Franklin, Benjamin

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1706-01-17
Death 1790-04-17
US
French, English

Biographical notes:

Epithet: of Sloane MS 4047

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000215.0x0001e3

Epithet: of Add MS 12099

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000215.0x0001dc

Statesman, publisher, scientist, and diplomat.

From the description of Benjamin Franklin papers, 1726-1907 (bulk 1770-1789). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70979821

Franklin was an American printer, writer, statesman, and inventor.

From the description of Letters: London, to Messrs. Thomson & Mifflin, Philadelphia, 1769 Jan 5 and Jan 27. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122529759

Epithet: of Add MS 30094

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000215.0x0001dd

American printer, essayist, statesman, diplomat, scientist, inventor, and philosopher.

From the description of Works and correspondence, 1779, 1781, 1906. (Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center (HRC); University of Texas at Austin). WorldCat record id: 122601913

For this letter, Benjamin Franklin was writing from London. Richard Neave was a wealthy merchant.

From the description of Letter to Richard Neave, 1767 January 27. (University of Pennsylvania Library). WorldCat record id: 155866073

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was one of the founding fathers of the United States and one of the most significant men in American history. He served as the Ambassador to France from 1778 to 1785.

From the guide to the Benjamin Franklin Promissory Note, 1782, (Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries)

Franklin was an American writer, philosopher, inventor, amateur scientist, and diplomat.

From the description of Benjamin Franklin letters to Sir Joseph Banks, 1783. (Harvard University). WorldCat record id: 612742892

From the guide to the Benjamin Franklin letters to Sir Joseph Banks, 1783., (Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, Harvard University)

Born in Ireland, Mathew Carey spent most of his professional career in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania where he worked as a printer, publisher, and economist.

From the guide to the Mathew Carey letterbooks, 1788-1794, 1788-1794, (American Philosophical Society)

American patriot and inventor.

From the description of Letters to Cadwallader Colden and Rev. George Whitfield, 1744, 1753. (Buffalo History Museum). WorldCat record id: 57317598

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was a printer, author, politician, statesman, scientist, and inventor who was instrumental in the founding of the United States of America. Sir Alexander Dick (1703-1785) was president of the college of physicians of Edinburgh, and William Shippen, Jr. (1736-1808) became one of the first professors of medicine in Colonial America at the College of Philadelphia after he earned a degree in medicine from the University of Edinburgh.

From the description of Benjamin Franklin letter to Sir Alexander Dick, 1760 September 17. (Rhinelander District Library). WorldCat record id: 773749469

Reverend Dr. Samuel Johnson was a clergyman, educator, and philosopher in colonial British North America.

From the description of [Letters and document] / B. Franklin. (Smith College). WorldCat record id: 227010429

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was an American printer, author, statesman, and inventor.

From the description of Letters on Smoky Chimneys, 1762-1785. (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 122534421

From the guide to the Letters on Smoky Chimneys, 1762-1785, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Statesman, philosopher, and scientist.

From the description of Papers, 1743-1786. (New York University, Group Batchload). WorldCat record id: 58664267

Autograph letter signed, 1757 April 14, New York, to John Lining, Charles Town, South Carolina, 6 pages, together with typescript of same, 4 engravings, 2 photographs, and other information. Letter deals with phenomena concerning heat and cold.

From the description of Observations on electricity and other natural phenomena: letter from Benjamin Franklin to John Lining, 1757. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122354337

Franklin was a philosopher, author, inventor and a man of letters.

From the description of Collection, 1747-1788. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122529924

American statesman.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Passy, to M. Durival, 1781 May 25. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270870824

Parisian hostess Mme. Brillon counted Benjamin Franklin among her wide circle of friends.

From the guide to the Musical compositions, late 18th century, Circa 1775-1800, (American Philosophical Society)

Franklin was Plenipotentiary to France.

