Fluxus (Group of artists)

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Fluxus is an international and interdisciplinary group of artists, composers, designers and poets that took shape in the 1960s and 1970s, founded by artist Willem de Ridder. Dutch gallerist and art critic Harry Ruhé describes Fluxus as "the most radical and experimental art movement of the sixties". Fluxus is known for experimental contributions to different artistic media and disciplines. Fluxus is also known for generating art forms that were new when Fluxus artists created them. These art forms include intermedia, a term coined by Fluxus artist Dick Higgins, concept art, first developed by sometime Fluxus artist Henry Flynt, and video art, first pioneered by Nam June Paik and Wolf Vostell. Fluxus participants included "artists, composers, designers, and architects, as well as economists, mathematicians, ballet dancers, chefs, and even a would-be theologian. Equally significant, they represented nations on three continents – Asia, Europe, and North America. They produced performance "events," which included enactments of scores, "Neo-Dada" noise music, and time-based works, as well as concrete poetry, visual art, urban planning, architecture, design, literature, and publishing. Many Fluxus artists share an anti-commercial and anti-art sensibility. Fluxus is sometimes described as intermedia. The ideas and practices of composer John Cage influenced Fluxus, especially his notion that one should embark on an artwork without a conception of its end, and his understanding of the work as a site of interaction between artist and audience. The process of creating was privileged over the finished product. Another influence was the readymades of Marcel Duchamp, a French artist who was active in Dada (1916-c. 1922). George Maciunas, a co-founder of this fluid movement, coined the name Fluxus in 1961 to title a proposed magazine. Many experimental artists of the 1960s took part in Fluxus activities, including Joseph Beuys, George Brecht, Robert Filliou, Al Hansen, Dick Higgins, Bengt af Klintberg, Alison Knowles, Addi Køpcke, Yoko Ono, Nam June Paik, Ben Patterson, Daniel Spoerri, and Wolf Vostell. The broad and varied nature of the artists involved in Fluxus involved a community of friends who worked together. They had different ideas about art and the role of art in society. The overlapping communities within Fluxus and the way that Fluxus developed in overlapping stages meant that participants had very different ideas about what Fluxus was.[18] One Fluxus co-founder – George Maciunas – proposed a well known manifesto, but none of the other artists agreed with it, and few considered Fluxus to be a movement. Instead, a series of festivals in Wiesbaden, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Amsterdam, London. and New York, gave rise to a loose but robust community. In keeping with the reputation Fluxus earned as a forum of experimentation, some Fluxus artists came to describe Fluxus as a laboratory. Fluxus played an important role in the opening up of definitions of art.
Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
contributorOf David Antin papers, 1954-2006 Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Robert Watts papers, 1883-1989 (bulk 1940-1988), Bulk, 1940-1988 Getty Research Institute
contributorOf Carolee Schneemann papers, 1959-1994 Getty Research Institute
Irving Sandler papers, ca. 1914-2001, bulk 1950-2000 Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Interviews with art historians, 1991-2002 Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Fluxus collection, [ca. 1994-ongoing]. Museum of Performance & Design
creatorOf Woods, Shadrach, 1923-1973. Shadrach Woods architectural records and papers, 1923-2008 (bulk 1948-1973). Columbia University in the City of New York, Columbia University Libraries
contributorOf Harald Szeemann papers Getty Research Institute
contributorOf Robert Watts papers, 1883-1989 (bulk 1940-1988), Bulk, 1940-1988 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf FLUXUS. Artist file : miscellaneous uncataloged material. Museum of Modern Art (MOMA)
contributorOf David Tudor papers, 1884-1998 (bulk 1940-1996) Getty Research Institute
Lawrence Alloway papers, 1935-2003 Getty Research Institute
contributorOf Ridder, Willem de. Willem de Ridder papers Houghton Library
contributorOf Minimal and Conceptual Art Documents, 1969-1989 Getty Research Institute
contributorOf Harry Shunk and Shunk-Kender photographs Getty Research Institute
contributorOf Dick Higgins papers, 1960-1994, 1972-1993 Getty Research Institute
contributorOf Jean Brown papers, 1916-1995 Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Anthology Film Archives. Study collection, [ca. 1900-1985], 1950-1985 (bulk) Campbell University, Wiggins Memorial Library
creatorOf Fluxus, 1960-1970. [Fluxus] : artist file John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art Library, Ringling Museum Library
referencedIn Akasegawa, Gempei. Miscellaneous papers relating to Fluxus from the Ellsworth Snyder Collection, ca. 1964-ca. 1987. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Allan Kaprow papers, 1940-1997 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Fluxus (Group of artists) . Institutional file. Brooklyn Museum Libraries & Archives
contributorOf Yvonne Rainer papers, 1871-2013 (bulk 1959-2013) Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Kate Millett papers, 1912-2002 and undated, bulk 1951-2001 David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Anthology Film Archives. corporateBody
correspondedWith Brown, Jean, 1911-1994 person
founderOf De Ridder, Willem person
hasMember Higgins, Dick, 1938-1998 person
associatedWith Kaprow, Allan. person
foundedBy Maciunas, George, 1931-1978 person
correspondedWith Millett, Kate person
memberOf Paik, Nam June person
associatedWith Rainer, Yvonne, 1934-.... person
correspondedWith Szeemann, Harald, 1933-2005 person
associatedWith The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art Library. corporateBody
foundedBy Watts, Robert, 1923-1988 person
associatedWith Woods, Shadrach, 1923-1973. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Concrete poetry
Conceptual art
Art, Modern--20th century

Corporate Body

Active 1923

Active 2008

Birth 1960

Death 1970


Multiple languages


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