Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882

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Charles Robert Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. His father, Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848), was a physician, the son of Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), a poet, philosopher, and naturalist. Robert established a successful medical practice in Shrewsbury where he was known for his kindness extended to the poor. He was financially quite successful and willing to support his sons in their various endeavors. Although not a prolific writer, he was elected to the Royal Society in 1788. Charles' mother, Susannah Wedgwood Darwin (1765-1817), was the daughter of Josiah Wedgwood, one of the founders of the Wedgwood pottery works and a supporter of the movement to abolish slavery in the British Empire. She died when Charles Darwin was eight years old. At age sixteen, Darwin left Shrewsbury to study medicine at Edinburgh University. Repelled by the sight of surgery performed without anesthesia, he eventually went to Cambridge University to prepare to become a clergyman in the Church of England. After receiving his degree, Darwin accepted an invitation to serve as an unpaid naturalist on the H.M.S. Beagle, which departed on a five-year scientific expedition to the Pacific coast of South America on December 31, 1831. Darwin's research resulting from this voyage formed the basis of his famous book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Published in 1859, the work aroused a storm of controversy. Here Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, challenging the contemporary beliefs about the creation of life on earth. Later works included The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872), and many others. Darwin continued to write and publish his works on biology throughout his life. He lived with his wife and eight children at their home in the village of Downe, fifteen miles from London. Several of his children achieved great distinction of their own: George Howard Darwin (1845-1912), as a geologist and astronomer, Francis Darwin (1848-1925), as a botanist, and Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), as an economist. Charles Darwin died after a long illness on April 19, 1882, and is buried in Westminster Abbey.

From the description of Charles Darwin / Evolution Collection ca. 1786-1968 [bulk dates 1840s-1920s] (University of California, Santa Barbara). WorldCat record id: 222373923

Charles Robert Darwin was a British naturalist and author of On the Origin of Species (1859).

From the guide to the Charles Darwin papers, 1831-1882, 1831-1882, (American Philosophical Society)

Sir Joseph Banks was an English naturalist and president of the Royal Society.

From the guide to the Sir Joseph Banks papers, 1766-1820 (bulk), 1766-1820, (American Philosophical Society)

The project to publish the complete correspondence of the British naturalist Charles Darwin began in 1974 under the editorial guidance of Frederick Burkhardt with the assistance of Sydney Smith. Drawing heavily on the 9,000 letters located at Cambridge University and 950 at the American Philosophical Society, the project has made efforts to locate, transcribe, and publish every known letter written by Darwin. Over 200 institutions in 20 countries have contributed to the project, yielding a total of 15,000 letters. When the project is complete, the editors estimate that the Correspondence of Charles Darwin will fill approximately 30 volumes.

From the guide to the Charles Darwin Papers Editorial Project Collection, 1821-1882, (American Philosophical Society)

English naturalist and biologist.

From the description of Papers, [1868?]-1881 and undated, Kent. (Duke University). WorldCat record id: 35007279

Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was a British naturalist.

From the guide to the Charles Darwin letters, ca. 1865-1882, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

From the description of Charles Darwin letters, ca. 1865-1882. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122378691

Charles Robert Darwin was a British naturalist and author of "On the Origin of the Species" (1859).

From the description of Archive of the Darwin Papers Editorial Project, 1821-1882. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122439822

Charles Darwin was born in 1809 in England. His father, Robert Darwin, was a physician, the son of Erasmus Darwin, a poet, philosopher, and naturalist. Charles' mother, Susannah Wedgewood Darwin, died when he was eight years old. Darwin studied medicine briefly, then went to become a clergyman in the Church of England. After receiving his degree, Darwin accepted an invitation to serve as an unpaid naturalist on the H.M.S. Beagle, which departed on a five-year scientific expedition to the Pacific Coast of South America on December 31, 1831. Darwin's research resulting from this voyage formed the basis of his famous book, On the origin of species by means of natural selection. Published in 1859, the work aroused a storm of controversy. Here Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, challenging contemporary beliefs about the creation of life on Earth. Darwin continued to write and publish his works on biology throughout his life. He lived with his wife and children at their home in the village of Downe, fifteen miles from London. He died on April 19, 1882 and lies buried in Westminster Abbey.

From the description of Letter to "Dear Sir," undated. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 501206912

From the description of Letter to B. D. Wrangham, 1880, September 16. (Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens). WorldCat record id: 502017119

Francis Storr (1839-1919) was a British educator and editor. He probably gave this letter and 3 others to Alexander Lindsay, 1st Baron Lindsay of Birker (1879-1952) who was a professor at Oxford. Lindsay's son, Michael Lindsay (1910-1994), a professor of Far Eastern Studies at American University (1960-1964) in Washington, DC, lent the 4 letters to the Library of Congress for photocopying in 1964 and probably gave Darwin's letter to Wilkinson later on.

From the description of [Letter], Mar. 5, 1875 [to Francis Storr]. (American Museum of Natural History). WorldCat record id: 741278370

English naturalist.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [London], to the botanist, John Stevens Henslow, [1839 Nov.] "Sunday Evening". (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270522448

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Down, Kent, to an unidentified recipient, [1853] Aug. 16. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270518399

From the description of Autograph quotation signed : Down, 1869 Jun. 23. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270534311

From the description of The descent of man : autograph leaf from an early draft of the work : [Down, Kent, ca. 1868-1870]. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270536352

English naturalist. Author of The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, etc. In 1852 Sir William Denison, Governor of New South Wales was asked to report on a plan for the abolition of the convict settlement on Norfolk Island and for its occupation by the descendants of the Bounty mutineers, who were then living on Pitcairn Island but had become too numerous for the island to support. This plan was put into effect, the Pitcairn Islanders being transferred to Norfolk Island in 1856. (Australian Encyclopaedia, 1958).

