George, Stefan, 1868-1933

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Stefan George, German poet, editor, and translator, was at the center of an influential literary and academic circle known as the "Georgekreis." This included many leading young writers of the day such as Friedrich Gundolf and Ludwig Klages. He was thought of by his contemporaries as a "prophet" and a "priest," or the "Master," as he had his disciples call him. George's poetry was a major influence on the music of the Second Viennese School of composers.

Armin Knab, a German composer, originally studied and practiced law. After 1920 he began to make a reputation as a composer and writer, mainly in connection with the German youth music movement. By 1934 Knab decided to devote himself to music. He was awarded the Max Reger Prize in 1940.

From the description of Gräber von Stefan George ; melodie von Armin Knab : manuscript, [1920s] (Princeton University Library). WorldCat record id: 213343259

German poet, philosopher, editor, and translator Stefan George (1868-1933) was born to wine merchant Stephan George and Eva Schmitt near Bingen, Germany. In 1888, while traveling throughout Europe, George met the symbolist poet Stéphane Mallarmé in Paris. Inspired by the meeting, George began publishing his own poetry, and by 1899 had established himself as an important poet. He founded and edited the influential literary magazine Blätter für die Kunst, which he published between 1892 and 1919. George lived an itinerant life throughout his adulthood, staying at the homes of friends throughout Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and France. During the First World War, George became more critical of society and his poems became political in nature, particularly his 1917 collection Der Krieg ("The War") and his 1928 collection Das neue Reich ("The New Empire"). Although his poetry's themes and his philosophies appealed to German nationalists in the early 1930s, George withheld his explicit support of the Nazi government and rejected several offers from them for state honors. George died in Locarno, Switzerland in 1933.

George attracted a group of fellow poets and academics, called the Georgekreis (the George Circle). In their time, they dominated the fields of literature, history, psychology, and economics in German universities. In the first decades of the 20th century, George's circle changed from a group of fellow intellectuals into a clan of devoted disciples that referred to George as their "master." Circle members included Robert Boehringer (1884-1974), Friedrich Gundolf (1880-1931), Max Kommerell (1902-1944), and Karl Wolfskehl (1869-1948). The group was notoriously secretive and protective of their master.

German writer, lawyer, and scholar Ernst Morwitz (1887-1971), a devoted disciple of George, was born in Danzig Germany, to Rosalie Aronsohn and Jewish merchant Wilhelm Morwitz. He studied law in Freiburg, Heidelberg, and Berlin, finally earning a degree in 1910. In 1905, Morwitz befriended Stefan George, and in 1911 published several poems in George's journal Blätter für die Kunst . Morwitz served as a paramedic during the First World War and after the war worked as a district judge in Fürstenwalde and a lawyer in Berlin. Morwitz maintained close communications with George over the next decade, and even represented George in legal capacities. After George's death in 1933, Morwitz published Das Werk Die Dichtung Stefan Georges (1934). Morwitz fled Nazi Germany in 1938 and emigrated to the America, where he taught German in the United States Army. After the war, Morwitz secured a post at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in the Germanic Languages department. Morwitz remained devoted to George and published several volumes on the master, including the first English edition of George's poetry (1943), and, with the help of Carol North Valhope, a comprehensive collection of George's works in America (1949). Eventually, Morwitz returned to Europe as editor of the Amsterdam literary magazine Castrum Peregrini . He died in Muralto, Switzerland, in 1971, and left his papers and library to long-time friend Dietrich von Bothmer (1918-2009).

