Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824

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First emperor of Mexico. Born 1783 in Valladolid (Morelia); executed July 19, 1824, in Padilla, Tamaulipas. Iturbide joined the army in 1800, by 1810 was fighting with the royalists, and by 1820 held the rank of colonel. In February 1821 he and Vicente Guerrero signed the Plan de Iguala and created the Ejército Trigarante. In August 1821 Iturbide and viceroy Juan O'Donoju signed the Tratado de Córdoba, ending the war and giving Mexico independence. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor in May 1822 but by October was forced to dissolve the national congress because of resistance from the opposition. In March 1823 he reinstated congress, then abdicated and fled to Italy. In April 1824 the congress, having already declared his administration void, revoked his pension and declared Iturbide a traitor. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824 he was apprehended on arrival in Tamaulipas and executed the next day. In 1838 Anastasio Bustamante declared Iturbide one of the "First Heroes of Mexican Independence."

From the description of Agustín de Iturbide collection, 1813-1838 (bulk 1821-1824). (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 31775745

Mexican soldier and emperor.

From the description of Papers of Agustín de Iturbide, 1799-1880 (bulk 1812-1824). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71060886

First emperor of Mexico. Born 1783 in Valladolid (Morelia); executed July 19, 1824, in Padilla, Tamaulipas. Iturbide joined the army in 1800, by 1810 was fighting with the royalists, and by 1820 held the rank of colonel.

In February 1821 he and Vicente Guerrero signed the Plan de Iguala and created the Ejército Trigarante. In August 1821 Iturbide and viceroy Juan O'Donoju signed the Tratado de Córdoba, ending the war and giving Mexico independence. Iturbide was proclaimed emperor in May 1822 but by October was forced to dissolve the national Congress because of resistance from the opposition. In March 1823 he reinstated Congress, then abdicated and fled to Italy.

In April 1824 the Congress, having already declared his administration void, revoked his pension and declared Iturbide a traitor. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824 he was apprehended on arrival in Tamaulipas and executed the next day. In 1838 Anastasio Bustamante declared Iturbide one of the “First Heroes of Mexican Independence.”

  • 1783: born in Valladolid (Morelia) to José Joaquín de Iturbide (wealthy Spaniard) and Josefa de Arámburu (Michoacan)
  • 1798: became a field laborer
  • 1800: enlisted as second lieutenant in Valladolid provincial regiment
  • 1805: married Ana María de Huarte. Cantonment of Jalapa.
  • 1809: Iturbide had some connection with conspiracy in Michelena, Valladolid
  • 1810: offered rank of lieutenant general by Hidalgo, Iturbide refused. Participated in battle of Monte de las Cruces. Fought in battle of independence for royalist forces.
  • 1816: accused but absolved on count of illicit operations
  • 1820: Iturbide had become a colonel in the royalist army
  • 1821 2/24: signed Plan de Iguala with Vicente Guerrero, created Ejército Trigarante
  • 8/24: O'Donojú & Iturbide signed Tratado de Córdoba
  • 9/27: Iturbide led Ejército Trigarante to victory?
  • 1822 5/18: Iturbide proclaimed emporer
  • 5/19: Iturbide emperorship ratified by congress
  • 5/21 or 5/23: Iturbide crowned emperor
  • 5/21 or 5/23: Created Order of Guadalupe. Iturbide had much resistance from primarily republicans, some liberals.
  • 10/31: Iturbide dissolved congress
  • 1823 1/24: Santa Anna incited rebellion with Plan de Casa Mata
  • 3/19: Iturbide reinstated congress, abdicated
  • 3/29: Iturbide & family left residence in Tacubaya. Sailed to Europe from Veracruz.
  • 1824 8: Following arrival in Liorna, Italy, stayed at Villa Fournier.
  • 1824 8: Went to Florence and England.
  • 1824 4/8-28: Congress revoked pension, declared Iturbide a traitor
  • 5/4: Iturbide left London for Mexico
  • 6/14: arrived in Soto la Marina, Tamaulipas. Apprehended by Congress of Tamaulipas and sentenced to death.
  • 6/19: Iturbide executed by firing squad in Padilla, Tamaulipas
  • 1833 11/3: Santa Anna had Iturbide's remains brought to Mexico City & displayed/interred with the First heroes of Independence
  • 1838: Anastasio Bustemante got Congress to decree, retrospectively, Iturbide as a First Hero of Independence

From the guide to the Agustín de Iturbide Collection 31775745., 1813-1838, 1821-1824, (Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin)