From the description of Letter [manuscript]. 1874. (Libraries Australia). WorldCat record id: 225818697

Epithet: naturalist

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000758.0x0000dd

Charles Robert Darwin was a British naturalist and author of "On the Origin of Species" (1859).

From the description of Papers, 1831-1882. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122584290

From the description of Letters, 1837-1882. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122689491

History / Biography

Short biographical sketches are provided for some of the key figures represented in the collection.

Charles Robert Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. His father, Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848), was a physician, the son of Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), a poet, philosopher, and naturalist. Robert established a successful medical practice in Shrewsbury where he was known for his kindness extended to the poor. He was financially quite successful and willing to support his sons in their various endeavors. Although not a prolific writer, he was elected to the Royal Society in 1788. Charles' mother, Susannah Wedgwood Darwin (1765-1817), was the daughter of Josiah Wedgwood, one of the founders of the Wedgwood pottery works and a supporter of the movement to abolish slavery in the British Empire. She died when Charles Darwin was eight years old.

At age sixteen, Darwin left Shrewsbury to study medicine at Edinburgh University. Repelled by the sight of surgery performed without anesthesia, he eventually went to Cambridge University to prepare to become a clergyman in the Church of England. After receiving his degree, Darwin accepted an invitation to serve as an unpaid naturalist on the H.M.S. Beagle, which departed on a five-year scientific expedition to the Pacific coast of South America on December 31, 1831.

Darwin's research resulting from this voyage formed the basis of his famous book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection . Published in 1859, the work aroused a storm of controversy. Here Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, challenging the contemporary beliefs about the creation of life on earth. Later works included The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872), and many others. Darwin continued to write and publish his works on biology throughout his life. He lived with his wife and eight children at their home in the village of Downe, fifteen miles from London. Several of his children achieved great distinction of their own: George Howard Darwin (1845-1912), as a geologist and astronomer, Francis Darwin (1848-1925), as a botanist, and Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), as an economist. Charles Darwin died after a long illness on April 19, 1882, and is buried in Westminster Abbey.

A number of Darwin descendants are represented in the collection. Francis Darwin, Charles' third son, also was a botanist and naturalist. Although trained as a physician, he never practiced medicine. Early in his career, he worked as a research assistant for his father. He pursued an academic career at Cambridge where he was a Fellow of Christ's College and University Lecturer in Botany. He was appointed Reader in 1888 and retired in 1904. He published a number of works on botany and is perhaps best remembered for his editing of the basic biographies of his father: Life and Letters (3 v., 1887) and More Letters (2 v., 1903). Bernard Darwin (1876-1961), the son of Francis, was a writer with a special emphasis and interest in sports, particularly golf, which he covered for The Times (in London) and Country Life . He also contributed the introduction for the first edition of The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (1941) and with his wife authored a number of children's books, being particularly noted for the Tootleoo series.

The collection also contains material related to the Huxley family. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), was a biologist, zoologist, philosopher, and teacher. He was a staunch defender of Darwin and sometimes was referred to as "Darwin's Bulldog". Huxley had an important impact on the intellectual currents of the times through his writings on science, philosophy, religion and politics. Among his many works are: Evidence on Man's Place in Nature, a comprehensive review of what was known at the time about primate and human paleontology and ethnology, published in 1863, only five years after Darwin's Origin of Species, and Ethics and Evolution (1893). Huxley is credited with the invention of the term 'agnosticism' to describe his philosophical position: it expresses his attitude toward certain traditional questions without giving any clear delimitation of the frontiers of knowledge. In works such as Ethics and Evolution, moral order is contrasted with the cosmic order. Evolution shows signs of constant struggle, but rather than looking to it for moral guidance, he rejected "the gladiatorial theory of existence."

Julian Sorell Huxley (1887-1975), grandson of Thomas Henry, and brother of the writer Aldous was a biologist, writer, and teacher who achieved renown both as a scientist and for his ability to make scientific concepts clear to the public through his writings. Julian Huxley was born in London and educated at Balliol College, University of Oxford. He was one of the most highly visible scientists of the mid-twentieth century, popular as a radio and television panelist and as a lecturer. Like his grandfather, he was particularly interested in concepts of evolution and growth, dealing with them in the light of the philosophic problems generated by contemporary scientific developments. In his Religion without Revelation (1927), he suggested that humans could find an outlet for their religious zeal in contemplation of their own destiny, rather than in theistic creeds. In Evolution: The Modern Synthesis (1942), he made important connections between evolution and genetics.

A final group of manuscripts in the collection pertains to the work of the anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917). Tylor was most interested in tracing the evolutionary process in the areas of social customs and beliefs. He was a fervent Darwinian with an infinite respect for facts. Although based at Oxford, where he was professor of anthropology and keeper of the university museum, he and his wife Anna Tylor traveled extensively both for his health and his research. Their Quaker background is reflected in their concern for the impact of evolutionary thought upon religion. The collection includes correspondence between him and his wife and his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Alfred's son, Joseph John Tylor, an engineer and Egyptologist, and daughter, Juliet Tylor are among other Tylor family members represented.

