José Rizal (b. June 19, 1861, Calamba, Spanish Philippines–d. Dec. 30, 1896, Bagumbayan, Spanish Philippines) was a doctor and Philippine nationalist. He studied medicine in the Philippines and in Europe and trained as an ophthalmologist. While in Spain, he was leader of the reform movement of Filipino students. When he returned to Manila in 1892, he formed a civic movement called La Liga Filipina. Rizal was arrested en route to Cuba via Spain and was imprisoned in Barcelona on October 6, 1896. He was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution. He was also a prolific writer and poet.