Frank, Anne, 1929-1945

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Anne Frank was born June 12, 1929 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Her parents were Edith and Otto Heinrich Frank; she had an older sister Margot (born 1926). The family were liberal Jews. During the rise of Hitler's Nazi Germany the hatred of Jews and the poor economic situation made Anne's parents decide to move to Amsterdam in 1934. There, Otto founded a company that traded in pectin, a gelling agent for making jam. The Nazis invaded the Netherlands in 1940 and started putting restrictions on Jews. In the spring of 1942, Anne’s father had started furnishing a hiding place in the annex of his business premises at Prinsengracht 263. He received help from his former colleagues (Victor Kugler, Johannes Kleiman, Miep and Jan Gies, and Bep Voskuijl). Before long, they were joined by four more people (Hermann, Auguste, and 16-year-old Peter van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer). On her thirteenth birthday, just before they went into hiding, Anne was presented with a diary. During the two years in hiding, Anne wrote about events in the Secret Annex, but also about her feelings and thoughts.

On August 4, 1944, the hiding place was raided by the police and Nazi officers. The Franks, Van Pelses, and Pfeffer were taken to RSHA headquarters, where they were interrogated and held overnight. On August 5 they were transferred to an overcrowded prison on the Weteringschans. Two days later they were transported to the Westerbork transit camp. Having been arrested in hiding, they were considered criminals and sent to the Punishment Barracks for hard labour. Victor Kugler and Johannes Kleiman were arrested and jailed at the penal camp for enemies of the regime at Amersfoort. Kleiman was released after seven weeks, but Kugler was held in various work camps until the war's end. Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl were questioned and threatened by the Security Police but not detained.

On September 3, 1944, the Franks were sent to Auschwitz and split up: Anne, Margot, and their mother were sent to the labour camp for women; Otto ended up in a camp for men. On October 28, selections began for women to be relocated to Bergen-Belsen. More than 8,000 women, including Anne and Margot Frank, and Auguste van Pels, were transported. Edith Frank was left behind and died from starvation. In early 1945 there was a typhus epidemic at Bergen-Belsen. Anne and Margot both died sometime between February and March from typhus, just a few weeks before the British liberated the camp.

Anne’s father Otto was the only one of the people from the Secret Annex to survive the war. Miep Gies gave Otto Frank Anne's diary that she found after the annex was raided. Friends convinced Otto to publish the diary and in June 1947, 3,000 copies of Het Achterhuis (The Secret Annex) were printed. The book was later translated into around 70 languages and adapted for stage and screen. People all over the world were introduced to Anne's story.