From the guide to the Charles Darwin / Evolution Collection, ca. 1786-1968, 1840s-1920s, (University of California, Santa Barbara. Library. Dept. of Special Collections.)

The Darwin Centennial Celebration, commemorating the publication by Charles Darwin of the Origin of the Species, was held at the University of Chicago from November 24 through November 28, 1959. The Celebration began with a Darwin Day program on November 24, the date of the one hundredth anniversary of the publication of The Origin of the Species, and featured a lecture by Sir Charles Darwin, grandson of Charles Darwin. On November 26 a special Convocation of the University was held in honor of the Celebration. The principal speaker at the convocation was Sir Julian Huxley. In his address, "The Evolutionary Vision," he proposed that religion, being subject to the laws of evolution, was fast becoming obsolete and would eventually evolve itself out of existence. The evening of the Convocation a performance was given of "Time will Tell," a musical about Darwin's life and work.

The heart of the celebration was a series of five panel discussions, involving about fifty well-known scholars from around the world. These panel discussions covered various facets of evolutionary theory and the influence of evolution on the modern world. Panel I was concerned with the origin of life; Panel II took up the evolution of life; Panel III inquired into the role of man as an organism; Panel IV considered the evolution of the mind; and Panel V discussed social and cultural evolution. The scholars participating in the panel discussions produced papers several months in advance of the conference that were read and criticized by the other scholars taking part in the Celebration. These papers formed the basis for the five panel discussions. The discussions were spontaneous, however, with no papers read.

Also included in the Celebration were a National Conference for High School Biology Teachers, an Institute for High School Teachers of Biology, which examined the problems of teaching evolutionary theory in our public schools, and an Institute on Science and Theology, which examined the relation of science, and more specifically evolution, to theology.

The papers written by the participants previous to the panel discussions were compiled in a three volume set Evolution after Darwin, edited by Sol Tax and Charles Callendar, which was published by the University of Chicago Press in 1960. In addition to Evolution after Darwin, products of the Centennial Celebration included a film, "The University of Chicago Darwin Centennial Celebration," produced by Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, a segment of a television show, "At Random," in which Sir Julian Huxley, Sir Charles Darwin, Adlai Stevenson, and Harlow Shapley participated, and various interviews with the participants, especially with Sir Julian Huxley, whose views resulted in much public controversy, and consequently much publicity for the conference.

The Celebration was the idea of Sol Tax, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Chicago, who served as the chairman of the Centennial Committee. The University of Chicago, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research joined in sponsoring the Centennial Celebration.

From the guide to the Darwin Centennial Celebration. Records, 1959, (Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library 1100 East 57th Street Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A.)

The profound influence of the thought of Charles Darwin on contemporary scientific culture stems largely from his theory of natural selection, the first widely accepted mechanism to account for organismal evolutionary change. A product of Victorian preconceptions of the order of nature and the nature of change, both Darwin and his theories have proven remarkably resilient and remain a vital heuristic in the biological sciences.

The son of the physician Robert Darwin, Charles Darwin was blessed with a pair of illustrious grandfathers from the progressive elite of British Whiggery, the savant and proto-evolutionist, Erasmus Darwin, and the manufacturer of ceramics, Josiah Wedgwood. Born in Shrewsbury on February 12, 1809, Charles entered the University of Edinburgh at age sixteen, intending to follow in his father's footsteps into medicine, but he proved as unmotivated a student as he was unenthusiastic. Repulsed by the experience of attending surgeries undertaken in the absence of anaesthetics, Darwin abandoned his already half-hearted commitment to medicine and in 1827, he left Edinburgh for Christ's College, Cambridge, to study for the ministry.

The change of venue did little to rouse Darwin's enthusiasm for coursework, however at Cambridge, he met three men whose enthusiasm for nature sparked his imagination. With the great geologist, Charles Lyell, Darwin undertook field excursions to south Wales and was introduced to the concept of uniformitarianism; with F.W. Hope, he spent the summer of 1829 collecting bugs and beetles; while the botanist John Stevens Henslow encouraged his interest in the natural sciences, but equally importantly introduced him to Captain Robert Fitz-Roy. After receiving his degree in 1831, Darwin signed on as naturalist aboard Fitz-Roy's H.M.S. Beagle on its cruise around the world. Summarizing Darwin's subsequent career would be an exercise in courting claims to insufficiency while guaranteeing inadequacy, yet

Returning home from the Beagle in 1836, Darwin began in earnest to write and publish in natural history. His first paper, speculating on the origin of coral atolls, was begun in December 1835, and he began his first notebook on theories relating to the transmutation of species in July 1837, only two months after presenting his coral atoll paper at the Geological Society. Financial pressures were not a concern for the well-heeled Darwin, particularly after marrying his wealthy first cousin, Emma Wedgwood, in January 1839, and from the late 1830s onward, Darwin was able to lead an gentleman's life devoted to the pursuit of science, interrupted on occasion by illness and family concerns.

Darwin's first major monograph, his Journal of Researches (London: H. Colburn, 1839), was an important record of the geological and natural historical observations made during his voyage aboard the Beagle, and was a huge popular success. Since his visit to the Galapagos aboard the Beagle, however, Darwin had been percolating with ideas on the transmutation of species, an idea that had concerned his grandfather Erasmus before him. According to Darwin's retelling of the events, his ideas began to gel after reading Thomas Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population, which confirmed his predilection for viewing nature as a struggle for existence in which "favourable variations would tend to be preserved and unfavourable ones to be destroyed." Malthusian logic, he believed, would lead one to conclude that the end result would be the differential reproduction of animal populations based upon the characteristics each possessed, leading ultimately to speciation. By the early 1840s, Darwinian natural selection was beginning to germinate.

