Romero, Óscar A. (Óscar Arnulfo), 1917-1980

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Saint Óscar Romero, in full Saint Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez, (born August 15, 1917, Ciudad Barrios, El Salvador—died March 24, 1980, San Salvador) was beatified May 23, 2015 then canonized on October 14, 2018. His feast day March 24th. Romero was a Salvadoran Roman Catholic archbishop who was a vocal critic of the violent activities of government armed forces, right-wing groups, and leftist guerrillas involved in El Salvador’s civil conflict.

Although Romero had been considered a conservative before his appointment as archbishop in 1977, he denounced the regime of dictator Gen. Carlos Humberto Romero (no relation). The archbishop also refused to support the right-wing military-civilian junta that replaced the deposed dictator. Further, his outspoken defense of the poor—who were powerless victims of widespread violence—brought repeated threats to his life. In the face of those threats, Romero declared his readiness to sacrifice his life for the “redemption and resurrection” of El Salvador. His unreserved advocacy for human rights made him a hero to many, and he was nominated for the 1979 Nobel Prize for Peace by a number of U.S. congressmen and 118 members of the British Parliament. The following year Romero was assassinated at the hands of an unknown assailant while saying mass. The Comisión de la Verdad para El Salvador (“Truth Commission for El Salvador”), approved by the United Nations, later concluded that Romero’s death had been carried out by a right-wing death squad. During his funeral a bomb or bombs went off outside the Metropolitan Cathedral of San Salvador, where tens of thousands of mourners were gathered at what has been considered one of the largest demonstrations in the country’s history. Gunfire then rained down on the panic-stricken crowd, leaving an estimated 27 to 40 people dead and more than 200 wounded from the violence and subsequent stampede.

Romero’s focus on the church’s “preferential option for the poor” principle and his call for an end to their oppression by the regime led some Latin American Catholic theologians who were associated with the liberation theology movement to view him favourably. It is unclear, however, how closely Romero associated with the movement, which integrated social justice philosophy with Catholic social ethics and emphasized the struggle of the poor for justice. In 2015, 35 years after Romero’s death, Pope Francis declared him a martyr. Romero was beatified later that year. In March 2018, following the medically inexplicable cure of a terminally ill Salvadoran woman whose husband had been seeking Romero’s intercession, Pope Francis approved the miracle necessary for Romero’s canonization, which took place at the Vatican in October 2018. According to canon law, martyrs require only one miracle for sainthood rather than the standard two.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Morton, Carlos. Carlos Morton papers, 1977-[ongoing]. University of Texas at El Paso
referencedIn Christian Association (University of Pennsylvania). Records, 1857-2000. University of Pennsylvania, Archives & Records Center
referencedIn General Records of the Department of State. 1763 - 2002. Records Relating to the United Nations Truth Commission National Archives at College Park
referencedIn Records of the Office of the Staff Secretary. 1976 - 1981. Presidential Files. 1977 - 1981. 3/26/80 [1] Jimmy Carter Library
referencedIn Morton, Carlos. Romero de las Américas : (el mártir de El Salvador) / original de Carlos Morton. University of California, Irvine. Library. Department of Special Collections
referencedIn Brockman, James R. Brockman-Romero papers, 1961-1998. DePaul University Library
referencedIn Guide to the Daily Worker and Daily World Photographs Collection, 1920-2001 Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Brockman, James R. person
associatedWith Christian Association (University of Pennsylvania) corporateBody
associatedWith Communist Party of the United States of America. corporateBody
associatedWith Morton, Carlos. person
Place Name Admin Code Country


Birth 1917-08-15

Death 1980-03-24


Spanish; Castilian,




Ark ID: w6mp9534

SNAC ID: 1850705