person
associatedWith Alvarez Montenegro, Teodosio person
associatedWith Alvarez-Moreno, José person
associatedWith Alvarez Palomo, Ramón 1913-2003. person
associatedWith Alvarez Pastor, Julio person
associatedWith Alvarez Perez, Euristeo person
associatedWith Alvarez Riveira, Antonio person
associatedWith Alvarez Rodriguez, Agustin person
associatedWith Alvarez Solis, José person
associatedWith Alvarez Suarez, Ovidio person
associatedWith Alvarez Torres, Gilberto person
associatedWith Amado, Rémédios person
associatedWith Amadoz Fernandez, Pedro person
associatedWith Amalia, Bautista person
associatedWith Amancio, Bernardo person
associatedWith Amargos, Joaquin person
associatedWith Amat Comas, Antonio person
associatedWith Amate Romero, Salvador person
associatedWith Amat Gonzalez, José person
associatedWith Amat Santos, Pedro person
associatedWith Amat Tabores, Gabriel person
associatedWith Amaya, Andrea (née Carro) person
associatedWith Amenos Gabarro, Angel person
associatedWith Amigo Estrada, Francisca person
associatedWith Amigo Estrada, Manuel person
associatedWith Amigo Estrada, Teodoro person
associatedWith Amigo Martin, Rafael person
associatedWith Amigos de los Refugiados Espanoles. corporateBody
associatedWith Amigo, Teresa (née Ramon) person
associatedWith Amissent, Jean person
associatedWith Amoros Yniguez, Antonio person
associatedWith Amo Sanz, Francisco person
associatedWith Amutio Castrilio, Tomas person
associatedWith Amutio Castrillo, Teodora person
associatedWith Amutio Tuya, Carlos person
associatedWith Andraca Asensio, Higinio person
associatedWith Andraca, Dolores (née Rebenal) person
associatedWith Andra Corbi, Agapito person
associatedWith Andrada, Esperanza (née Lopez) person
associatedWith Andrada Gayosa, Luis person
associatedWith Andrade, Juan 1897-1981. person
associatedWith Andrade, Maria Teresa. person
associatedWith Andrade, Maria Theresa person
associatedWith Andrade Tablero, Juan person
associatedWith Andres Alcazar, Tomas person
associatedWith Andrès Castillo, Julian person
associatedWith Andres Fernandez, Francisco person
associatedWith Andres Folgado, Vicente person
associatedWith Andres, Ignacio person
associatedWith Andres Lazaro, Simon person
associatedWith Andres, Pascual person
associatedWith Andres Piquer, Fernando person
associatedWith Andres, Victoria (née Garcia) person
associatedWith Androher, Livorio person
associatedWith Andujar Lopez Montero, Pedro person
associatedWith Anfruns Margarit, Casimiro person
associatedWith Angel Martinez, José person
associatedWith Angel Soler, Mariano person
associatedWith Anglada Fortuny, Anita person
associatedWith Anglada Juanola, Juan person
associatedWith Angles Hernandez, Francisco person
associatedWith Angles Monroig, Vicente person
associatedWith Angordans Homs, Antonio person
associatedWith Angosto Laplana, Isabel person
associatedWith Anguera Badell, Teodora person
associatedWith Angulo Fernandez, Aurelio person
associatedWith Anicet, Vicens person
associatedWith Anido Ruiz, Alfredo person
associatedWith Aniesa Alconchel, Eusebio person
associatedWith Anoro Degracia, Juan person
associatedWith Anoro, Josepha (née Chillida) person
associatedWith Anover Antonio, Eduardo person
associatedWith Anson, Nicolas person
associatedWith Anta del Rio, Alfonso person
associatedWith Anta, Sabina (née Diaz) person
associatedWith Anto Gracia, Aurora person
associatedWith Anto Gracia, Emilio person
associatedWith Antoñana Martinez, Angel person
associatedWith Anton, Ancieto person
associatedWith Anton Zuasti, Faustino person
associatedWith Antoran, Sebastien person
associatedWith Aparici, Ana (née Gonzalez Domingo) person
associatedWith Aparici Lopez, José person
associatedWith Aparicio de la Cruz, Francisco person
associatedWith Aparicio Falcon, Manuel person
associatedWith Aparicio Melchor, Toribio person
associatedWith Aparicio Mur, Pablo person
associatedWith Aparicio Orrantia, Matea person
associatedWith Aparicio Ruiz, Ramon person
associatedWith Apodaca, Clementina (née Lopez) person
associatedWith Apodaca Suarez, Hipolito person
associatedWith Ara, A? person
associatedWith Aragay, Andres person
associatedWith Arago Fontelles, Ana Maria (Viuda de Vinuesa) person
associatedWith Aragon Cabezon, Marcos person
associatedWith Aragones Valmana, Jacinto person
associatedWith Arago Sansano, José person
associatedWith Aragues Salillas, Baltasar person
associatedWith Aramayo Echevarria, José person
associatedWith Aranda Algantara, Antonio person
