Red Cloud, 1822-1909

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Red Cloud (b. 1822-d. December 10, 1909) leader of the Oglala Lakota, from 1868 to 1909. One of the most capable Native American opponents that the United States Army faced in its mission to subdue the western territories, he led a successful campaign in 1866–1868 known as Red Cloud's War over control of the Powder River Country in northeastern Wyoming and southern Montana. The largest action of the war, the Fetterman Fight (with 81 men killed on the US side), was the worst military defeat suffered by the US on the Great Plains until the Battle of the Little Bighorn ten years later. After signing the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), Red Cloud led his people in the important transition to reservation life. Some of his US opponents mistakenly thought of him as overall leader of the Sioux (Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota) groups. The large tribe had several major divisions and was highly decentralized. Bands among the Oglala and other divisions operated independently, even though some individual leaders, such as Red Cloud, were renowned as warriors and highly respected as leaders.
Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Hammond, John Henry, 1833-1890. Hammond, John Henry, 1833-1890 1860-1890 Papers. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson), 1822-1885. Letter, Executive Mansion, Washington, D.C., to Prof. G.W. Atherton, 1875 October 16. Pennsylvania State University Libraries
referencedIn PH 1300, Carter, Charles William photographer 1832-1918. Charles W. Carter glass negative collection circa 1860-1900 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Church History Library
referencedIn Huntington Free Library. Native American biography vertical file [ca.1850-2000.]. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Aldrich, Loren Winfield, b. ca. 1848. Brief reminiscences of the soldier's life on the plains and in the mountains during the early days of 1867-68-69 and 1870 / by Loren W. Aldrich, 1932. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Powder River Road Treaty, 1866. American Primers
creatorOf Plenty Coups, Chief of the Crows, 1848-1932. Declaration of allegiance to the government of the United States by the North American Indian, 1913 February 22. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Heyn Photo,. Heyn Photo photographs of Dakota Indians, circa 1870s-1890s. Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library
referencedIn Moorehead, Warren King, 1866-1939. Warren King Moorhead letter to S. S. McClure [manuscript], 1895 December 2. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Rock C. Jenkins photograph collection, 1886-1955 Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1793-1999: Letters received.
referencedIn Parker, Ely Samuel, 1828-1895. Letters to Robert Campbell, 1870-1871. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Burbank, E. A. (Elbridge Ayer), 1858-1949. E.A. Burbank Papers, 1897-1949. Newberry Library
referencedIn McGillycuddy, Julia B. (Julia Blanchard). McGillycuddy, agent / by Julia Mcgillycuddy, [ca. 1940]. Newberry Library
referencedIn Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899. [Red Cloud and William Blackmore on an excursion on the Potomic River, June, 1872 [art original]. Denver Public Library, Central Library
referencedIn Stuart, Granville, 1834-1918. Granville Stuart papers, [1864]-1918. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Aldrich, Lauren Winfield, 1848-1938. Papers of Lauren Winfield Aldrich, 1868-1938. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Aldrich, Loren Winfield, b. ca. 1848. Brief reminiscences of the soldier's life on the plains and in the mountains during the early days of 1867-68-69 and 1870 / by Loren W. Aldrich, 1932. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
creatorOf Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1793 - 1999. Council Proceedings
referencedIn Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1793 - 1999. Copies of Letters Sent
referencedIn United States. Commission Appointed to Treat with the Sioux Indians for the Relinquishment of the Black Hills. Minutes of the preliminary meetings, 1875 Jul-Aug. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Brininstool, E. A. (Earl Alonzo), 1870-1957,. E.A. Brininstool collection of Western photographs, circa 1860s-1940s. Brigham Young University, Harold B. Lee Library
referencedIn United States. Commission Appointed to Treat with the Sioux Indians for the Relinquishment of the Black Hills. Minutes of the preliminary meetings, 1875 Jul-Aug. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Crook, George, 1828-1890. Letters, 1876. American Primers
referencedIn Stuart, Granville, 1834-1918. Granville Stuart papers, [1864]-1918. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Goble, Paul. Brave Eagle's account of the Fetterman fight, 21 December 1866 : production material, 1972. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
referencedIn Peirce, Norman A. "Red Cloud the man, Red Cloud the city" / by Norman A. Peirce. Texas State Library & Archives Commission
referencedIn Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. Library. Scrapbooks, 1871-1957, 1871-1897 (bulk). Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn A statement of affairs at Red Cloud Agency, 1874-1876 L. Tom Perry Special Collections19th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts
referencedIn Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1793 - 1999. Telegrams Received and Copies of Telegrams Sent
referencedIn Hebard, Grace Raymond, 1861-1936. The Bozeman Trail : historical accounts of the blazing of the overland routes into the Northwest, and the fights with Red Cloud's warriors / by Grace Raymond Hebard and E. A. Brininstool, with introduction by General Charles King, U.S.V. ... Arranged and bound for the private library of Jerome J. Day : typescript, 1922. University of Idaho Library
creatorOf Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1793 - 1999. Accounts of a Council of Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux
referencedIn Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1793 - 1999. Letters Sent by the Agent
referencedIn A statement of affairs at Red Cloud Agency, 1874-1876. American Primers
Role Title Holding Repository
Place Name Admin Code Country
Subject
Occupation
Function

Person

Birth 1821

Death 1909

Male

Americans

Dakota,

English

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