Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1879-03-14
Death 1955-04-18
US
English, German, French

Biographical notes:

Served as Honorary Chairman of the Board of Governors of The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

From the description of Letter, 1953, October 15, New York, to President Henry M. Wriston, Brown University. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122493020

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich, where he later on began his schooling at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland and in 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree. During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945. After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920's he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935. Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maric in 1903 and they had a daughter and two sons; their marriage was dissolved in 1919 and in the same year he married his cousin, Elsa Löwenthal, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey. Nobel.org - Albert Einstein http://nobelprize.org/ (Retrieved November 20, 2009)

From the description of Albert Einstein letter, 1946 February 5. (University of Georgia). WorldCat record id: 467910933

Famous physiscist. Worked on theories of relativity.

From the description of Letter, 1934. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 367706680

From the guide to the Albert Einstein letter, 1934, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)

Physicist (evolution of physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, field theory). On the physics faculty at Universität Zürich, 1905, 1909-1911; and at Universität Berlin, director, Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Physikalische Chemie, 1914-1933; and life member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, 1933-1955.

From the description of Letter to Arthur Taub on an intellectual's resistance to tyranny, 1954. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 84491561

From the description of Letters to Cornelius Lanczos, reproduced in a catalog from Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co, 1980. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 78732377

From the description of Reprints from Hendrik Anthony Kamer's collection, 1916-1953. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80362510

From the description of Letter to Erwin Schrödinger recommending Robert Thornton, 1952. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80975867

From the description of School records, 1896-1900. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79714839

From the description of Two anecdotes related by physical chemist Hans M. Cassel regarding Einstein's relationship with Walther Nernst during the 1920s, 1972. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79196982

From the description of How I created the theory of relativity: translation from Japanese of speech given at Kyoto University, December 14, 1922. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 82303049

Physicist (evolution of physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, field theory). On the physics faculty at Universität Zürich (1905, 1909-19ll); and at Universität Berlin, director, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physikalische Chemie (1914-1933); and life member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (1933-1955).

From the description of Letter and article. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80180951

Founder of the theory of relativity, contributions to the quantum theory, Nobel Prize in Physics, 1921.

From the description of Continuous collection of Einstein documents. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 78820968

From the description of Einstein letters, 1920-1954. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 82303016

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, best known for his theory of relativity and specifically the equation for mass–energy equivalence, E = mc 2. Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics.

From the guide to the Albert Einstein Collection, 1947, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

Physicist (evolution of physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, field theory). On the physics faculty at Universität Zürich (1905, 1909-1911); and at Universität Berlin, director, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fr̈ Physikalische Chemie (1914-1933); and life member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (1933-1955).

From the description of File on Einstein from the Politisches Archiv des Auswrtingen Amtes, Bonn, Germany, 1913-1940. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 81866679

Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany. He studied in Zurich, Switzerland, and in 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and immigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton University. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945. He died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, New Jersey.

From the description of Albert Einstein collection, 1913-1975 (bulk 1930-1955) (Peking University Library). WorldCat record id: 63051673

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was a German-born physicist.

From the guide to the Albert Einstein Letter, ., undated, (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection.)

Physicist.

From the description of Albert Einstein papers, 1944-1969. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70984632

From the description of Albert Einstein letter, undated [manuscript]. (Oceanside Free Library). WorldCat record id: 24491464

From the description of Albert Einstein papers, 1916-1953. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 79450658

Physicist (evolution of physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, field theory). On the physics faculty at Universität Zürich (1905, 1909-1911); and at Universität Berlin, Director, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physikalische Chemie (1914-1933); and life member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (1933-1955).

From the description of Letters to Walther Mayer, ca. 1930-ca. 1933. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 81714370

From the description of Manuscript on the Special Theory of Relativity. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80398066

Physicist (evolution of physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, field theory). On the physics faculty at Universität Zürich (1905, 1909-1911); and at Universität Berlin, director, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Insitut für Physikalische Chemie (1914-1933); and life member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (1933-1955).

From the description of Collection. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 83570967

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) was a German-American physicist best known for his theory of relativity, his unified field theory, and his contributions to the fields of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize in 1921 for his work on the photoelectric effect.

From the guide to the Albert Einstein Collection, 1906-1979 (bulk 1906-1955), (The University of Texas at Austin, Harry Ransom Center)

Theoretical physicist; Nobel prize winner.

From the description of Blackboard. 1931. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 83299857

Physicist and Nobel Prize-winner Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany. He studied in Zurich, Switzerland, and in 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and immigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945. He died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton.