associatedWith Aranda Flores, Julio person
associatedWith Aranda, Francisca (née Solis) person
associatedWith Aranda, Josefa person
associatedWith Aranda, Maria person
associatedWith Aranguren Arana, Concepcion person
associatedWith Aranguren Arana, Micaela person
associatedWith Aransaez Aransaez, Saturino person
associatedWith Aransaez, Josefa (née Cacicedo) person
associatedWith Arasa Bou, Jean Gregorio person
associatedWith Arauz Benito, Florentina person
associatedWith Arbe Diez, Alfonso person
associatedWith Arbiol Sanchez, Tomas person
associatedWith Arboleda, Maria (née Fournier) person
associatedWith Arboleda Panigueral, José person
associatedWith Arboleya Ornia, Amalio person
associatedWith Arbona, Juan person
associatedWith Arbona Vidal, Maria person
associatedWith Arbos, Luis person
associatedWith Arcau Ballester, Pedro person
associatedWith Arcilla Morales, Luis person
associatedWith Arcos Eduardo, Jaime person
associatedWith Arcos Pileguezuela, José person
associatedWith Arderiu Ros, Jaques person
associatedWith Ardid Marin, Gerardo person
associatedWith Ardi, Manuel person
associatedWith Ardite, Angela (née Romeu) person
associatedWith Area, Famille person
associatedWith Areces Garcia, Manuel person
associatedWith Arechavaleta, Ricardo person
associatedWith Arenas, Agustin person
associatedWith Areros, Manuel person
associatedWith Ares Rivas, Enrique person
associatedWith Arevalo, Amalia (née Vietes) person
associatedWith Argelic Sala, Juan person
associatedWith Argudo Palicio, Adolfo person
associatedWith Argudo Palicio, Luis person
associatedWith Arguelles Gonzalez, Harmodio person
associatedWith Argues, Andres person
associatedWith Argues, Antonia (née Alem) person
associatedWith Argues, Mariano person
associatedWith Arias, Angel person
associatedWith Arias, Carmen person
associatedWith Arias, Gilberte (née Sanchez) person
associatedWith Arias Minuesa, Angel person
associatedWith Arias Puente, Froilan person
associatedWith Arias, Ysidora (née Alvarez) person
associatedWith Ariño, Enrique person
associatedWith Ariño, Luisa person
associatedWith Ariso Llestre, José person
associatedWith Ariso, Manuela (née Barellas) person
associatedWith Ariste Opi, Antonio person
associatedWith Ariste, Pabla person
associatedWith Aristizabal, Maria (Viuda de Gonzales) person
associatedWith Arixeta Capdevila, José person
associatedWith Ariza, Josefina person
associatedWith Ariznabarreta Montes, Maria person
associatedWith Ariznabarreta Montes, Tiburcio person
associatedWith Arjo, Antoine person
associatedWith Arjona Benedicto, Eduardo person
associatedWith Arjona, Rosa (née Montero) person
associatedWith Armantera Calvo, Eduardo person
associatedWith Armentia Nunez, Angel person
associatedWith Armentia Nunez, Miguel person
associatedWith Armentia, Pilar (née Abans) person
associatedWith Arnaez Redollat, Leon person
associatedWith Arnaiz Amigo, Francisco person
associatedWith Arnaiz Gomez, Demetrio person
associatedWith Arnal Burballa, Francisco person
associatedWith Arnal Campo, Joaquin person
associatedWith Arnal Ibor, Francisco person
associatedWith Arnal Martin, Adolfo person
associatedWith Arnalot Bruno, Eugenio person
associatedWith Arnalte Navarro, Serafin person
associatedWith Arnau Freixa, José person
associatedWith Arnau, Isabel (née Fernandez) person
associatedWith Arnau Meseguer, Arturo person
associatedWith Arniella, Javier person
associatedWith Arola, Valentin person
associatedWith Arona Saiz, Eusebio person
associatedWith Arquiaga Legorburu, Ramón person
associatedWith Arquimbau Garcia, Juan person
associatedWith Arrabal Almenara, Eduardo person
associatedWith Arrabal, Fernando person
associatedWith Arrantia, Matea (née Aparicio) person
associatedWith Arranz Sanz, Felix person
associatedWith Arrebola, Marie-Antoinette (née Rouet) person
associatedWith Arrebola Marmol, Miguel person
associatedWith Arredondo Soto, José person
associatedWith Arres, Juana (née Martinez) person
associatedWith Arrés Merlós, Jesús person
associatedWith Arriaran, Rosa (Viuda de Cordero) person
associatedWith Arrojo Marques, Ataulfo person
associatedWith Arroyal Bertivero, François person
associatedWith Arroyo Alonso, Celerino person
associatedWith Arroyo de la Pena, Juan José person
associatedWith Arroyo Fernandez, Manuel person
associatedWith Arroyo Garcia, Benito person
associatedWith Arroyo, Lazaro person
associatedWith Arroyo Santos, Vicente person
associatedWith Arroyo Segura, José Julian person
associatedWith Arroyo, Trinidad (Mme. Guy Dedier) person
