Smithsonian Institution

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The Smithsonian Institution was established on August 10, 1846, is a group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government. The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. Originally organized as the United States National Museum.

James Smithson (1765-1829), a British scientist, left his estate to the United States to found “at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge.” The Smithsonian Institution was officially established by legislation signed by President James K. Polk on August 10, 1846, as a trust to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Since its founding, the Smithsonian has become the world’s largest museum and research complex, with 19 museums, the National Zoo and nine research facilities. The Secretary of the Smithsonian, appointed by the Board of Regents, is the Institution's chief executive officer.

Secretaries have included Joseph Henry, 1846-1878; Spencer F. Baird, 1878-1887; Samuel P. Langley, 1887-1906; Charles D. Walcott, 1907-1927; Charles G. Abbot, 1928-1944; Alexander Wetmore, 1944-1952; Leonard Carmichael, 1953-1964; S. Dillon Ripley, 1964-1984; Robert McCormick Adams, 1984-1994; Ira Michael Heyman, 1994-2000; Lawrence M. Small, 2000-2007; Cristián Samper, Acting Secretary, 2007-2008; and G. Wayne Clough, 2008 - .

Smithsonian Institution Archives Field Book Project: CorporateBody : Description : rid_9_oid_EACO9

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIe, 1845-1865 American Philosophical Society
creatorOf Letters pertaining to the bequest of James Smithson, 1838, [n.d.], n.d. American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Papers, (inclusive), (bulk), 1939-2004, 1955-1989 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Edward Everett Collection, 1811-1864 University of Virginia. Library. Special Collections Dept.
referencedIn National Museum of Engineering and Industry (New York, N.Y.). Records, [ca. 1920]-1935. Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
creatorOf Adler, Cyrus, 1863-1940. Letters to Henry Charles Lea, 1888-1896. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Preliminary program: Bicentennial celebration commemorating the birth of James Smithson, 1965. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Guide to the Samuel Ruben Papers, 1923-1979, 1923-1979 Poly Archives & Special Collections at Bern Dibner Library of Science and Technology
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Letters, 1964-1983, to Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf United States. Patent Office. Library. U.S. Patent Office Library register of books received and letter book, 1854 Oct. 16-1865 Oct. 3. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919. Theodore Roosevelt letter to Elliott L. Coues, 1882 Apr. 21. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Zahm, Albert Francis, 1862-. Papers, 1889-1953. University of Notre Dame, Hesburgh Library
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution. Office of the Secretary. Office of the Secretary (Charles D. Walcott, Charles G. Abbot, Alexander Wetmore), 1925-1949 Records. Smithsonian Institution Archives
referencedIn Peale-Sellers Family Collection, 1686-1963, 1686-1963 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Midwest Manuscript Collection (Newberry Library). Barlow family papers, 1816-1851. Newberry Library
referencedIn Johnston family. Johnston family : papers, 1798-1943. The Filson Historical Society
referencedIn Papers, 1929-1998 (Inclusive) Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine. Center for the History of Medicine.
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution : vertical file. Centre canadien d'architecture, | Canadian Centre for Architecture | CCA
creatorOf Miller, Robert Rush, 1916-2003. Papers of Robert Rush Miller, 1947-1951. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Jacob Stauffer Papers, 1844-1879, 1844-1879 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Papers, 1952-2004 Harvard Art Museums Archives
referencedIn New Harmony (Ind.). Collection, 1814-1884. Indiana Historical Society Library
referencedIn Kennicott, Robert, 1835-1866. Papers, 1853-1882. Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library
referencedIn Robert Kennicott (1835-1865?) and Henry M. Bannister (1844-1920) Papers, 1857-1905 Northwestern University Archives
creatorOf Goddard, Robert Hutchings, 1882-1945. A method of reaching extreme altitudes [manuscript], approximately 1919 / R.H. Goddard. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
referencedIn Roberts, Elizabeth Snyder. Elizabeth Snyder Roberts papers, [ca.1880]. New York State Historical Documents
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution Annual Report. 1861.0.
