Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch (b. 11 December 1843, Clausthal, Kingdom of Hanover – d. 27 May 1910, Baden Baden, Germany), physician and microbiologist. As one of the main founders of modern bacteriology, he identified the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax but also gave experimental support for the concept of infectious disease, which included experiments on humans and other animals. Koch created and improved laboratory technologies and techniques in the field of microbiology, and made key discoveries in public health. Koch's research led to the creation of Koch's postulates, a series of four generalized principles linking specific microorganisms to specific diseases that remain today the "gold standard" in medical microbiology. He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1905 for his research on tuberculosis.