From the guide to the Stefan George letters to Ernst Morwitz, 1905-1956, 1911-1933, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. Anton Webern / Fünf Lieder / nach / Gedichten von Stefan George / für / eine Singstimme u. Klavier / op. 4. Pierpont Morgan Library.
referencedIn Lechter, Melchior, 1865-1937. Melchior Lechter papers, 1879-1937. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. Stefan George / VII. Ring / A. v. Webern op. 2. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Schoenberg, Arnold, 1874-1951. II. Quartett für 2 Violinen, Viola u. Violoncell / von Arnold Schönberg. Library of Congress
creatorOf Montfitchet, Mary de. Tag-Gesang : für eine Singstimme und Pianoforte / von Mary de Montfitchet ; [Gedicht von] Stefan George. Dwight Anderson Memorial Music Library, University of Louisville
creatorOf Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. "Eingang / (Der siebente Ring) / Anton von Webern" : autograph manuscript, 1909. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Stefan George letters to Ernst Morwitz, 1905-1956, 1911-1933 New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
referencedIn Melchior Lechter papers, 1879-1937 Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Seabourne, Peter. This is a song for you alone : romanza for violin and strings / Peter Seabourne. Bowling Green State University, BGSU Libraries
creatorOf Hess, Robert E. See my child I leave / song by Robert E. Hess ; poem by Stefan George ; translation from the German by Carol North Valhope and Ernst Morwitz. New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf George, Stefan Anton, 1868-1933. Gräber von Stefan George ; melodie von Armin Knab : manuscript, [1920s] Princeton University Library
creatorOf George, Stefan Anton, 1868-1933. Stefan George letters to Ernst Morwitz, 1905-1956 (bulk 1911-1933). New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. Gemischter Chor a cappella [Canon] (Stefan George) / Anton von Webern. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Salin, Edgar, 1892-1974. Miscellaneous papers relating to Stefan George, ca. 1936-1983. Getty Research Institute
referencedIn Lechter, Melchior, 1865-1937. Papers relating to the "George-Kreis," ca. 1891-1934. Getty Research Institute
creatorOf Stefan George note to Erich Berger, undated New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division
creatorOf Curtius, Ernst, 1814-1896. Letters to Ernst Curtius and Ernst Robert Curtius, 1841-1956. Cornell University Library
referencedIn Sior, Marie-Luise, 1904-. Herrn Professor Dr. Viëtor von seinen Schülern : typescript, 1929 Nov. Harvard University, Houghton Library
referencedIn The Cassirer collection, 1906-1933. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
referencedIn Letters to Ernst Curtius and Ernst Robert Curtius, 1841-1956. Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library.
referencedIn Faber du Faur, Curt von, 1890-1966. Kurt von Faber du Faur papers, 1923-1966. Stanford University. Department of Special Collections and University Archives
creatorOf Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. Gemischter Chor a capella [Canon] (Stefan George) / Anton von Webern. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
referencedIn Karl Jacoby collection of printed works by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, 1891-1945. Houghton Library.
creatorOf George, Stefan Anton, 1868-1933. Papers, 1939-1941. Duke University Libraries, Duke University Library; Perkins Library
creatorOf Schoenberg, Arnold, 1874-1951. [Das Buch der hängenden Gärten. : Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 8 : Drafts]. Pierpont Morgan Library.
creatorOf Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. Fünf Lieder nach Gedichten von Stefan George : für eine Singstimme u. Klavier op. 4 / Anton Webern. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
referencedIn Autograph File, G, 1641-1991. Houghton Library.
creatorOf Razoumovsky Quartet. Change III [sound recording]. University of North Carolina School of the Arts, Semans Library
creatorOf Montfitchet, Mary de. Tuli-Schwermut : für eine Singstimme und Klavier / von Mary de Montfitchet ; [Gedicht von] Stefan George. Dwight Anderson Memorial Music Library, University of Louisville
creatorOf Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. Stefan George VII. Ring / A. v. Webern op. 2 [sic] HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
creatorOf Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. Ihr tratet zu dem Herde "aus dem Jahr der Seele" von Stefan George : für eine Singstimme und Klavier / von Anton von Webern. HCL Technical Services, Harvard College Library
referencedIn Kurt von Faber du Faur Papers, 1923-1966 Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.
Role Title Holding Repository
Relation Name
associatedWith Berger, Erich person
associatedWith Blätter für die Kunst. corporateBody
associatedWith Curtius, Ernst, 1814-1896. person
associatedWith Ernst, Curtius 1814-1896. person
associatedWith Faber du Faur, Curt von, 1890-1966. person
associatedWith George-Kreis. corporateBody
associatedWith Hess, Robert E. person
associatedWith Hofmannsthal, Hugo von, 1874-1929. person
associatedWith Jacoby, Karl, collector. person
associatedWith Knab, Armin, 1881-1951 person
associatedWith Lechter, Melchior, 1865-1937. person
associatedWith Montfitchet, Mary de person
associatedWith Morwitz, Ernst, 1887-1971. person
associatedWith Razoumovsky Quartet. corporateBody
associatedWith Salin, Edgar, 1892-1974. person
associatedWith Schoenberg, Arnold, 1874-1951. person
associatedWith Seabourne, Peter. person
associatedWith Webern, Anton, 1883-1945. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Germany
Germany
German
Subject
German poetry--20th century
German poetry--19th century
Composers, German--20th century--Manuscripts
Poets, German--20th century
Occupation
Librettists
Poets--German
Function

Person

Birth 1868-07-12

Death 1933-12-04

Germans

English,

German

Information

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