Yet still he sat. Darwin's research during the 1840s and early 1850s included brushes with the evolutionist thought of the botanist J.D. Hooker, the cosmic Robert Chambers and others, and in 1842, he sketched out the rudiments of his theory, thinking enough of it to have it copied two years later. His ardor for publishing on the topic may have been cooled by the hostility he saw meted out to Chambers' Vestiges of the Natural Creation (1844), but his attention was also divided -- barnacles and migraines were as much part of Darwin's decades as natural selection. Even the appearance in 1855 of Alfred Russel Wallace's "On the Law Which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" in the Annals and Magazine of Natural History did little to prod Darwin onward, nor did the intervention of his old mentor, Charles Lyell, speed the pen. It was not until 1858 that Darwin moved forward, having receiving a letter from Wallace informing him that Malthus's Essay had illuminated his thinking on the origin of species, and enclosing a manuscript for comment that outlined a theory with a strong, coincidental resemblance to Darwin's own. Fearful of losing any claim to priority, Darwin had his 1844 essay and Wallace's published jointly in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society in August 1858, and he proceeded feverishly (often literally so) to work on a longer "abstract" of his ideas, the work that became his magnum opus, On the Origin of Species (London: J. Murray, 1859).

In the spectacular sequence of books that followed, Darwin elucidated various aspects of the theory of natural selection, progressing with increasing confidence through The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication (London: J.Murray, 1868), The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (London: J. Murray, 1871); and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and the Animals (London: J. Murray, 1872). Lacking, as he admitted, in any coherent theory of heredity, Darwin's natural selection nevertheless provided a persuasive explanation of the mechanics of organismal change. While the response to natural selection was not uniformly warm, perhaps even providing impetus to Lamarckian theories of inheritance, it was chiefly responsible for establishing evolutionary change as an integral part of biological explanation. The broader implications of Darwin's thought, including the role of contingency, relativism, and stochasticity in organismal change continue to define biological interests. More subtly, his ideas catalyzed a slow shift away from typological thinking (imaging the organism with respect to a perfect "type") toward viewing organisms in the context of a population, an attitudinal adjustment with profound implications for the practice of science in the twentieth century.

Darwin continued with research and writing until the time of his death on April 19, 1882. His last work was the quirky, fascinating, and perhaps prophetic book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms (London: J. Murray 1882).

From the guide to the An Annotated Calendar of the Letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, 1799-1882, (American Philosophical Society)

Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) was the grandson of Erasmus Darwin of Lichfield and Josiah Wedgwood. He entered the University of Edinburgh in 1825 to study medicine, intending to follow his father Robert's career as a doctor. However, Darwin found himself unenthusiastic about his studies, including that of geology, and left Edinburgh without graduating in 1827. Forming the intention of entering the church, Darwin came up to Cambridge in 1828, and though not finding the formal studies any more to his taste than those at Edinburgh, he formed a friendship with the professor of botany, John Stevens Henslow, and began enthusiastically to study the subject. After graduating in 1831, Darwin was recommended by Henslow to Robert Fitzroy, commander of HM Sloop Beagle, as a naturalist to sail on a circumnavigational voyage Fitzroy was planning. Returning from the Beagle voyage in 1836, Darwin enjoyed a publishing success with his volume Journal of researches...during the voyage of HMS Beagle, married his cousin Emma Wedgwood, and moved to the Kent village of Down, where he spent the rest of his life. It was at Down House that Darwin wrote On the origin of species by means of natural selection, 1859, and a series of monographs in botany, entomology and anthropology.