From the description of ALS, 1779 March 14 : Passy, to His Excellency, Count De Vergennes. (Copley Press, J S Copley Library). WorldCat record id: 13718846

Benjamin Franklin Bache, the grandson of Benjamin Franklin, worked as a printer and journalist.

From the guide to the Benjamin Franklin Bache papers, 1779-1793, 1779-1793, (American Philosophical Society)

Franklin was Plenipotentiary to France. Dumas was a secret agent for the colonies in Holland throughout the Revolution.

From the description of ALS, 1780 March 29, Passy, to C.W.F. Dumas. (Copley Press, J S Copley Library). WorldCat record id: 13719103

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was a printer, author, politician, statesman, scientist, and inventor who was instrumental in the founding of the United States of America.

From the description of Benjamin Franklin letter to William Strahan, 1746 September 25. (Rhinelander District Library). WorldCat record id: 773751618

When Franklin first went to London in 1757 as agent for the Pennsylvania Assembly, he logdged in the home of Mrs. Margaret Stevenson. He stayed there until he returned to Philadelphia in 1762, and again from 1766 to 1775. He became a lifelong friend of the family, especially of Mrs. Stevenson's daughter Polly, who eventually moved to America after the death of her husband, William Hewson.

From the description of ALS : London, to Mary (Polly) Stevenson, 1770 Jan. 20. (Rosenbach Museum & Library). WorldCat record id: 122610744

Sir Joseph Banks was an English naturalist and president of the Royal Society.

From the guide to the Sir Joseph Banks papers, 1766-1820 (bulk), 1766-1820, (American Philosophical Society)

Scientist, printer, politician, diplomat, and philosopher.

From the description of Papers. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 83623098

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was a printer, author, philanthropist, inventor, statesman, diplomat, and scientist.

From the description of Papers, 1748-1790. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 207136323

John Bartram was the first native American botanist and made many journeys through the southern frontier, collecting seeds and bulbs for transplanting.

From the guide to the John Bartram correspondence, 1735-1775, 1735-1775, (American Philosophical Society)

Mr. Bollan was the agent for the colony of Massachusetts along with Mr. Lee (also mentioned in this letter). Franklin sought their assistance in presenting a petition to the King regarding the suspension of the Boston Port Act. The notes securing money from France were the end result of Franklin's mission to gain assistance and recognition from that nation for the fledgling United States. The loan from France was a crucial element in the success of the United States in the Revolutionary War.

From the description of Benjamin Franklin papers 1773-1876. (Historical Society of W Pennsylvania). WorldCat record id: 50861127

Epithet: American Minister at Paris

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000215.0x0001d9

The N. Whiting referred to in the letter was a member of the firm Darling and Whiting. He was General Nathan Whiting of the French and Indian War fame. The autograph bill of receipt from Franklin to Darling and Whiting shows that Franklin received money from the firm for remittance to London.

From the description of Bill of receipt : Philadelphia, to Misters Darling and Whiting, February 12, 1754. (University of Massachusetts at Boston). WorldCat record id: 45199072

Benjamin Franklin, author of source material. Thomas M. Fontana, adaptor.

From the description of Poor Richard's Theatricks : three short plays, two monologues and a drinking song: typescript, 1987. (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 122626054

Scientist, philosopher, U.S. minister to France, statesman, and delegate from Pennsylvania to the U.S. Continental Congress.

From the description of Account books of Benjamin Franklin, 1730-1874. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 83754148

Prominent American statesman, editor, and publisher.

From the description of Letter : New York, to Philip Schuyler, 1776 May 27. (New York State Library). WorldCat record id: 540643836

Benjamin Franklin, one of the most prominent of the founders and early political figures and statesmen of the United States, was very influential in the American Revolution despite never holding national elective office. Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Franklin became a newspaper editor, printer, and merchant in Philadelphia, Pa. He also played a major role in establishing both the University of Pennsylvania and the Franklin and Marshall College. Franklin had several extramarital liaisons, including that which produced his illegitimate Loyalist son William Franklin, later the colonial governor of New Jersey.