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Correspondence, 1910 Feb. 18, 21. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Kelly, Harold Osman, 1884-1955. Correspondence, 1948-1990 (bulk 1948-1958). Texas A&M University, Evans Library & Annex; Main campus library complex
referencedIn Higher Education Resource Services (HERS) records, 1969-1999 Special Collections and Archives, Penrose Library, University of Denver, 2150 E. Evans Ave., Denver, CO 80208
creatorOf Welling, Harriet Walker, 1892-1989. Welling family papers, 1899-1988. Newberry Library
referencedIn Lapham, Increase Allen, 1811-1875. Antiquities of Wisconsin, 1850-1855. American Antiquarian Society
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Correspondence with Carl Zigrosser, 1960-1962. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
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referencedIn Papers, 1888-1964 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
referencedIn Spencer Fullerton Baird Collection, 1858-1882 Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries
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referencedIn Tilson, Jonathan, 1818-1908. [Diary]. George Washington University
referencedIn Correspondence, 1860-1979. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Papers, 1918-1993 Harvard Law School Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Correspondence, 1965-1983, from Lewis Mumford. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. [Smithsonian Institution : International Art & Artists File]. Libraries Australia
referencedIn Roger D. Branigin-Kenneth Dale Owen Collection, 1825-1896, (bulk 1825-1859) Working Men's Institute of New Harmony, Indianahttp://www.workingmensinstitute.org/
referencedIn Loewy, Raymond, 1893-1986. General office files, 1931-1982 (bulk, 1960-1977). Hagley Museum & Library
referencedIn Coffin, James H. (James Henry), 1806-1873. James Henry Coffin Papers, 1829-1911, (bulk 1863-1865). Lafayette College
creatorOf Smithsonian Productions. Black radio : telling it like it was, circa 1920s-1997, bulk 1991-1995. Indiana University Archives of African American Music & Culture, AAAMC
referencedIn Stephen Johnson Field Letters Addressed to Him, 1862-1896 The Bancroft Library.
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referencedIn Donald William Page Papers, 1936-1958 The Bancroft Library.
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIh, 1892-1896 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Moore family. Papers, 1811-1881. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
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referencedIn Apple Computer, Inc. Records, 1977-1998 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
referencedIn U.S. Congress, Office Of The Architect Of The Capitol. File: Testing Materials, Strength Of Materials.
creatorOf Hemenway Southwestern Archaeological Expedition (1886-1894). Hemenway Expedition records, 1886-1914. Harvard University, Tozzer Library
referencedIn Kerst, Donald William, 1911-1993. Letter to William J. Hamm concerning donation of betatron to the Smithsonian Institution, 1985. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
creatorOf Suffolk County Historical Society. Hulbert flag papers, 1827-1977. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
referencedIn Nathan, Emily. Emily Nathan papers, [ca. 1935-1985]. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Duke Ellington recordings collection Eda Kuhn Loeb Music Library, Harvard College Library
referencedIn Hirshhorn, Joseph H. Oral history interview with Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1976 Dec. 16. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
referencedIn Dunnington, Jacqueline Orsini. Jacqueline Dunnington photograph collection [graphic]. New Mexico State Library
creatorOf Stereoviews of Indians and the Colorado River from the J.W. Powell Survey, ca. 1869-1874 The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.
creatorOf Norris, J. Parker (Joseph Parker), 1871-1931. Collecting directions for natural history specimens, mostly USNM pamphlets. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn John Jeffries papers, 1768-1819. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn J. B. Matthews Papers, 1862-1986 and undated David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Pamphlets. Princeton University Library
referencedIn George Balanchine archive, 1924-1989 (inclusive), 1961-1983 (bulk). Harvard Theatre Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University.
