Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, 1838-1917

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Liliuokalani (b. September 2, 1838, Honolulu, HI–d. November 11, 1917, Honolulu, HI) was the first queen and last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, ruling from January 29, 1891, until the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893. The composer of "Aloha ʻOe" and numerous other works, she wrote her autobiography Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen during her imprisonment following the overthrow.

While her natural parents were Analea Keohokālole and Caesar Kapaʻakea, she was hānai (informally adopted) at birth by Abner Pākī and Laura Kōnia and raised with their daughter Bernice Pauahi Bishop. Baptized as a Christian and educated at the Royal School, she and her siblings and cousins were proclaimed eligible for the throne by King Kamehameha III. She was married to American-born John Owen Dominis, who later became the Governor of Oʻahu. The couple had no biological children but adopted several. After the accession of her brother David Kalākaua to the throne in 1874, she and her siblings were given Western style titles of Prince and Princess. In 1877, after her younger brother Leleiohoku II's death, she was proclaimed as heir apparent to the throne. During the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria, she represented her brother as an official envoy to the United Kingdom.

Liliʻuokalani ascended to the throne on January 29, 1891, nine days after her brother's death. During her reign, she attempted to draft a new constitution which would restore the power of the monarchy and the voting rights of the economically disenfranchised. Threatened by her attempts to abrogate the Bayonet Constitution, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy on January 17, 1893. The overthrow was bolstered by the landing of US Marines under John L. Stevens to protect American interests, which rendered the monarchy unable to protect itself.

The coup d'état established the Republic of Hawaii, but the ultimate goal was the annexation of the islands to the United States, which was temporarily blocked by President Grover Cleveland. After an unsuccessful uprising to restore the monarchy, the oligarchical government placed the former queen under house arrest at the ʻIolani Palace. On January 24, 1895, Liliuokalani abdicated the Hawaiian throne, officially ending the deposed monarchy. Attempts were made to restore the monarchy and oppose annexation, but with the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, the United States annexed the Republic of Hawaii via the Newlands Resolution. Living out the remainder of her later life as a private citizen, Liliʻuokalani died at her residence, Washington Place, in Honolulu on November 11, 1917.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
creatorOf Hanford, A. Chester, Mrs.,. Materials concerning Hawaii, 1882-1889. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn Hawaii. President (1893-1900 : Dole). Commutation of the sentence of Queen Liliuokalani for misprision of treason : Honolulu : DS, 1895 Sept. 6. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Van Dyke, Henry, 1852-1933,. Stevenson photographs. Princeton University Library
referencedIn Oakman, Mamie Moross, 1868-1956. Royalty and celebrities scrapbooks, 1894,1929. Clarke Historical Library
referencedIn Dole family. Dole family papers, 1831-1944 (bulk 1864-1898). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, 1838-1917. Message to the people of California : and related materials : ms.S, [ca. 1915]. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Stevenson, Robert Louis, 1850-1894. Letter of Robert Louis Stevenson, 1891 March. Library of Congress
referencedIn Christopher A. Reynolds Collection of Women's Song, circa 1800-1985 University of California, Davis. General Library. . Dept. of Special Collections
creatorOf Kekuanaoa, Mataio, 1791-1868. Letters and calling cards signed by members of Hawaii's last ruling family, 1840 Oct. 1-1887 Aug. 2. Newberry Library
referencedIn Margaret Randle photograph album on Hawaii, circa 1920-1929 Oregon Historical Society Research Library
referencedIn Nathaniel Bright Emerson Papers, 1766-1944 The Huntington Library
referencedIn Dominis, John O., 1832-. Biographical sketch of John O. Dominis : typescript, [188-?]. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, 1838-1917. ALS, 1897 October 18 : the Ebbit House, Washington, D.C., to her cousin [William]. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
referencedIn General Records of the Department of State. 1763 - 2002. Communications from Heads of Foreign States. 1789 - 1909. Ceremonial Letters from Hawaii
creatorOf Stoddard, Charles Warren, 1843-1909. Papers, 1863-1993. University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hamilton Library
creatorOf Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, 1838-1917. Letters to William Lee, [1897]-1898. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Harding, Charlotte, 1873-1951,. Charlotte Hanes Harding autographs collection, 1744-1928. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn Emerson, Nathaniel Bright, 1839-1915. Papers of Nathaniel Bright Emerson, 1766-1944 (bulk 1860-1915). Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Carter, Joseph Oliver, 1835-1909. Papers of Joseph Oliver Carter, 1893-1935. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
creatorOf Liliuokalani, Queen of Hawaii, 1838-1917. ALS, 1897 October 28 : the Ebbit House, Washington, D.C., to her cousin William. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
referencedIn Willis, Albert Shelby, 1843-1897. Letter book, 1893-1895. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Johnny Green additional papers, 1923-1989. Harvard Theatre Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Materials concerning Hawaii, 1882-1889. Houghton Library
referencedIn Pineda, Marianna, 1925-. Marianna Pineda papers, 1943-1998 (bulk 1980-1995). Smithsonian Archives of American Art
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Armstrong, Richard, 1805-1860. person
associatedWith Carter, Joseph Oliver, 1835-1909. person
associatedWith Dole family. family
associatedWith Dominis, John O., 1832- person
associatedWith Emerson, Nathaniel Bright, 1766-1944 person
associatedWith Emerson, Nathaniel Bright, 1839-1915. person
associatedWith Green, Johnny, 1908-1989 person
associatedWith Hanford, A. Chester, Mrs., person
associatedWith Hanford, A. Chester, Mrs., collector. person
associatedWith Harding, Charlotte, 1873-1951, person
associatedWith Hawaii. President (1893-1900 : Dole) corporateBody
associatedWith Judd, Gerrit Parmele, 1803-1873. person
associatedWith Lee, William. person
associatedWith Oakman, Mamie Moross, 1868-1956. person
associatedWith Panama-California Exposition (1915 : San Diego, Calif.) corporateBody
associatedWith Pineda, Marianna, 1925- person
associatedWith Randle, Margaret, 1882-1956 person
associatedWith Reynolds, Christopher A. person
correspondedWith Stevenson, Robert Louis, 1850-1894. person
associatedWith Stoddard, Charles Warren, 1843-1909. person
associatedWith Willis, Albert Shelby, 1843-1897. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Honolulu HI US
Honolulu HI US
Hawaii HI US
Subject
Hawaiian literature--19th century
Autographs
Authors and publishers
Occupation
Authors
Monarchs
Poets
Function

Person

Birth 1838-09-02

Death 1917-11-11

Female

English

Information

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