From the description of Albert Einstein collection, 1913-1975 (bulk 1930-1955) (Princeton University Library). WorldCat record id: 177677588

Einstein was engaged by Kaizosha, the Japanese publishing house, to present a series of scientific and popular lectures on relativity. From Nov. 17, 1922, to Dec. 29, 1922, Einstein toured Japan, giving these lectures and performing official engagements. His trip at the time was described as a "triumphal progress."

From the description of Einstein in Japan collection, 1920-1923. (Princeton University Library). WorldCat record id: 77805922

Physicist (evolution of physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, field theory). On the physics faculty at Universität Zürich (1905, 1909-1911); and at Universität Berlin, director, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physikalische Chemie (1914-1933); and life member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (1933-1955).

From the description of Papers, 1020-1969. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122469733

From the description of Index to Einstein materials in the collections of the Leo Baeck Institute, 1908-1954. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122469772

From the description of Notes, 1950-1955. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80093372

From the description of Briefwechsel. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 78695898

From the description of Letters and certificates, 1935. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 83383091

From the description of Videotaped interviews for documentary, Reflections of Einstein, (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 84243971

Theoretical physicist, peace activist, and writer.

From the description of Albert Einstein collection, 1879-1955. (Boston University). WorldCat record id: 122391303

German physicist.

From the description of Typed letter signed : Princeton, to Mrs. R.N. Brodsky, 1935 Oct. 30. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270874908

From the description of Autograph letters signed (25) : Prague, Zurich, and Berlin, to Erwin Finlay Freundlich, 1911 Sept. 1-1931 Sept. 10 (bulk 1911-1921). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270870720

From the description of Autograph letters signed (4) : Prague, Milan, Zürich, and Berlin, to Prof. [Alfred] Stern, in Zürich, a former teacher, 1901-1926. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270870723

Physicist (evolution of physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, field theory).

From the description of Collection; 1896-1952. (Brandeis University Library). WorldCat record id: 52148387

Physicist and historian of science Thomas Darlington Cope received his A.B. (1903) and Ph.D. (1915) from the University of Pennsylvania; he became an instructor and later professor there from 1906-1952. He also studied at the University of Berlin (1912-1913) under Max Planck.

From the guide to the Thomas Darlington Cope papers, ca. 1909-1964, Circa 1909-1964, (American Philosophical Society)

Physicist (evolution of physics, relativity, quantum mechanics, field theory). On the physics faculty at Universität Berlin, director, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physikalische Chemie (1914-1933); and life member, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton (1933-1955).

From the description of Audio recordings of speeches, 1932-1933. [sound recording] (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80172525

Physicist and originator of the general theory of relativity.

Winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics.

From the description of Letter, 1937 Oct. 26, Princeton, New Jersey [to] Tobias Dantzig, College Park, Maryland. (University of Maryland Libraries). WorldCat record id: 26866720

Albert Einstein wurde am 14.3.1879 in Ulm geboren. Er starb am 18.4.1955 in Princeton (N.J.). Physiker und Nobelpreisträger.

Nach der Tätigkeit am Patentamt in Bern (1902-1909) wo seine bedeutensten Arbeiten bereits Gestalt annahmen, wurde Einstein Professor für theoretische Physik in Zürich und Prag ; 1914 in Berlin Direktor des Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituts für Physik. Er emigrierte 1933 in die USA und wirkte bis zu seinem Tode am Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton (N.J.). Einstein erhielt 1921 den Nobelpreis für Physik.

From the description of [Einstein-Archiv Dr. Max Flückiger. 1905-1955] [Ms.]. (Social Law Library). WorldCat record id: 122530107

Physicist.

Einstein was a professor of physics at the University of Zurich and the the Universtiy of Berlin. From 1933 to his death in 1955 he was a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University.

From the description of Morris and Adele Bergreen Albert Einstein collection, 1919-1988. (Vassar College). WorldCat record id: 53913272

Max Bergmann (February 12, 1886-November 7, 1944) was a biochemist, whose research proved key for the study of biochemical processes. His work on peptide synthesis and protein splitting provided a starting point for modern protein chemistry and the study of enzyme-substrate interactions. He is most noted for developing the carbobenzoxy protecting group, for the synthesis of oligopeptides, using any amino acid in any sequence. He co-authored with his colleague Joseph S. Fruton (1912-2007, APS 1967) several reviews in protein and enzyme chemistry, notably “Proteolytic Enzymes,” in the Annual Review of Biochemistry 10 (1941): 31-46 and “The Specificity of Proteinases,” in Advances in Enzymology 1 (1941): 63-98.