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Papers of the Anne Frank Educational Trust UK, 1994 University of Southampton Libaries Special Collections
referencedIn US Holocaust Memorial Council. American Gathering Conference collection Poland - Unknown testimonies. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
referencedIn Goodrich, Frances. The diary of Anne Frank: typescript, [1956]. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Eisenstein, Harold. Lest we forget : a return to the world of Anne Frank / [written by Harold and Anita Eisenstein ; directed by Harold Eisenstein, Gallery Players' Artist in Residence]. Ohio State University Libraries
referencedIn Jewish Community Center of Milwaukee. Jewish Community Center jubilee and proclamation collection, 1981-1987. Milwaukee Jewish Historical Society
referencedIn Angoff, Charles, 1902-1979. Charles Angoff collection, 1927-1978. Boston University. School of Medicine
referencedIn Mathews, Birdie B., 1880-1974. Papers, 1914-1974. Iowa State Historical Society
referencedIn Waterford, Helen H. Helen H. Waterford manuscripts draft manuscript for book. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
creatorOf Frank, Anne, 1929-1945. Diario [recurso electrónico] / Ana Frank. Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico
creatorOf CentreStage Theatre Archives. Rape: A Matter of Choice, Jan., 18, 1978 - tape. University of Guelph. McLaughlin Library
referencedIn Lane, Mary. Mary Lane collection, 1954-1980. Emory University Library, Special Collect Department
creatorOf Lorraine Kimsa Theatre for Young People Theatre Archives (University of Guelph). The Diary of Anne / by Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett ; based on the book Anne Frank: the Diary of a Young Girl ; directed by Richard Greenblatt ; designed by Michael Eagan, 1986 - technical drawings. University of Guelph. McLaughlin Library
referencedIn Gies, Miep, 1909-2010. Letters : to Joanne Weber Schul, 1998-2008. Buffalo History Museum, Research Library
referencedIn Voices from the Food Revolution: People Who Changed The Way Americans Eat, An oral history project conducted by Judith Weinraub, 2009-2011 Fales Library & Special Collections
referencedIn Secret annex (Choreographic work : Diamond) [clippings] New York Public Libraries for the Performing Arts, Dance Collection
creatorOf Morawetz, Oskar, 1917-2007. Who has allowed us to suffer? : for a cappella choir / Oskar Morawetz ; words by Anne Frank. McGill University Library
creatorOf Frid, Grigoriĭ Samuilovich. Dnevnik Anny Frank = [Anna Frank's diary : mono-opera in 4 scenes, 21 episodes, op. 60 / [music and libretto by] Gregori Frid ; literary basis of libretto is the real text of the Diary of Anna Frank, in translation from the Dutch by Rita Rayt-Kovaleva.]. Jewish Theological Seminary of America
referencedIn Cohen, Michael, 1938-. Yours, Anne / music by Michael Cohen ; libretto by Enid Futterman ; based on Anne Frank: the diary of a young girl, 1986. New York Public Library System, NYPL
referencedIn Records of, Sojourner, (inclusive), (bulk), 1920-2004, 1975-2002 Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America‏
referencedIn The Murderers of Anne Frank (East German) National Archives at College Park
referencedIn B'nai B'rith. Anti-defamation League. Orange County. Orange County Regional Office. Orange County Holocaust Oral History Project interviews, 1992-1994. University of California, Irvine. Library. Department of Special Collections
referencedIn Secret annex (Choreographic work : Diamond) [clippings] New York Public Library System, NYPL
creatorOf Frank, Anne, 1929-1945. I still believe that people are really good at heart, [1979] / Anne Frank. Newberry Library
referencedIn Kulisiewicz, Aleksander. Aleksander Kulisiewicz collection M Research Materials Bergen-Belsen. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
creatorOf Berlinski, Herman. And her children rise up and call her blessed : cantata / Herman Berlinski. Jewish Theological Seminary of America
referencedIn The Files of Youth Aliyah in the Hadassah Archives, 1933-2006 Hadassah the Women's Zionist Organization of America, Inc.
creatorOf Morawetz, Oskar, 1917-2007. From the diary of Anne Frank / by Oskar Morawetz. The Juilliard School, Lila Acheson Wallace Library
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Universal Newsreel Volume 30, Release 53 National Archives at College Park
Relation Name
associatedWith Angoff, Charles, 1902-1979. person
associatedWith Berlinski, Herman. person
associatedWith B'nai B'rith. Anti-defamation League. Orange County. Orange County Regional Office. corporateBody
associatedWith Carrier, Gertrude Lueneburg, 1902-1991. person
associatedWith CentreStage Theatre Archives. corporateBody
associatedWith Cohen, Michael, 1938- person
associatedWith Eisenstein, Harold. person
associatedWith Ezell, Reggie. person
associatedWith Frid, Grigoriĭ Samuilovich. person
associatedWith Gies, Miep, 1909-2010. person
associatedWith Goodrich, Frances. person
associatedWith Jewish Community Center of Milwaukee. corporateBody
associatedWith Kulisiewicz, Aleksander. person
associatedWith Lane, Mary. person
associatedWith Lorraine Kimsa Theatre for Young People Theatre Archives (University of Guelph) corporateBody
associatedWith Mathews, Birdie B., 1880-1974. person
associatedWith Morawetz, Oskar, 1917-2007. person
associatedWith Sojourner (Cambridge, Mass.) corporateBody
associatedWith The Anne Frank Educational Trust UK person
associatedWith US Holocaust Memorial Council. corporateBody
associatedWith Waterford, Helen H. person
Place Name Admin Code Country
Federal Republic of Germany 00 DE
Kingdom of the Netherlands 00 NL
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp 06 DE
Amsterdam 07 NL
Frankfurt am Main 05 DE


Birth 1929-06-12

Death 1945-03


Dutch; Flemish



Ark ID: w65c0rns

SNAC ID: 84149458