creatorOf Bushnell, David I. (David Ives), 1875-1941. [Bushnell, David Ives, Jr., 1875-1941 collection records, 1845-1951]. Harvard University, Tozzer Library
referencedIn Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878. Papers, 1837-1874. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
referencedIn Century Company records, 1870-1924 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf University of Guelph. Dept. of Environmental Biology. General Correspondence - Washington D.C., 1970, with P. Hurd, D.C., Smithsonian Institution. University of Guelph
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIj, 1898-1988 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Tennessee State Museum. "Save Outdoor Sculpture" Survey, 1992. Tennessee State Library & Archives, TSLA
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. The Smithsonian Institution and higher education, 1965. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Curtis journal, 1894. Historical Society of Washington, Dc
referencedIn Lyceum of Natural History (New York, N.Y.). Resolutions adopted by the Lyceum of Natural History New York, in relation to the Smithsonian Institution, 1855 Feb. 5. Boston Athenaeum
referencedIn W. L. McAtee Papers, 1803-1963, (bulk 1900-1960) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Brent, John Carroll, 1814-1876. Papers, 1841-1850 (bulk 1841-1845). Library of Congress
referencedIn Lacombe, Albert, 1827-1916. Letters, 1872-1886. Newberry Library
referencedIn James Parton papers, 1914-1986. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
creatorOf Hoffman, J. J. (John Jacob), 1931-. Prehistoric houses along the middle Missouri River / by Smithsonian Institution. Colorado State University, Morgan Library
referencedIn Holland, C. G. (Charlton Gilmore), 1911-. Correspondence of Charlton Gilmore Holland with the Smithsonian Institute [manuscript] 1959-1972. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Daniel P. Moynihan Papers, 1765-2003, (bulk 1955-2000) Manuscript Division, Library of Congress
referencedIn Wetherill, Charles Mayer, 1825-1871. Papers : mostly pertaining to chemistry, 1837-1886. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
creatorOf Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878. Explorations in the Far West. American Museum of Natural History
referencedIn American Philosophical Society Archives. Record Group IIi, 1897 American Philosophical Society
referencedIn Moses Chaim Shelesnyak Papers, 1946-1979 History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine
referencedIn Everett, Edward, 1794-1865. Papers of Edward Everett, 1811-1864. University of Virginia. Library
referencedIn Idaho State Historical Society. Hagerman Fossil Beds collection, 1931. Idaho State Archives, Idaho State Historical Society
referencedIn Hodge, Frederick Webb, 1864-1956. Frederick Webb Hodge papers, 1888-1931. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution, National Museum Of American History. [Contact repository for more information].
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Correspondence, 1910 Dec. 6, 8. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Selma Rattner research papers on James Renwick, 1856-2001, (bulk 1960s-2001) Columbia University. Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library. Dept. of Drawings & Archive,
referencedIn Panel for a National Dialogue on Museum/Native American Relations. Panel for National Dialogue on Museum Native American Relations records, 1970-1990. The Heard Museum Library
referencedIn Papers, 1910-1985 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
referencedIn Harrison "Buzz" Price, Papers, 1956-2006 Special Collections and University Archives, University of Central Florida Libraries,
referencedIn Larsen, Carl W, 1919-1993. Carl W. Larsen papers, 1930-1972. University of Wyoming, American Heritage Center
referencedIn Pineau, Roger, 1916-. Papers, 1860-1993. Naval War College, Henry E. Eccles Library
referencedIn Smithsonian Archives. Ru 33: Office Of The Secretary, Outgoing Corres..
creatorOf Zanella, Alice Apekaum Tonemah, 1894-1972. Alice A. Zanella photograph of Native American chiefs in Washington, D.C., ca. 1880. Museum of the Great Plains
referencedIn Letters to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 1761-1904 (inclusive) 1820-1888 (bulk). Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
referencedIn Charles Lang Freer Papers, 1876-1931 The Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives
creatorOf Brooks, John H. Records of John H. Brooks, 1968-2007. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
creatorOf Tolman, Ruel Pardee, 1878-. [Tour of art galleries in the Northeastern U.S.]. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Lutz, Ella Cox, b. 1906. Ella Cox Lutz photograph collection, 1890-1962. Museum of the Great Plains
creatorOf Smith, Erminnie Adele Platt, 1836-1886. [Peabody Museum director records, Frederic W. Putnam (1839-1915), 1870-1923]. Harvard University, Tozzer Library
referencedIn Mills, Robert, 1781-1855. Robert Mills papers, 1803-1856. South Carolina Historical Society, SCHS
referencedIn Robin Chandler Lynn Duke Papers, [ca. 1930]-2009 David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
creatorOf Lick Observatory. James Lick and Joseph Henry, ca. 1974. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
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creatorOf Clark, Charles Upson, 1875-1960. Charles Upson Clark notebooks, [ca. 1929-1939]. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution. Office of the Secretary. Office of the Secretary (Alexander Wetmore, Leonard Carmichael), 1949-1964 Records. Smithsonian Institution Archives