From the description of Benjamin Franklin collection, 1753-1771. (Peking University Library). WorldCat record id: 63052159

Young was a gunner in the Pennsylvania 2nd Regiment of Artillery.

From the description of Benjamin Franklin pay order to Robert Young : Philadelphia : DS, 1787. (University of California, Berkeley). WorldCat record id: 215278152

Biographical Note

1706, Jan. 17 Born, Boston, Mass. 1718 1723 Apprenticed as a printer to his brother James Franklin 1725 1726 Journeyman printer, London, England 1727 Founded the Junta, a debating club, Philadelphia, Pa. 1728 Wrote Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion 1729 Purchased Pennsylvania Gazette 1730 Married Deborah Read Rogers (died 1774) 1731 Established the Library Company of Philadelphia, Pa. 1732 1758 Published Poor Richard, 1732-1747, and Poor Richard Improved, 1748-1758, commonly known under collective title Poor Richard's Almanack 1736 1751 Clerk, Pennsylvania Assembly 1740 Invented the Pennsylvania fireplace (Franklin stove) 1743 Proposed formation of the American Philosophical Society 1751 Founded with others, the Academy for Education of Youth (now University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.) Founded Philadelphia City Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. Published letters to Peter Collinson, Experiments and Observations on Electricity. London: Printed and Sold by E. Cave 1751 1764 Represented Philadelphia at the Pennsylvania Assembly 1754 Represented Pennsylvania at the Albany Congress 1757 1762 Political agent of the Pennsylvania Assembly, London, England 1766 Reappointed as agent for Pennsylvania, London, England 1771 Began autobiography 1775 Left London, England, for Massachusetts Elected member of the Second Continental Congress Named postmaster general 1776 Served on committee to draft the Declaration of Independence Went to France as one of three American commissioners to negotiate a treaty 1778 Negotiated treaties of commerce and defense with France Appointed sole plenipotentiary in France 1781 Appointed with John Jay and John Adams to negotiate a peace with Great Britain 1783 Signed Treaty of Paris with Great Britain and asked Congress for his recall 1785 Returned to the United States 1785 1788 President, Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania 1787 Represented Pennsylvania at the Constitutional Convention 1790 Signed memorial to Congress as last official act as president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery 1790, Apr. 17 Died, Philadelphia, Pa.

From the guide to the Benjamin Franklin Papers, 1726-1907, (bulk 1770-1789), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), most notable as one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, was born on January 17, 1706, in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1723, he left Boston for Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and by 1726 Franklin had established a reputation as one of the best printers in the city. In 1729, Franklin purchased the Pennsylvania Gazette, the city’s most important newspaper, and in 1732 he began publishing the popular Poor Richard’s Almanac, thus gaining attention as a writer too. Franklin also enhanced Philadelphia’s cultural and intellectual life with the establishment of the Junto in 1727, Library Company of Philadelphia in 1731, the American Philosophical Society in 1743, an insurance company, and an academy that would later become the University of Pennsylvania. He also became known for his scientific experiments and inventions.

Nearly ten years after relocating to Philadelphia, Franklin began to be more directly involved in the political life of the colonies and was able to retire from active involvement in his businesses by 1749. In 1736, he was elected clerk of the Pennsylvania Assembly and postmaster of Philadelphia in 1737. By 1753, he was promoted to one of two deputy Postmasters General for the colonies and remained in this post until January 1774. In July 1757, Franklin was dispatched by the Philadelphia Assembly to London, England, and spent most the next eighteen years in England as a colonial agent for Pennsylvania and other colonies. He returned to Pennsylvania in 1775 and was elected to the Continental Congress and in the following year was selected as a member of the drafting committee for the Declaration of Independence. From 1775-1785, he served as a commissioner to France, gaining financial support from the French for the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) and later to negotiate the peace between the United States and Great Britain. Benjamin Franklin died in Philadelphia on April 17, 1790, leaving being a great legacy of political and scientific achievement.