From the guide to the Charles Darwin: Papers, c. 1680 - mid 20th century, (Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Papers of Richard Bright (1789-1858) and James Franck Bright (1832-1920), 19th century - 20th century Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Chauncey Wright Papers, 1850-1875 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf DARWIN AND CORNFORD PAPERS. Vol. I (ff. 93). Letters, etc., from various individuals; 1870-1924. Partly imperfect. 1. ff. 1-8. Three letters from her father, Charles Darwin (b.1809, d.1882), with two to her husband, R. B. Litchfield; circa 1870-1875,..., 1865-1924 British Library
creatorOf Falconer, Hugh, 1808-1865. Letter. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Augustus A. (Augustus Addison) Gould papers, 1831-1866, 1831-1866 (inclusive), 1838-1852 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Document : Westminster Abbey, London, 1882 Apr. 26. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Louis Mayer Rabinowitz collection, 1676-1957 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
creatorOf CHARNWOOD AUTOGRAPHS. Vol. IV. Artistic, dramatic and scientific autogaphs, etc.; circa 16th-20th cent. Included are Sir Christopher Wren, Sir Godfrey Kneller, William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Joseph Wright of Derby, William Blake, David Cox, Si..., approximately 16th century-20th century British Library
referencedIn 41567. MISCELLANEOUS letters and papers, etc., 0700-1927 British Library
referencedIn Printing blocks of anti-Semitica, early-mid 19th century University of Southampton Libraries Special Collections
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Charles Darwin letters, ca. 1865-1882. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Charles Darwin letter : ALS, 1877 Aug. 25. California Historical Society
referencedIn University of Cincinnati, Darwin Sesquicentennial Celebration records, 2006-2009, 2006-2009 University of Cincinnati, Archives and Rare Books Library
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creatorOf Vol. I (ff. 270). A -G.includes:f. 1 George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen; formerly Gordon; Prime Minister: Letter to A. Panizzi: 1856. f. 3 William Harrison Ainsworth, alias 'Cheviot Ticheburn'; novelist: Letter to A. Jones: 1840. f. 4 Ge... British Library
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creatorOf Darwin, Emma Wedgwood, 1808-1896. Letter, Down, Beckenham, Dec. 24 [1880 to] J. Brodie Innes / Emma Darwin. Cleveland Health Sciences Library, Allen and Health Center
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creatorOf Vol. VIII (ff. 220). 1878-1882.includes:f. 1 D. Caroline Brown, wife of H A Brown, banker: Letter to Sir J. Lubbock: 1898.f. 3 Tapetus Steenstrup, Swedish zoologist: Letters to Sir J. Lubbock: 1861-1878.f. 4b Sir Charles William Siemens, FRS: L..., 1878-1882 British Library
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referencedIn Blackwell family. Papers, 1784-1944 (inclusive), 1832-1939 (bulk). Harvard University, Schlesinger Library
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. The descent of man : autograph leaf from an early draft of the work : [Down, Kent, ca. 1868-1870]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Vol. CCCLXXXVI (ft. 289). Aug.-26 Sept. 1881.includes:f. 1 Charles John Spencer George Canning, 3rd Baron Garvagh: Letters to W. E. Gladstone: 1881-1883.f. 3 Timothy Michael Healy, Governor-General, Irish Free State: Letters to W. E. Gladstone: 1... British Library
referencedIn Lee Kohns collection, ca. 1400-ca. 1900 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Darwin Correspondence Project,. Charles Darwin correspondence collection, 1821-1882. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Alfred Russel Wallace Collection, 1867-1913 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn William Buckland papers, 1817-1848, 1817-1848 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Burkhardt, Frederick, 1912-2007. Frederick H. Burkhardt papers, 1983-2009. Cornell University Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. SxL House Design Competition : competition documents, 1991- Centre canadien d'architecture, | Canadian Centre for Architecture | CCA
referencedIn Thomas Campbell Eyton correspondence, 1836-1874, 1836-1874 American Philosophical Society
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creatorOf Darwin, Wedgwood and Vaughan Williams families. Letters, approximately 1877-1911 British Library
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referencedIn Papers, 1784 (1832-1939) 1944 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter : Beckenham, England, to Emily Talbot, [Boston], 1881 July 19. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Museum of Comparative Zoology collection of historical manuscripts, 1736-1908 (inclusive), 1810-1870 (bulk). Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
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creatorOf LETTERS OF EMINENT PERSONS. Vol. II (ff. 200). Eighty-nine letters, etc., mostly to members of the Baily and related Unitarian families; 1813-1926. Includes 22 letters to Walter Baily, H.M. Inspector of Schools (d. 1917), grandfather of the donor. Ma..., 1813-1926 British Library
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referencedIn Letters of Samuel Johnson, LL.D., collected and edited by George Birkbeck Hill, extra-illustrated, 1413-1900 (inclusive), 1775-1839 (bulk). Houghton Library.
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Charles Darwin papers, University Library, Cambridge, England : [photocopies of the manuscripts of Charles Darwin including natural selection, the second part of his big species book and evolution theory]. University of Wisconsin - Madison, General Library System
referencedIn Cox, Charles Finney, 1846-1912. Charles Finney Cox papers 1772-1910. New York State Historical Documents
referencedIn American Museum of Natural History. Charles Darwin exhibition photographs, 1959-1960. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn LETTERS, etc., of litery and scientific men; 1802-1895. 1. W[illia]m Herechel [afterwards Sir W. Heischel, K.H.] to-, on a name for the "new species of bodies," now known as asteroids: Slough near Windsor, 10 June, 1802. f. 1. 2. J[ohn] Dalton to -O..., 1802-1895 British Library
referencedIn McAtee, W. L. (Waldo Lee), 1883-1962. Papers of W. L. McAtee, 1803-1963 (bulk 1900-1960). Library of Congress
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creatorOf Huxley, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. [Ms. note]. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn MISCELLANEOUS AUTOGRAPHS, viz.-(a) Signatures of English Sovereigns from George II to Queen Victoria; ff. I-II ;-(b) Letters, etc., of authors, scientists and statesmen, including Sir Walter Scott, William Wordsworth and Thomas Carlyle; ff. 12-39. A ..., 1742-1902 British Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter, [1846 or 1848] Oct. 27, Down [Eng.] to "Dear Sir" [i.e. , Librarian, Royal Society, London]. University of Michigan
