Soper, Fred Lowe, 1893-1977

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1893-12-13
Death 1977-02-09
English

Biographical notes:

Physician; d. 1977.

From the description of Soper slide collection, 1935-1941. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Association Library). WorldCat record id: 70952600

Dr. Soper joined the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1920 and engaged in the hookworm campaigns in Brazil and Paraguay (1920-1927). From 1927-1942 he was Regional Director of the IHD, at Rio de Janeiro, and was active in the study and control of yellow fever and malaria. Dr. Soper was Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau for three terms (1947-1959).

From the description of Fred Lowe Soper papers, 1919-1975. (National Library of Medicine). WorldCat record id: 14326200

Dr. Fred L. Soper (1893-1977) was born in Hutchinson, KS. He received his AB in 1914 and his MS in 1916 from the University of Kansas. He received his MD degree from Rush Medical College of the University of Chicago in 1918. Later at Johns Hopkins University, he obtained a CPH in 1923 and a PhD in Public Health in 1925.

Dr. Soper joined the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1920 and engaged in the hookworm campaigns in Brazil (1920-1922) and Paraguay (1923-1927). From 1927-1942 he was Regional Director of the International Health Division headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, and was active in the study and control of yellow fever and malaria throughout South America. His guiding principles were strict discipline and tenacious commitment to eradicating disease. He developed methods to eradicate the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the urban vector of yellow fever. With the help of his Rockefeller colleague Dr. D.B. Wilson, Soper used a modification of this technique to eradicate the Anopheles gambiae mosquito from Brazil in 1939 and 1940. After its original invasion of Brazil in 1930, this malarial epidemic encompassed an area of over 18,000 square miles and was the worst of its kind in the Americas.

During World War II, Dr. Soper was Consultant on Epidemic Diseases to the Secretary of War (1942-1946). He initially served on the U.S. Typhus Commission and then became head of the Rockefeller Foundation Health Commission Typhus Team in North Africa and Italy (1943-1944). In 1944 he organized a malarial control demonstration in Italy, which provided the first evidence of the value of residual DDT in controlling malaria in the Mediterranean. Also, his revolutionary technique of delousing fully clothed individuals helped end the typhus threat in the civilian populations of North Africa, in British and American troops in Italy, and was used after the war throughout Europe. At the end of the war, and shortly thereafter, he headed yellow fever projects as Regional Director of the International Health Division for Africa and the Middle East, working to eradicate Anopheles gambiae from Egypt. Dr. Soper represented the Rockefeller Foundation at the IX, X, and XI Pan American Sanitary Conferences in 1934, 1938 and 1942.

In 1947, Soper was elected Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (now the Pan American Health Organization) and was re-elected for three terms (1947-59). His involvement helped turn a relatively inactive program into a dynamic and rapidly growing one. He facilitated the Bureau's acceptance of a new role, as Regional Office of the World Health Organization for the Americas. This brought new facility to embark on new campaigns against communicable diseases, as well as bringing together previously independent teams of nurses, dentists, sanitary engineers, veterinarians, and statisticians to international public health work.

Honors and Medals Professor Leon Bernard Medal Segwick Memorial Medal National Academy of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro Pan American Medical Society, 1962 Walter Reed Medal, 1934 (Awarded in 1972) Fourth International Congresses on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Washington1948 Salus Populi and Brazilian Ordem do Merito Medico Asociacion Fronteriza Mexciana-Estadounidense de Salubridad (ribbon), 1949 Consejo Consultivo de la Cuidad de Mexico y Del D.F. Jacobus Bontius 1592-1631 Praedux ille tropical artis medicinae Municipalidad de Lima National Academy of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, 1929 II Congreso Panamericano de Pediatria (Mexico) ICAO, OACI, 1st Assembly Montreal1947 Delegate to X Conferencia Sanitaria Panamericana, Bogota, 1938 Pro Salute Novi Mundi, Buenos Aires, 1947 Salud: Simbolo de Fraternidad Americana, Conferencia Sanitaria Panamericana, Santiago, Chile, 1954 Tercer Congreso Pan-Americano de Oftalmologia Conferencia Sanitaria Panamericana, 1950 Primera Reunion Interamericana de Tifo, Mexico, D.F., 1945 Medals from Dominican Republic Director, Pan American Bureau, 1947-1959 Pan American Conference on Sanitation, Caracas, 1946 Orden Carlos J. Finlay, 1928 U.S. of America Typhus Commission Medal Samuel J. Crumbine Medal, 1964 IX Congreso Pan Americano Del Nino Caracas, 1947 Louis Pasteur Medal Theobald Smith Medal Colombia Medal Lascarette Award (Mrs. Soper), 1959 Johns Hopkins Society of Scholars, 1971 Universidad de Antioquia, 1947 Lasker Award, 1946 Rockefeller Foundation, 1934 Congreso Internacional de Microbiologia, 1950 American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (50th Anniversary), 1953 Conferencia Sanitaria Panamericana Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud Primer Congreso Venezolano de salud publica y tercera conferencia de unidades sanitarias, Caracas, 1954 Decima Conferencia Interamericana, Caracas, 1954

From the guide to the Fred Lowe Soper Papers, 1919-1975, (History of Medicine Division. National Library of Medicine)



Biographical notes are generated from the bibliographic and archival source records supplied by data contributors.

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Permalink:
http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6280972
SNAC ID:
56261759

Subjects:

  • Communicable Disease Control--methods
  • Hookworm Infections
  • Malaria
  • World Health
  • Public Health
  • Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne
  • Yellow Fever
  • Yellow fever
  • Liver--Microscopy
  • Disease Outbreaks--prevention & control

Occupations:

  • Physicians--Brazil.

Places:

  • Brazil (as recorded)
  • Paraguay (as recorded)
  • Brazil (as recorded)
  • Paraguay (as recorded)
  • Brazil (as recorded)