Mandela, Nelson, 1918-2013

Core Data

Constellation Information

person

Name Entries *

Mandela, Nelson, 1918-2013

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Surname :

Mandela

Forename :

Nelson

Date :

1918-2013

eng

Latn

authorizedForm

rda

Mandela, Rolihlahla, 1918-2013

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Surname :

Mandela

Forename :

Rolihlahla

Date :

1918-2013

eng

Latn

alternativeForm

rda

Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla, 1918-2013

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Surname :

Mandela

Forename :

Nelson Rolihlahla

Date :

1918-2013

eng

Latn

alternativeForm

rda

Mandiba, Rolihlahla, 1918-2013

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Surname :

Mandiba

Forename :

Rolihlahla

Date :

1918-2013

eng

Latn

alternativeForm

rda

マンデラ, ネルソン, 1918-2003

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Surname :

マンデラ

Forename :

ネルソン

Date :

1918-2003

jpn

Jpan

alternativeForm

rda

מנדלה, נלסון, 1918-2013

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Surname :

מנדלה

Forename :

נלסון

Date :

1918-2013

heb

Hebr

alternativeForm

rda

Madiba, 1918-2013

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Forename :

Madiba

Date :

1918-2013

eng

Latn

alternativeForm

rda

مانديلا, نيلسون, 1918-2013

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Surname :

مانديلا

Forename :

نيلسون

Date :

1918-2013

ara

Arab

alternativeForm

rda

Mandela, 1918-2013

Computed Name Heading

Name Components

Surname :

Mandela

Date :

1918-2013

eng

Latn

alternativeForm

rda

Genders

Exist Dates

Exist Dates - Date Range

1918-07-18

1918-07-18

Birth

-

2013-12-05

2013-12-05

Death

-

Biographical History

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (b. July 18, 1918, Umtata, South Africa–d. Dec. 5, 2013, Johannesburg, South Africa) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997.

A Xhosa, Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family in Mvezo, British South Africa. He studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of the Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. After the National Party's white-only government established apartheid, a system of racial segregation that privileged whites, he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow. Mandela was appointed President of the ANC's Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party (SACP). Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government. In 1962, he was arrested for conspiring to overthrow the state and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial.

Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison, and Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, and with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk led efforts to negotiate an end to apartheid, which resulted in the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became President. Leading a broad coalition government which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela emphasised reconciliation between the country's racial groups and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Economically, Mandela's administration retained its predecessor's liberal framework despite his own socialist beliefs, also introducing measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999. He declined a second presidential term and in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation.

eng

Latn

External CPF Relations (Same As)

viafID

98029748

Mandela, Nelson, 1918-

sameAs

http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n85153068

Mandela, Nelson, 1918-

sameAs

https://catalog.archives.gov/id/10569187

Mandela, Nelson, 1918-2013

sameAs

http://viaf.org/viaf/98029748

sameAs

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela

sameAs

http://www.worldcat.org/wcidentities/lccn-n85153068

Other Entity IDs (Same As)

Sources

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Resource Relations

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Internal CPF Relations

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Languages Used

eng

Latn

Subjects

Sabotage

Political science

Trials (Sabotage)

Nationalities

South Africans

Functions

Occupations

Politicians

Presidents

Legal Statuses

Places

Mthatha

05, ZA

AssociatedPlace

Birth

Johannesburg

06, ZA

AssociatedPlace

Death

Republic of South Africa

00, ZA

AssociatedPlace

Convention Declarations

<conventionDeclaration><citation>VIAF</citation></conventionDeclaration>

General Contexts

Structure or Genealogies

Mandates

Identity Constellation Identifier(s)

http://n2t.net/ark:/99166/w6cs6hck

w6cs6hck

83668141