referencedIn Ignatius Donnelly and family papers., 1812-1973 (bulk 1855-1901). Minnesota Historical Society.
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Autograph letter signed : Down, Kent, to an unidentified recipient, [1853] Aug. 16. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Diary and correspondence of Charles Darwin written during the voyage of the Beagle, 1831-1836 [microform]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn John Thomas Gulick papers, 1853-1898, 1853-1898 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf An Annotated Calendar of the Letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, 1799-1882 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Shepard, Frank. Frank Shephard scrapbook, 1882-1887. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Dana family papers, 1805-1961 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Records of the Edinburgh Plinian Society, 1826-1841 Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Swinburne, Algernon Charles, 1837-1909. Dethroning Tennyson [manuscript], ca. 1887. Folger Shakespeare Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter : Bromley, Kent, to the Rev. A.M. Norman, Fence House, Durham, England, [1869?] July 29. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Vol. CCCCXIII (ff. 528). 1-20 June 1846.includes:f.1 Hugh Duncan Baillie, MP: Correspondence with Sir R. Peel: 1841, 1846.ff. 3, 5 Philip Mules, solicitor, of Honiton: Letters to Sir R. Peel: 1845-1846.ff. 7, 10 Charles Barr, of Leeds: Correspo... British Library
referencedIn Charles Darwin : l'évolution des espèces. Bibliothèque nationale de France, BnF
referencedIn Francis Trevelyan Buckland letters, 1863-1872, 1863-1872 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Sir James Paget correspondence, 1784-1932, 1784-1932 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter, March 16. United States Military Academy, USMA Library
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referencedIn Vol. CCCLXXXIV (ff. 273) Apr.-19 May 1881.includes:ff. 1, 41, 61, 226, 238 Richard Assheton Cross, 1st Viscount Cross: Correspondence with W. E. Gladstone: 1881-1883.ff. 3, 242 Sir Charles John Herries, KCB: Correspondence with W. E. Gladstone: 1... British Library
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter to Mrs. S.B. Herrick, 1876 March 6. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn J.C. Simpson Collection : P110. McGill University Library
referencedIn LETTERS OF MAJ.-GEN. THOMAS HARDWICKE, the zoologist; 1804-1828, as follows:-(1) Letters (14) to Sir James Edward Smith, M.D., F.R.S., the botanist; 1 June 1804-12 Jan. 1818. Copies, made from Linnaean Society Smith MS. 22, ff. 129-159b, by the dono..., 1804-1828 British Library
referencedIn T. Martin Trippe Journals, 1865-1871 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Adams, Ansel, 1902-1984. Autograph collection, 1446-2001. Princeton University Library
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. ALS, [no year] July 8, Down Farnborough Kent, to an unknown correspondent. Copley Press, J S Copley Library
referencedIn Litchfield, Henrietta. Letter : Down, Kent, to Camilla [Pattrick], 1882 Apr 20. Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library
referencedIn Wyman, Jeffries, 1814-1874. Papers of Jeffries Wyman, 1826-1909 (inclusive), 1832-1874 (bulk). Harvard University, Medical School, Countway Library
creatorOf King family. Papers [manuscript]. Libraries Australia
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter : Bromley, Kent, to the Rev. A.M. Norman, Fence House, Durham, England, [1869?] July 29. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Papers of James Geikie and his family, 1872-1917 Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn The Eyton Letters, 1725-1901 University of Birmingham Information Services, Special Collections Department
referencedIn The Papers of William Clift, 1780-1849 Royal College of Surgeons of England, London
referencedIn Jack Johns Darwin Collection, 1768-1997 Specialist Collections and Academic Archives, University of Kent
referencedIn Amy Lowell autograph collection, 1523-1930. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Pamplin Papers, 1806-1886 Bangor University
referencedIn Joseph Bradley Murray collection, 1706-1958 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn William B. Provine collection of evolutionary biology reprints, 20th century. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
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referencedIn Darwin, George Howard, Sir, 1845-1912. Letters, 1834-1881. American Philosophical Society Library
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creatorOf Lee, John Edward, 1808-1887. John Edward Lee letterbook, 1862-1884. Cornell University Library
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referencedIn Harris, George, 1809-1890. Letters concerning George Harris' "A philosophical treatise on the nature and constitution of man", 1873-1877. University of California, Los Angeles
referencedIn Charles Darwin: The Expression of the Emotions, 1872 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
referencedIn Woodruff, William Schuyler, 1838-1864. William Schuyler Woodruff papers, 1853-1860. University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Papers. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn John William Draper Family Papers, 1777-1951, (bulk 1860-1882) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Albert Stephens Borgman autograph collection, 1600-1950. Houghton Library.
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referencedIn Herter, Christian Archibald, 1895-1966,. Christian Archibald Herter letters, 1646-1904. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
referencedIn Marsh, Othniel Charles, 1831-1899. Othniel Charles Marsh papers, 1817-1899 (inclusive). Yale University Library
referencedIn PAPERS of Capt. John Clunies Ross, first real settler on the Cocos or Keeling Islands in the Indian Ocean, mostly concerned with his relations with Alexander Hare settled for a time on another island of the same group (cf. J. C. Ross's Statement rega..., 1824-1854 British Library
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referencedIn W. H. (William Henry) Smyth correspondence, 1820-1864, 1820-1864 American Philosophical Society
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referencedIn Richard John Levy and Sally Waldman Sweet collection, 1766-1935 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
