Biko, Steve, 1946-1977

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Bantu Stephen Biko was born in Kingwilliamstown on the 18th December 1946. He was educated at Marianhill Secondary School in Kwazulu. He entered the Medical School of the University of Natal (Black Section), 1966; he and his colleagues founded the South African Students' Organisation (SASO) in 1968. He was elected the first President of the organisation at its inaugural congress held at Turfloop in 1969; he was instrumental in the formation of one of SASO's projects, the Black Workers' Project (BWP) which was co-sponsored by the Black Community Programmes (BCP) the project addressed problems of Black workers whose unions were then not recognised in law; After serving as President, Biko was elected Publications Director of SASO where he wrote prolifically under the pen name Frank Talk in the SASO Newsletter; he was expelled from medical school in 1972 and joined the BCP; in March 1973 he was banned and restricted to Kingwilliamstown, there he set up a BCP office where he worked as aBranch Executive, but shortly afterwards his banning order was amended to prohibit him from working or associating with the BCP; on 18th August 1977, he was arrested in a police roadblock with his colleague and comrade, Peter Cyril Jones and detained under Section 6 of the Terrorism Act. He died in custody, on 12 Sept 1977.

From the guide to the BIKO, Bantu Stephen (1946-1977), Jan 1971, (Institute of Commonwealth Studies)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Folb, Peter I. Biko doctors case collection [microform]. Center for Research Libraries, CRL
creatorOf BIKO, Bantu Stephen (1946-1977), Jan 1971 Institute of Commonwealth Studies
referencedIn South Africa Black Consciousness Movement collection, 1983-1993 The New York Public Library. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division.
referencedIn Fenton, Norman. The Biko inquest: a dramatization of the inquest into the death of Steve Biko / by Norman Fenton and Jon Blair, 1981. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Black Consciousness Movement of South Africa. South Africa Black Consciousness Movement collection, 1983-1993. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Gerhart, Gail M.,. Gail M. Gerhart collection, 1944-1979 (inclusive), [microform]. Yale University Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Black Consciousness Movement of South Africa. corporateBody
associatedWith Fenton, Norman. person
associatedWith Gerhart, Gail M., person
associatedWith South African Students' Organization corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
South Africa
Racial segregation
Inter-ethnic relations
Ethnic groups
Racial prejudice
Racial discrimination


Birth 1946-12-18

Death 1977-09-12

South Africans




Ark ID: w6nc6464

SNAC ID: 20508581