McCloy, John J. (John Jay), 1895-1989

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1895-03-31
Death 1989-03-11
English, German

Biographical notes:

McCloy, John Jay (1895-1989), U.S. administrator, born in Philadelphia, Pa.; president, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (1947-49); U.S. High Commissioner for West Germany, (1949-52); Assistant Secretary of War (1941-45); coordinator of the U.S. disarmament activities, (1961-63); founder Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; chairman Ford Foundation, Rockefeller Foundation trustee; awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom, 1963.

From the description of Oral history interview with John Jay McCloy, 1985 Mar. (University of Georgia). WorldCat record id: 45749743

Graduate of Amherst College (1916) and Harvard Law School (1921); Army Captain in World War I; Lawyer, New York City, 1921-1989; was involved in World War I sabotage case known as "Black Tom," 1930-41; Assistant Secretary of War 1941-1945; President of the World Bank, 1947-1949; member, Eberstadt Committee on the National Security Organization, 1948-1949; High Commissioner of Germany, 1949-1952; Chairman, Ford Foundation, 1952-1965; Chairman, Chase Manhattan Bank, 1953-1960; Chairman, Council on Foreign Relations, 1953-1971; Member of United Nations advisory team overseeing Suez Canal clearance operations, 1956-1957; Chairman, General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament, 1961-1974; Chairman of Coordinating Committee of the US on Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962-1963; member, Warren Commission to Investigate the Assassination of President Kennedy, 1963-1964; member of Special Project Team to gain asylum in the US for the Shah of Iran, 1979-1981; member, Reagan presidential transition team, 1980-1981. Died 1989.

From the description of McCloy papers, 1897-1989 (bulk 1940-1979). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802001

Graduate of Amherst College, 1916. American diplomat and lawyer; adviser to every U.S. president from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Ronald Reagan. Died 1989. (See the main record or finding aid for more biographical information.).

From the description of McCloy papers, series 16-20, 1946-1983. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802018

Graduate of Amherst College, 1916; American diplomat and lawyer; adviser to every U.S. president from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Ronald Reagan. Died 1989. (See the main record or finding aid for more biographical information.).

From the description of McCloy papers, series 15 : Jenner-McCarthy, 1952-1955. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802017

From the description of McCloy papers, series 12 : Eberstadt Committee, 1945-1949 (bulk 1948). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802012

From the description of McCloy papers, series 33 : correspondence, 1946-1987. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802024

From the description of McCloy papers, series 7-11, 1924-1989. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802010

From the description of McCloy papers, series 13-14, 1946-1986. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802015

From the description of McCloy papers, series 21-25, 1944-1982 (bulk 1961-1979). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802021

From the description of McCloy papers, series 1 : personal affairs, 1916-1986. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802004

From the description of McCloy papers, series 2-6, 1916-1986. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802009

From the description of McCloy papers, series 30-32 and 34, 1897-1986 (bulk 1920-1986). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802023

From the description of McCloy papers, series 26-29, 1967-1981. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 48802022

Lawyer, government official.

From the description of Reminiscences of John Jay McCloy : oral history, 1970. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122481434

From the description of Reminiscences of John Jay McCloy : oral history, 1972. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122376681

From the description of Reminiscences of John Jay McCloy : oral history, 1971. (Columbia University In the City of New York). WorldCat record id: 122451721

John J. McCloy (1895-1989) has been described as a "minister without portfolio" and "the most influential private citizen in America" (Harper's, Feb 1983). It was said that he held the record for the most Cabinet positions offered and refused. Among the positions that he did hold were: Assistant Secretary of War during World War II, High Commissioner of Germany after the war, President of the World Bank, Chairman of the Chase Manhattan Bank, Chairman of the General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament. In addition, he served official or unofficial advisor to every US president from Roosevelt through Reagan; his advice and assistance were sought by political and business leaders in the US and around the world.

McCloy was known as a skilled mediator and facilitator. What has been debated is the extent of his role in making policy, as opposed to articulating it. During his career, he was involved in some of the biggest--and most controversial--American policy decisions of his day. Among the issues with which he was involved and which are represented in the papers are: the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II; the shaping of Germany's post-war economy; civilian vs. military control of early atomic energy development; the Cuban missile crisis; numerous arms control and disarmament treaties; negotiations with OPEC on behalf of the major oil companies; and efforts to gain asylum in the US for the deposed Shah of Iran.

McCloy had strong ties to Amherst College; he graduated cum laude with the Class of 1916 and served on the Board of Trustees from 1947-1989. He thought of himself as a public servant and in his speeches often emphasized the importance of public service.

He died in 1989 at the age of 93.