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creatorOf Charles Darwin: Papers, c. 1680 - mid 20th century Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
creatorOf LETTERS, ETC., TO SIR EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR, Professor of Anthropology, Oxford, and others, with other papers; 1861-1906, n.d. Preceded (f. 1) by a copy of a letter of George Rolleston, Professor of Anatomy and Physiology, Oxford, to his sister, Rosam..., 1861-1906 British Library
referencedIn Papers of William Mogg, 1811-c.1870 University of Southampton Libraries Special Collections
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referencedIn John Edward Gray papers, 1783-1884, 1783-1884 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Charles Darwin / Evolution Collection ca. 1786-1968 [bulk dates 1840s-1920s] University of California, Santa Barbara, UCSB Library
referencedIn Letters concerning George Harris' +A Philosophical Treatise on the Nature and Constitution of Man+., 1873-1877 University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library History and Special Collections for the Sciences
referencedIn Romanes, George John, 1848-1894. Correspondence between George John Romanes (1848-1894) and John Thomas Gulick (1832-1923) : together with exchanges of related letters between Gulick and Charles Darwin, Alfred Russell [sic] Wallace, W. Percy Sladen, Henri de Varigny, J. Fletcher Moulton and others, 1872-1893. Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
referencedIn Landau, Tina. Space / by Tina Landau, 1998. New York Public Library System, NYPL
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Notebooks of Charles Darwin written during the voyage of the Beagle, 1831-1836 [microfilm manuscript] : from Down House, Kent, Books 1-18. University of Cincinnati - Main Campus, Langsam Library
referencedIn Virginia Woolf Monk's House photograph album (MH-6), ca. 1850-1900 and undated. Harvard Theatre Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf Charles Darwin diary and correspondence written during the voyage of the Beagle, 1831-1836 Accessioned, 1972 (Film 496.14), 1831-1836 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Sir Leslie Stephen collection of papers, 1859]-1939 The New York Public Library. Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature.
referencedIn Eg. 3009. MISCELLANEOUS letters and papers, viz., 1530-1875 British Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Autograph letter signed : to an unidentified recipient, 1877 Jun. 7. Pierpont Morgan Library.
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referencedIn Autograph File, D, 1586-1975. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Personal reminiscences of Charles Darwin and of the reception of the, Origin of Species, 1909, 1909 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Thomas Wentworth Higginson correspondence, 1843-1911. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Sir Francis Darwin letters, 1868-1925, 1868-1925 American Philosophical Society
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referencedIn Tumy, Kelly Eileen. Charles Darwin, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Theodore Roethke : American nature poetry's foe, friend and forte / by Kelly Eileen Tumy. University of Houston, Clear Lake, Alfred R. Neumann Library
referencedIn Darwin, Francis, Sir, 1848-1925. Fragment of a letter to an unknown correspondent : Cambridge, England : ALS, 1910 Dec. 2. UC Berkeley Libraries
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Autograph quotation signed : Down, 1869 Jun. 23. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letters : Down, Kent, 1844-1877. Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Autobiografía [archivo de computadora] / Charles Darwin. Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico
referencedIn Thomas Henry Huxley papers, 1846-1895, 1846-1895 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter : Kent, England, to Daniel Sharpe, [1853] Nov. 12. Texas Christian University
referencedIn Stephen Jay Gould papers, 1899-2004, 1941-2002 Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Fiske, John, 1842-1901. Papers of John Fiske, 1850-1901. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter : Down, Beckenham, Kent, to "Dear Sir", 1876 Nov. 20. Bryn Mawr College, Mariam Coffin Canaday Library
referencedIn Loomis family. Loomis-Wilder family papers, 1790-1912 (inclusive). Yale University Library
creatorOf Charles Darwin papers, 1831-1882, 1831-1882 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Charles Darwin letters, ca. 1865-1882 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Spengel, Johann Wilhelm, 1852-1921. Historical after Darwin. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn Vol. CCCLXXXIII (ff. 314). Jan.-Mar. 1881.includes:f. 1 Edward Berkeley Portman, Baron Portman; Viscount Portman 1873: Letters to W. E. Gladstone: 1853-1884.ff. 3, 53 Colonel Edward William Pelham-Clinton, 2nd son of Henry, 5th Duke of Newcastle:... British Library
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referencedIn Elizabeth Anne Wheler: Reminiscences of my early life, 1905-1906 Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
referencedIn W. B. O. Field portrait collection, ca. 1600-1900. Houghton Library.
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creatorOf Levy, Richard John,. Richard John Levy and Sally Waldman Sweet collection, 1766-1935. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Field notebooks and anthropometric data, ca. 1883-1912 American Philosophical Society
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referencedIn HUXLEY, Thomas Henry (1825-1895), 1839-1931 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letters to Virginius Dabney, regarding tomato hybrids and natural selection as relates to hogs [manuscript] 1873 Nov. 3, and 1878 Oct. 20. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Papers, [1868?]-1881 and undated, Kent. Duke University, Medical Center Library & Archives
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Charles Darwin letters, 1878-1881. UC Berkeley Libraries
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letter to "Dear Sir," undated. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Charles Babington: Correspondence, 19th century Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
creatorOf Sir Joseph Banks papers, 1766-1820 (bulk), 1766-1820 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. A fragment of the original manuscript of his celebrated classic "The origin of the species." Lehigh University Libraries, Lehigh Libraries
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creatorOf [Charles Darwin, biographical materials] University of Wisconsin - Madison, General Library System