Archival Resources
Role Title Holding Repository
referencedIn Papers commenting on the government of Mexico, 1823-[ca. 1824]. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn Americas collection MS 518., 1811-1920 Woodson Research Center, Fondren Library, Rice University, Houston, Texas.
creatorOf Stephens, William B., d. 1937,. W.B. Stephens collection, 1488-1936 (bulk 1559-1848). University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Acontecimientos notables, 1821-1822. University of Arizona Libraries
referencedIn Hernández y Dávalos, Juan E., b. 1827,. Juan E. Hernández y Dávalos collection, 1692-1886 (bulk 1811-1831). University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Iturbide Family. The Iturbide-Kearney Family papers. Catholic University of America
referencedIn Biography -- Iturbide, Agustín de. Daughters of the Republic of Texas Library
creatorOf Agustín de Iturbide Collection 31775745., 1813-1838, 1821-1824 Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn José Servando Teresa de Mier Noriega y Guerra Papers 29761022 ., 1808-1823 Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn Wilkie, James Wallace. Oral history interviews with Mexican political leaders and other personalities : Mexico, 1964-1965. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Miscellany, ca. 1680-1900. Houghton Library.
referencedIn Collection of Agustín de Iturbide papers A1980. 0140c., 1746-1824 DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University
referencedIn Juan E. Hernández y Dávalos Manuscript Collection, A Calendar of the Juan E. Hernández y Dávalos Manuscript Collection, the University of Texas Library, prepared by C. E. Castañeda and J. A. Dabbs (Independent Mexico in Documents: Independence, Empire, and Republic; Vol. 1) Mexico : Editorial Jus, 1955. 30605860., 1692-1865 (bulk 1811-1831) Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn Imprints and Images from the Genaro García Collection 29763288., 1737-1912 Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin
creatorOf Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824. Papers of Agustín de Iturbide, 1799-1880 (bulk 1812-1824). Library of Congress
creatorOf Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824. Agustín de Iturbide collección de documentos. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Bustamante, Carlos María de, 1774-1848. Materiales para la continuación del cuadro histórico de la revolución mexicana : Mexico : ADS, 1833-1839. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Holliday, William J., 1895-. Mexican Imprints Collection, 1810-1842 (bulk 1820-1828). Arizona Historical Society, Southern Arizona Division
referencedIn Mora, José María Luis, 1794-1850. José María Luis Mora Papers, 1795-1856. University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
creatorOf Aguilar, Domingo,. Informe que el Ayuntamiento de Loreto, 1821, December 6. Huntington Library, Art Collections & Botanical Gardens
referencedIn Monday, Henry Albert, 1876-1942. The Henry A. Monday collection, 1522-1935. Library of Congress
creatorOf Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824. Collection of Agustín de Iturbide papers, 1746-1824. Southern Methodist University, DeGolyer Library
referencedIn Spanish Archives of New Mexico II, 1621-1821 New Mexico State Records Center and Archives
creatorOf Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824. Agustín de Iturbide collection, 1813-1838 (bulk 1821-1824). University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Broadsides from Mexico Collection, 1676-1927 (bulk 1820-1927). University of Arizona Libraries
referencedIn José María Luis Mora Papers 29761754 ., 1795-1856 Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn Papers commenting on the government of Mexico, 1823-[ca. 1824]. Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library
referencedIn García, Genaro, 1867-1920. Genaro García broadsides and circulars collection, 1772-1926. University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Arrigunaga Family Collection of Yucatecan Broadsides and Manuscripts 31775697., 1762-1878 (bulk 1800-1840) Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn Olazábal, José Juan. Letters of José Juan Olazábal : Mexico : transcript, 1819 Jan. 23-1825 Aug. 12. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Arrigunaga Coello, Maritza,. Arrigunaga family collection of Yucatecan broadsides and manuscripts, 1762-1878 (bulk 1800-1840). University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Broadsides and Circulars from the Genaro García Collection ., 1772-1926 Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin
creatorOf Gardesky, Martin. Martin Gardesky collection of historical documents, 1612-1912. New Mexico State Library
referencedIn Santa Anna (Antonio López de) Papers 1944; 64-152; 88-130; 93-085; 93-481., 1822-1866 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