Bergmann was born in Fürth, Germany, the son of a coal merchant named Solomon Bergmann and his wife Rosalie Stettauer. He entered the University of Munich, initially interested in botany, but shifted to chemistry, after being convinced that biological questions could only be answered by the methods of organic chemistry. He received a bachelor’s degree in 1907, and afterward became a student of Emil Fischer (1838-1914, APS 1909), the foremost protein and carbohydrate chemist of the day at the University of Berlin. In 1911 Bergmann received a Ph.D. with a dissertation on acyl polysulfides and became Fischer’s research assistant. In 1912 Bergmann married Emmy Miriam Grunwald with whom he had two children. The marriage ended in divorce, and he remarried Martha Suter in 1926. During World War I Bergmann was exempted from military service because of his research work with Fischer. While working with Fischer, Bergmann made important contributions to carbohydrate, lipid, tannin and amino acid chemistry, developing new methods for the preparation of α-monoglycerides. In 1920 Bergmann was appointed Privatdozent at the University of Berlin and head of the chemistry department at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Textile Research.

Bergmann left the University of Berlin in 1921 to become the director of the new Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Leather Research and Professor of chemistry at the Dresden Technical University. At Dresden, Bergmann created one of the world’s leading laboratories for the study of protein chemistry. After Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, Bergmann, a Jew, emigrated to the United States. From 1934 until his death Bergmann was affiliated with the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York.

Bergmann represents the tradition of German organic chemistry applied to biological problems. Working with his mentor Fischer, who sought effective methods to separate and identify amino acids, and who identified the peptide bond as the structure that connects amino acids, Bergmann made many basic contributions to protein and amino acid chemistry. In Dresden he extended Fischer’s work of separating and identifying the amino acid constituents of proteins. In order to establish the conjecture of some protein chemists that proteins were, in fact, polypeptides, containing thousands of amino acids, Bergmann developed new methods of peptide synthesis. The most important discovery came in 1932, when he and his colleague Leonidas Zervas created the carbobenzoxy method allowing them to use any amino acid in any sequence to produce peptides and polypeptides that closely resembled naturally occurring proteins.

Bergmann continued this work in New York at the Rockefeller Institute, stressing two new lines of research: (1) expanding the carbobenzoxy method to form peptides that could serve as substrates for protein-splitting enzymes, and (2) unraveling the total structure of proteins. After becoming head of the chemistry laboratory at the Rockefeller Institute in 1937, Bergmann recruited several talented biochemists. Along with his colleague Joseph Fruton, he discovered the first synthetic peptide substrates for which several enzymes were catalysts. When they demonstrated that the enzyme pepsin was able to catalyze the hydrolysis of synthetic peptides, they implicated the peptide bond in protein structure, but also provided the first clear evidence that specific enzymes split peptides at exact linkages in the chain. Their discovery cleared the path for study of how enzymes act as catalysts for every biological function.

Bergmann’s methods of analysis and synthesis proved incapable of solving the riddle of protein structure. He applied methods for separation and quantitative analysis to every amino acid in a protein in an attempt to establish their sequence in the polypeptide chain. In 1938 he proposed a theory of the systematic recurrence in the location of every amino acid residue in the peptide chain of a protein. However, his hypothesis proved an oversimplification. Two biochemists in his working group, Standford Moore and William Stein, showed him that the analytical data did not support his “periodic theory,” and Bergmann was forced to abandon it. Moore and Stein later collaborated in developing novel methods for quantitative analysis of amino acids in protein hydrolysates, methods they perfected after World War II. By 1949 it was possible to determine the order of the links of each amino acid in a protein. The Englishman Frederick Sanger was the first to establish the complete amino acid sequence in a protein, the hormone insulin. Moore and Stein followed by identifying the sequence of a more complex protein, the enzyme ribonuclease.

Bergman died of cancer in New York City on November 7, 1944. His mastery of peptide synthesis and protein splitting constituted the beginnings of modern protein chemistry. Bringing to the United States a background in German organic chemistry, he laid the foundations for the work of others, who would fulfill Bergmann’s goal of understanding and mapping the molecular structure of proteins and enzymes. His research colleagues found him a supportive leader and collaborator. He coauthored a number of publications with other members of his research group.