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referencedIn Hertzmann, Walter S. Portrait photographs, 19th century. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
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referencedIn Litchfield, Henrietta. Letter : Down, Kent, to Camilla [Pattrick], 1882 Apr 20. Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Autograph letter signed : Down, Kent, to [John] Collier, 1882 Feb. 16. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Museum of Comparative Zoology collection of portraits, 1850-1950 (bulk). Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
referencedIn An Annotated Calendar of the Letters of Charles Darwin in the Library of the American Philosophical Society, 1799-1882 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Rabinowitz, Louis Mayer, 1887-1957,. Louis Mayer Rabinowitz collection, 1676-1957 (inclusive), 1765-1915 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Letters of Charles Darwin to Fr. Muller, 1865-1882.Lender: The Royal College of Surgeons, 1865-1882 British Library
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referencedIn Papers of Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875), 1823-1875 Edinburgh University Library
referencedIn Dana family papers, 1805-1961 (bulk 1833-1894). Library of Congress
creatorOf Selsam, Millicent E. (Millicent Ellis), 1912-1996. Millicent Ellis Selsam papers, 1952-1977. University of Southern Mississippi, Regional Campus, Joseph Anderson Cook Library
creatorOf Donnelly, Ignatius, 1831-1901. Ignatius Donnelly and family papers, 1812-1973 (bulk 1855-1901). Minnesota Historical Society Library
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Fifty-eight original letters by Charles Darwin, written from Down, Bromley, Kent, between August 10, 1865, and January 4, 1882 to Fritz Müller, Blumenau, Sta. Catharina, Brazil : presented to Down House June 3, 1929 by Henry Fairfield Osborn. American Museum of Natural History
creatorOf Charles Darwin Papers Editorial Project Collection, 1821-1882 American Philosophical Society
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creatorOf Nitzsche, George Erazmus, 1874-1961. George E. Nitzsche Unitariana collection, 1778-2007. Massachusetts Historical Society
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creatorOf Belloc, Anne Louise Swanton, 1796-1881. Autograph letter signed : Paris, to John Murray, 1847 Mar. 18. Pierpont Morgan Library.
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creatorOf Dan H. Laurence Collection. [Syllabus of Darwin lecture]. University of Guelph
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creatorOf OAC Review Index (University of Guelph). Biologicial Club News, OAC Review, v.50, no.5, Feb.1938, p.299. University of Guelph
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles. Darwin, Charles : [photography bio file]. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
creatorOf Hallam Papers. Vol. ii. Account book; 1860-1891, n.d. ff. xiv+45. 222 x 181mm. Lined paper. Soft, dark red leather covers with gilt lined edging and mock bands on the spine. Marbled end-papers. Sold by W. & A. Webster, 60 Piccadilly. 1. ff. ii-v..., 1860-1891 British Library
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creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Letters : Down, Kent, 1844-1877. Yale University, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library
referencedIn Schaffner, Joseph Halle,. Joseph Halle Schaffner collection in the history of science, 1642-1961. University of Chicago Library
referencedIn Allen, Glover M. (Glover Morrill), 1879-1942. Darwin and the voyage of the Beagle, [193-?] Harvard University, Ernst Mayr Library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology
creatorOf Darwin, Charles 1809-1882. Authors Collection, [16--?] - [19--]. Boston College, Thomas P. O'Neill Library
referencedIn W. L. McAtee Papers, 1803-1963, (bulk 1900-1960) Library of Congress. Manuscript Division
referencedIn Harcourt Amory collection of Lewis Carroll, 1843-1915. Houghton Library.
referencedIn ORIGINAL letters, etc., viz.A. Eight letters to Rev. Adam Sedgwick, Woodwardian Professor of Geology at Cambridge, concerning Darwin's essay On the Origin of Species :— (a) Charles [Robert] Darwin, replying to Professor Sedgwick's letter of criticism..., 1796-1860 British Library
creatorOf STEFAN ZWEIG COLLECTION. Vol. CXLI. Charles Darwin: fragment of 'Insectivorous Plants', with some mathematical calculations relating to meridians on the verso; n.d. Draft. Published in 1875. See The Works of Charles Darwin, ed. P. H. Barrett and R. B... British Library
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referencedIn Portrait file: Guide. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Dana family. Dana family papers, 1764-1967 (inclusive), 1805-1961 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles Robert, 1809-1882. Viaje de un naturalista [archivo de computadora] / Charles Darwin. Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico
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creatorOf Hitchcock, Edward, 1793-1864. Edward and Orra White Hitchcock papers, series 1-8 and 15, 1809-1864. Amherst College Library
creatorOf MONTAGUE JOHN GUEST. Vol. VII. 1. Letters on Dorset affairs; 1867-1892. 2. Miscellaneous letters and papers; 1827-1884, 1905, n.d.includes:f. 1 Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert, 4th Earl of Carnarvon: Letter to M. J. Guest from Henry Howard Molyneux H..., 1827-1905 British Library
creatorOf Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Autograph letter signed : [London], to the botanist, John Stevens Henslow, [1839 Nov.] "Sunday Evening". Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Jonathan Couch Papers, 1839-1891 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Lankester, E. Ray (Edwin Ray), Sir, 1847-1929. Letters, 1892-[ca. 1903]. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Charles Darwin: Papers, c. 1680 - mid 20th century Cambridge University Library, Department of Manuscripts and University Archives
referencedIn A-G. AUTOGRAPH LETTERS and miscellaneous papers; l531-1891., 1531-1891 British Library
referencedIn Darwin, Francis Galton, Sir, 1848-1925. Letters, 1868-1925. American Philosophical Society Library
referencedIn Wallace, Alfred Russel, 1823-1913. Letter : Godalming, England, to Charles Marseilles, Exeter, N.H., 1885 Apr. 11. Texas Christian University
creatorOf Charles Darwin / Evolution Collection, ca. 1786-1968, 1840s-1920s University of California, Santa Barbara. Library. Dept. of Special Collections.
creatorOf Gould, Augustus A. (Augustus Addison), 1805-1866. Papers, 1831-1866 (inclusive), 1838-1852 (bulk). Harvard University, Houghton Library
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