referencedIn Burmese Immigrants in Indiana, 2001-2002 Indiana University Center for the Study of History and Memoryhttp://www.indiana.edu/~cshm
referencedIn Freer, Charles Lang, 1854-1919. Charles Lang Freer selected papers, 1876-1931. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
creatorOf Allen, Winnie, 1895-1985. Winnie Allen papers, 1938-1946. San Jacinto Museum of History
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referencedIn Luvenia A. George Collection, 1905-2003, bulk 1935-1998 Indiana University, Archives of African American Music and Culture (AAAMC)http://www.indiana.edu/~aaamc
referencedIn Smithsonian Institution : PAD/D pamphlet file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Thomas J. Watson Library
referencedIn Marsh, George P. (George Perkins), 1801-1882. Papers, 1812-1929. University of Vermont, Bailey/Howe Library
creatorOf Alabama Anthropological Society. Records, 1787-1979. Alabama Department of Archives and History
creatorOf Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Office of the Registrar. Imperial Austria: Treasures of Art, Arms and Armor from the State of Styria, exhibition files, 1989-1993. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston - Hirsch Library, Hirsch Library
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referencedIn Hale Edward Everett, 1822-1909. Papers, 1750-1917. American Periodical Series I
referencedIn Warren d'Azevedo Collection, 1935-2001 Liberian Collectionshttp://www.onliberia.org
creatorOf Carpenter, Mary Jo. Office of Public Relations Records of Mary Jo Carpenter, 1979-1991. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, The Clark
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creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Institutional file. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
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referencedIn Geoffrey T. Hellman Papers, 1842-1971 Fales Library & Special Collections
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referencedIn James Gilchrist Swan Papers, 1833-1909 University of Washington Libraries Special Collections
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creatorOf Bonforte, Lisa,. Otter on his own mixed materials) : the story of a sea otter. Harford County Public Library
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creatorOf Petitot, Emile Fortuné Stanislas Joseph, 1838-1917. Chants indiens du Canada Nord-Ouest / recueillis, classés et notés par Emile Petitot, prêtre missionnaire au Mackenzie, de 1862-1882, 1889. Newberry Library
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creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Correspondence with Marian Anderson, 1960-1965. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
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referencedIn Jared Sparks collection of American manuscripts, 1582-1843. Houghton Library, , Harvard College Library, Harvard University
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creatorOf Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887. Catalogue North American mammals with drawings and proof of plates / [S.F.] Baird. Smithsonian Institution. Libraries
creatorOf Holland, C. G. (Charlton Gilmore), 1911-. Papers of Charlton Gilmore Holland [manuscript], 1936-1959. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Stephen L. and George L. Goodale collection, 1841-1874. Brick Store Museum
referencedIn Meteorological observations made for the Franklin Institute, 1839-1865, 1839-1865 American Philosophical Society
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referencedIn Geahagan, Earl,. Oral history interview, 1981. Northeast Archives of Folklore and Oral History, Maine Folklife Center
creatorOf Smithsonian Institution. Pamphlets. Princeton University Library
referencedIn Regulations in connection with the transmission of packages through the International Exchange Service of the Smithsonian Institution. University of Manchester Library, Main Library
referencedIn Bowers, Stephen, 1832-1907. Correspondence, 1860-1915. American Philosophical Society Library
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creatorOf Pickens, John K. Papers : of John K. Pickens, 1964-1976. Alexandria Library
referencedIn Australian Meteorite Expedition (1963-1964). Astronomical photographs, 1963-1964. Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
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referencedIn U.S. Congress, Office Of The Architect Of The Capitol. File: Smithsonian Institution, General Information.
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creatorOf Read, Georgia Willis. Papers of Georgia Willis Read, 1849-1951 (bulk 1932-1951) Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn IEEE History Center. Micro-Electronics Oral History Project. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn McAtee, W. L. (Waldo Lee), 1883-1962. Papers of W. L. McAtee, 1803-1963 (bulk 1900-1960). Library of Congress
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referencedIn Clark, Thomas, b. ca. 1820. Thomas Clark papers, 1854-1876. Minnesota Historical Society Library
referencedIn Segrè, Emilio. Segre and Seaborg present plutonium sample to the Smithsonian Institution in recognition of the 25th anniversary of plutonium [sound recording] / 1967 March. American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library
referencedIn Records of the Fishermen's Wives of Gloucester (Association), (inclusive), (bulk), 1950-2009, 1977-2004 Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute
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