referencedIn Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. Thomas Jefferson letter to James Monroe [manuscript], 1822 December 1. University of Virginia. Library
creatorOf Argüello, Luis Antonio, 1784-1830. Luis Antonio Argüello papers, 1823-1825. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Mier Noriega y Guerra, José Servando Teresa de, 1763-1827. José Servando Teresa de Mier Noriega y Guerra Papers, 1808-1823. University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Eberstadt Collection AR 76-62., 1699-1959 Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin .
creatorOf Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824. Mexican Archives of New Mexico, 1821-1846. New Mexico State Library
referencedIn Mexico collection, 1529-1907 (inclusive), 1741-1800 (bulk). Yale University Library
referencedIn Carlos García y Arriaga Papers 31775656., 1805-1835 Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn Thompson, George Alexander. Selected papers of George Alexander Thompson, [1797-1828]. Princeton University Library
referencedIn Diáz de Gamboa, José María. Soneto [Manuscrito]. Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico
referencedIn [Iturbide and Mexican empire pamphlets]. Library of Congress
referencedIn García y Arriaga, Carlos José María, 1786-1838. Carlos García y Arriaga papers, 1805-1835. University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
referencedIn Mexico collection, 1522-1915, 1770-1865 Yale University. Department of Manuscripts and Archives
referencedIn Moore, Bloomfield Haines. James Monroe collection : manuscript, 1776-1833. University of Pennsylvania Libraries, Van Pelt Library
referencedIn Zeitlin and Ver Brugge Autograph Collection 32797049., 1568-1891 Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn Alcalde, Joaquín M., 1830-1885. Antonio López de Santa Anna Collection, 1822-1876. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn W. B. Stephens Collection 30605856., 1559-1848, 1488-1936 Benson Latin American Collection, General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn Photographs from the Genaro García Collection 29763305., 19th-20th Century Benson Latin American Collection, The University of Texas at Austin
referencedIn Mexico collection, 1522-1915 (inclusive), 1770-1865 (bulk). Yale University Library
creatorOf Iturbide, Agustín de, 1783-1824. Carta dirigida al Sr. Col. Domingo Claverino : LS. UC Berkeley Libraries
referencedIn Santa Anna (Antonio López de). Santa Anna (Antonio López de) Papers, 1822-1866 University of Texas Libraries, University of Texas Libraries
Role Title Holding Repository
Direct Relationships
Relation Name
associatedWith Argüello, Luis Antonio, 1784-1830. person
associatedWith Arrigunaga Family family
associatedWith Bustamante, Anastasio, 1780-1853 person
associatedWith Bustamante, Carlos María de, 1774-1848. person
associatedWith Claverino, Domingo. person
associatedWith Dávila, José. person
associatedWith Davila, José. person
associatedWith Decaen corporateBody
associatedWith DeGolyer Library corporateBody
associatedWith Diáz de Gamboa, José María. person
associatedWith Eberstadt, Edward, 1883-1958 person
associatedWith Filisola, Vicente. person
associatedWith Filisola, Vicente. person
associatedWith Forbes, W. Cameron (William Cameron), 1870-1959 person
associatedWith García, Genaro, 1867-1920 person
associatedWith García y Arriaga, Carlos José María, 1786-1838 person
associatedWith Gardesky, Martin. person
associatedWith Gómez Navarrete, Juan Nepomuceno. person
associatedWith Guerrero, Vicente, 1782-1831 person
associatedWith Hernández y Dávalos, Juan E., b. 1827 person
associatedWith Herrera, José Manuel de, 1776? -1831 person
associatedWith Holliday, William J., 1895- person
associatedWith Iriarte, Hesiquio. person
associatedWith Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826. person
associatedWith La Madrid, Manuel de. person
associatedWith Medina, Antonio de, 1771-1827 person
associatedWith Mexico. Ejército Constitucionalista. corporateBody
associatedWith Mier Noriega y Guerra, José Servando Teresa de, 1763-1827 person
associatedWith Monday, Henry Albert, 1876-1942. person
associatedWith Moore, Bloomfield Haines. person
associatedWith Mora, José María Luis, 1794-1850 person
associatedWith Olazábal, José Juan. person
associatedWith Santa Anna (Antonio López de) person
associatedWith Santa Anna (Antonio López de) person
associatedWith Santa Anna, Antonio López de, 1794? -1876 person
associatedWith Stephens, William B., d. 1937 person
associatedWith Thompson, George Alexander. person
associatedWith Wilkie, James Wallace. person
associatedWith Zeitlin & Ver Brugge (Los Angeles, Calif.) corporateBody
Place Name Admin Code Country
California
Mexico--Baja California
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico
Subject
Land tenure
Occupation
Soldiers
Function

Person

Birth 1783-09-27

Death 1824-07-19

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Ark ID: w63f4nvt

SNAC ID: 10610375