  • 1895 Mar 31: Born in Philadelphia Name at birth: John McCloy (Amherst College records show "Snader" as middle name until approximately 1935 and "Jay" thereafter.) Parents:Anna May Snader McCloy and John Jay McCloy
  • 1907 - 1912 : Peddie School
  • 1912 - 1916 : Amherst College
  • 1916 - 1917 : 1919 - 1921 : Harvard Law School
  • 1917 Aug - 1919 Aug : US Army
  • 1917: Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant
  • 1918: Promoted to Captain
  • 1918 - 19 : Served with American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in France
  • 1921 Aug - 1924 Nov : Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft
  • 1924 Dec - 1940 Dec : Cravath, DeGersdorff, Swaine & Wood
  • 1929: Became a partner
  • 1930 - 1941 : Involved in World War I sabotage case known as "Black Tom,"
  • 1930 Apr 25: Married Ellen Zinsser
  • 1937 Nov 5: John J. McCloy II born
  • 1940 Oct - 1940 Nov : Expert consultant to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson
  • 1940 Dec - 1941 Apr : Special Assistant to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson
  • 1941 Apr - 1945 Nov : Assistant Secretary of War
  • 1941 Jul 16: Ellen Z. McCloy born
  • 1946 - 1947 : Milbank, Tweed, Hope & Hadley Member of Secretary of State's Committee on Atomic Energy (Acheson-Lilienthal Committee)
  • 1947 - 1949 : President of World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development)
  • 1947 - 1989 : Trustee of Amherst College
  • 1956 - 1969 : Chairman of the Corporation
  • 1969 - 1989 : Trustee Emeritus and Honorary Chairman of the Corporation
  • 1948 Jun - 1949 May : Member of Committee on the National Security Organization (Eberstadt Committee) of the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government (Hoover Commission)
  • 1949 Jul - 1952 Jul : US Military Governor and High Commissioner for Germany
  • 1952 - 1965 : Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Ford Foundation
  • 1953: The Challenge to American Foreign Policy published
  • 1953 Jul: Senate Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws (Jenner Committee) issues report saying that Army was tolerant of Communists in WWII and implying that JJM was responsible
  • 1953 - 1971 : Chairman of Council on Foreign Relations
  • 1953 Jan - 1960 Dec : Chairman of the Board, Chase National Bank
  • 1955 Apr: Merged with Bank of Manhattan to become Chase Manhattan Bank
  • 1954 Feb: Joseph McCarthy accuses JJM of having ordered the destruction of Army intelligence files on Communists during World War II (charge retracted two days later)
  • 1956 - 1957 Nov : Member of United Nations advisory team overseeing Suez Canal clearance operations
  • 1958 Nov - 1959 : President's Committee to Study the Military Assistance Program (Draper Committee)
  • 1961 - 1989 : Milbank, Tweed, Hope, Hadley & McCloy Represented major oil companies during OPEC negotiations, anti-trust investigations, and divestitures
  • 1961 Jan - 1974 May : Coordinator of US disarmament activities
  • 1961 Jan - 1961 Oct : Advisor to President Kennedy
  • 1961 - 1974 : Chairman of General Advisory Committee on Arms Control and Disarmament
  • 1962 Oct - 1963 : Chairman of Coordinating Committee of the US on Cuban Missile Crisis
  • 1963 Dec - 1964 : Member of Presidential Commission to Investigate the Assassination of President Kennedy (Warren Commission)
  • 1964 - 1968 : Member of President Johnson's Senior Advisory Group on Vietnam
  • 1965 - 1975 : Chairman of Committee for Modern Courts, Inc.
  • 1966 - 1967 : Head of US delegation to Tripartite Talks (NATO)
  • 1967: Representative of the US Treasury Department on International Monetary Fund missions
  • 1969: The Atlantic Alliance published
  • 1978: Member of the Committee of Americans for the (Panama) Canal Treaties
  • 1979 - 1981 : Member of Special Project Team working to gain asylum in the US for the Shah of Iran
  • 1980 - 1981 : Member of President Reagan's transition team
  • 1989 Mar 11: Died in Stamford, CT

From the guide to the John J. McCloy Papers, 1897-1989, 1940-1979, (Amherst College Archives and Special Collections)

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Constellation Information

Permalink:
http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w61c2g2c
Ark ID:
w61c2g2c
SNAC ID:
41683623

Subjects:

  • World War, 1914-1918--Secret service--Germany
  • Disarmament--Sources
  • World War, 1939-1945--Japanese Americans--Sources
  • Government executives--Interviews
  • Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945
  • Presidents--United States--Transition periods
  • Arms control
  • World War, 1939-1945
  • Communism--United States--Cases
  • Lawyers--Interviews
  • Presidents--Transition periods
  • Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945--Sources
  • Berlin Wall, Berlin, Germany, 1961-1989
  • Disarmament
  • Energy policy
  • Energy policy--Canada
  • World politics--1955-1965
  • Banks and banking
  • Negotiation
  • Nuclear energy--Economic aspects--Sources
  • German Americans
  • Communism--Cases
  • Cabinet officers
  • Endowments
  • World War, 1939-1945--Sources
  • World War, 1914-1918 Secret service
  • Nuremberg Trial of Major German War Criminals, Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946
  • Banks and banking--United States
  • Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962--Sources
  • Presidents--Staff
  • Nuclear energy--Economic aspects--United States--Sources
  • Petroleum industry and trade
  • Petroleum law and legislation

Occupations:

not available for this record

Places:

  • United States (as recorded)
  • Egypt (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Germany (West) (as recorded)
  • New York (as recorded)
  • Berlin (Germany) (as recorded)
  • Germany (Territory under Allied occupation, 1945-1955 : U.S. Zone) (as recorded)
  • Iran (as recorded)
  • Egypt (as recorded)
  • Iran (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Canada (as recorded)
  • Panama Canal (Panama) (as recorded)
  • Germany (as recorded)
  • Soviet Union (as recorded)
  • Berlin (Germany) (as recorded)
  • Suez Canal (Egypt) (as recorded)
  • Suez Canal (Egypt) (as recorded)
  • Panama Canal (Panama) (as recorded)
  • Germany (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Germany (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Germany (West) (as recorded)
  • Germany (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Soviet Union (as recorded)