associatedWith Arruabarrena, Maria Carmen person
associatedWith Arruego, Amalia (née Fernandez) person
associatedWith Arruego Dubon, Francisco person
associatedWith Arruego Gimenez, Aurelia (Viuda de Ballarin) person
associatedWith Arrufat Figuerola, José person
associatedWith Arrufat Sorolla, Francisco person
associatedWith Arrufat Tirado, José person
associatedWith Artagoitia, Sara (née Gonzalez) person
associatedWith Arteaga Larrea, Santiago person
associatedWith Artero Rubio, Luis person
associatedWith Artero Sanchez, Matias person
associatedWith Artes Tornero, Antonio person
associatedWith Artes Tornero, Vicente person
associatedWith Artiga Barran, Agustin person
associatedWith Artigas Anso, José person
associatedWith Artigas, Josefa (née Mercadal) person
associatedWith Artigas, Panscuela (née Hernandez) person
associatedWith Artigas, Rafaela (née Arto) person
associatedWith Artus Cabero, Gregorio person
associatedWith Ascaso, Tomasa person
associatedWith Ascencio Jimenez, Maria person
associatedWith Asegurado, Catalina person
associatedWith Asegurado, Catherine person
associatedWith Asegurado Garcia, Catalina person
associatedWith Asenio Mendez, Lucretia (née Edrosa) person
associatedWith Asenio Mendez, Pablo person
associatedWith Asenjo, Basilisa person
associatedWith Asen Mas, Miguel person
associatedWith Asensio Casino, Tomas person
associatedWith Asensio Lostal, Joaquin person
associatedWith Asensio Luque, Maria (Viuda de Consejo) person
associatedWith Asin Coso, Francisca (née Arroniz) person
associatedWith Asin Soteras, Antonio person
associatedWith Aso Ferrando, Baldomers person
associatedWith Aspiazu, A? (née Donostia) person
associatedWith Aspiazu, José person
associatedWith Aspiazu Sarobe, José person
associatedWith Aspiroz Albizu, Sebastian person
associatedWith Astruells, Salvador person
associatedWith Atance Blanco, Pedro person
associatedWith Atance, Quintina (née Sacristan) person
associatedWith Atanosio Gonzalez, José person
associatedWith Aubac Arnaldo, José person
associatedWith Aumatel Tusquets, Francisco person
associatedWith Aure, Angele (née Valero) person
associatedWith Aure Cera, Teodoro person
associatedWith Auseron Consejo, Matias person
associatedWith Autonana Martinez, Angel person
associatedWith Avella, Alejandro person
associatedWith Avensa Avila, Alfonso person
associatedWith Avila Diaz, Modesto person
associatedWith Avila Fernandez, Sergio person
associatedWith Avila, Juan person
associatedWith Avila, Maria person
associatedWith Avila Molina, Cristobal person
associatedWith Aviles Marcos, Berthe person
associatedWith Aviles Marcos, Gabino person
associatedWith Aviles Moreno, Vicente person
associatedWith Ayala, Iluminada person
associatedWith Aymami, Thomas person
associatedWith Ayuda Casorran, José person
associatedWith Ayuda Cazorran, Julian person
associatedWith Ayuda, Luisa (née Martin) person
associatedWith Azagra, Gustave person
associatedWith Azanedo, Candido person
associatedWith Aznar Beltran, Gregorio person
associatedWith Aznarez Peiret?, José person
associatedWith Aznar Lobera, Juliana person
associatedWith Aznar Lobera, Pablo person
associatedWith Aznar, Pablo person
associatedWith Aznar Serrano, Juan person
associatedWith Azon Casasus, Matias person
associatedWith Azuaga Santiago, Francisco person
associatedWith Bachero, Cristobal person
associatedWith Bach-Esteve Mon, Fernando person
associatedWith Badia, Agustina (née Cerda) person
associatedWith Badia Santamaria, Miguel person
associatedWith Badia, Sebastian person
associatedWith Baena Leon, Evaristo person
associatedWith Baena Llerandi, Carmen person
associatedWith Baena Mancebo, Clemente person
associatedWith Baena Zurita, Juan person
associatedWith Baez Arrufat, Rafael person
associatedWith Bago Bago, Miguel person
associatedWith Bagó, Miguel person
associatedWith Baides Garcia, Francois person
associatedWith Baixeras, Luis person
associatedWith Bajo Pena, Emelia person
associatedWith Bajo Pena, Manuel person
associatedWith Balada Balada, Manuel person
associatedWith Balague Muria, Francisco person
associatedWith Balaguer Garrido, Salvador person
associatedWith Balaguer Pascual, Francisca person
associatedWith Balaguer Pascual, José person
associatedWith Balaguer Sanchez, José person
associatedWith Bala Verge, Manuel person
associatedWith Balboa, Angel person
associatedWith Baldu, José person
associatedWith Balius Mir, Jaime person
associatedWith Ballarin Escartin, Ramon person
associatedWith Ballarin, Rosario (née Ereza) person
associatedWith