From the guide to the Max Bergmann papers, [ca. 1930]-1945, 1930-1945, (American Philosophical Society)

Ashley Montagu, born Israel Ehrenberg on June 28, 1905, was a British-American anthropologist, specializing in the areas of race and gender issues, as well as a prolific speaker and author, publishing over 50 books in his lifetime. The son of Jewish tailor Charles Ehrenberg and his wife, Mary Plot Ehrenberg, Montagu was born and raised in London's working class East End neighborhood. Although the reasoning behind his name change was never revealed, it may have been due to anti-Semitic prejudice faced by many East End Jews during his childhood, and Montagu might have felt the need to distance himself from his parents’ Russian and Polish backgrounds.

Montagu earned his undergraduate degree from University College London in psychology and anthropology. After studying anthropology at the London School of Economics under Bronislaw Malinowski, Montagu left England for the United States. He arrived at New York City in 1927 and began taking graduate classes at Columbia University. Montagu then traveled to Italy in 1928, where he took classes in ethnography and anthropology at the University of Florence. Upon his return to the United States in 1931, while working as an assistant professor of anthropology at New York University, Montagu married Marjorie Peakes. The couple would have two daughters, Audrey and Barbara, as well as a son, Geoffrey. In 1934 Montagu returned to Columbia University, culminating his postgraduate work at Columbia in 1936 with his dissertation, Coming into being among the Australian Aborigines: A study of the procreative beliefs of the native tribes of Australia, produced under the direction of Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict. Based largely on his dissertation, Montagu’s first book, Coming into Being among the Australian Aborigines, was published in 1937. After he completed his education, Montagu taught anatomy at Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia in 1938 and became an American citizen in 1940. It was during his time at Hahnemann that he began to produce work relating to race, resulting in his seminal work, Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race, published in 1942. The work controversially advanced the argument that race was a social construct imposed upon a complex biological substratum and demolished the arguments for inherent inequality between human populations. The influential nature of Man’s Most Dangerous Myth led to Montagu’s service on the 4th United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) task force, in 1949. The ten member UNESCO committee, composed of such world-renowned social scientists as Claude Levi-Strauss and E. Franklin Frazier, was created to collect information about the problem of race and to establish educational programs to disseminate its findings. The resultant document, authored by Montagu, the group’s rapporteur, was published as the “Statement on Race” in 1951. The Committee’s final statement on race asserted: 1)All mankind belong to the same species and that the differences between groups are few compared to all of the genetic similarities. 2)That Race designates a group with high frequency of physical characteristics or particular genetic trait and that these traits fluctuate or even disappear over time. 3)The way in which people are grouped does not reflect the capacity or character traits of a particular group. The differences between races are physical and have no correlation with other traits like intelligence.

Upon leaving Hahnemann Medical College in 1949, Montagu moved to Rutgers University, where he was a professor of anthropology and head of the department from 1949 to 1955. While at Rutgers, Montagu wrote perhaps his most famous work, The Natural Superiority of Women, published in 1953. Examining the differences between the sexes anthropologically, Montagu concluded that women were the superior sex because they possessed a better capability to survive both as individuals and in groups- talents necessary for an advancing society. Based on these conclusions, he suggested that women receive equal pay for equal work, a controversial stance at the time.

With his prolific writing skills to rely on financially, and facing strong backlash for his openly liberal views and anti-McCarthy public statements, Montagu accepted a forced retirement from Rutgers in 1955 at the age of 50. Though retired from academic life, he continued to lecture at such institutions as Harvard University, Princeton University, the University of Santa Barbara, and New York University. Settling in Princeton, New Jersey, Montagu’s work took up a more humanist element with Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, his effort to encourage parents to take a more physical role in raising their children and especially to encourage mothers to breastfeed their babies. Published during that same year, Montagu’s book The Elephant Man: A Study in Human Dignity, a history of the life of disfigured Briton Joseph Merrick, inspired a Tony winning play and later a motion picture. He continued publishing through the 1980s, including The Nature of Human Aggression (1976) and Growing Young (1981), while making numerous and notable television appearances on Johnny Carson’s Tonight Show as well as the Phil Donahue Show.

In his lifetime, Montagu received many major awards, among them the American Association of Humanists’ 1995 Man of the Year award, the Darwin Award from the American Association of Physical Anthropologist in 1994, and the Distinguished Achievement Award from the American Anthropological Association in 1987. Montagu maintained an active schedule of lecturing and gardening around his Princeton, New Jersey, home until he was hospitalized in March 1999; he died on November 26, 1999 from heart disease, at the age of ninety-four. He was survived by his wife of sixty-eight years, Marjorie, as well as his son and two daughters.

From the guide to the Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999, 1927-1999, (American Philosophical Society)

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