John Foxcroft (d. 1790) served as one of the two deputy Postmasters General for the colonies alongside Benjamin Franklin from October 1761-1775. During the American Revolutionary War, Foxcroft remained loyal to the British government. After the war, Foxcroft became an agent for British packet ships in New York City. John Foxcroft died in 1790 and was buried in the Trinity Churchyard in New York, New York.

From the guide to the Benjamin Franklin and John Foxcroft receipt, Franklin (Benjamin) and John Foxcroft receipt, 1763, (Redwood Library and Athenaeum)

With a face as familiar, he wrote, as the man in the moon, Benjamin Franklin was one the most recognizable Americans of the eighteenth century, and one of the most written about. A scientist, inventor, pamphleteer, printer, politician, and diplomat, and above all an institution builder, Franklin's intellect and organizational skills, combined with a preternatural gift for crafting his image to appeal to a diverse array of audiences has ensured his lasting reputation.

The story of Franklin's life has become so thoroughly ingrained in American popular culture -- through his autobiography, if nothing else -- that it requires little more than the briefest recapitulation. Born in 1706 to a tallow chandler from Boston, Franklin ran away from an apprenticeship at his brother James' printing establishment in 1723 to strike out on his own in that other colonial metropolis, Philadelphia. After barely a year in the Quaker city, the restless and ambitious young man traveled to England to purchase an outfit and refine his printing skills, and within a short time after returning in October 1726, he established a reputation as the finest printer in the city. His position not only as a printer, but a writer was clinched in 1729 with his purchase of the city's most important newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette and with the appearance of his widely popular Poor Richard's Almanac in 1732. Equally important, in 1730 he was appointed to the lucrative position of official printer to the Province, testimony to his abilities as a printer and a harbinger of what would come as a politician.

From early in his career, Franklin fashioned himself as a promoter of the public weal, using his extraordinary organizational skills to establish a series of organizations that buoyed the city's intellectual and cultural life. His discussion and mutual improvement society, the Junto (1727) was followed by the Library Company of Philadelphia (1731) and a suite of other organizations that included, among others, the city's first fire company, an insurance company, and an academy that later grew into the University of Pennsylvania. Franklin was also the principal founder and first secretary of the nation's first learned society, the American Philosophical Society (1743). Although subsequent events ensured that he would be largely an absentee leader for much of its early history, his colleagues in the APS considered Franklin so essential to the enterprise that they elected him president when the Society was revived in the late 1760s. Although he lived in Philadelphia for a total of only about seven of the twenty one years in which he was president of the Society, he exerted an enormous influence over the selection of its membership and its priorities.

Part of Franklin's importance to the Library Company and the APS, and to the civic culture of Philadelphia more generally, lay in the reputation he earned as America's preeminent savant. His ingenuity in invention was renowned, and was piqued by his reputation for bringing the same concerns for public welfare to mechanical work as to intellectual. His Franklin stove (1742), for example, was hailed as safer and more efficient than its predecessors, and Franklin was credited (sometimes erroneously) with a host of other inventions, from swim fins to bifocals, bulls-eye "busy-body" mirrors, the lightning rod, and extensible arms.

Franklin's scientific work, however, was the source of even greater fame. Beginning in 1745, he conducted a series of electrical experiments that brought him international acclaim, demonstrating the identity of lightning and electricity and later championing the single fluid theory of electricity and formulating a theory of the conservation of electrical charge. On the basis of this work, he was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1756 and was given honorary degrees by Harvard and Oxford. Franklin was also noted for research on oceanic currents and for contributions to knowledge in dozens of other areas.

Scarcely a decade after his emigration to Philadelphia, Franklin began to turn to more direct participation in the political life of the colonies. He was elected clerk of the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1736 and Postmaster at Philadelphia in 1737, eventually becoming one of two deputy Postmasters General for the colonies in 1753. Having amassed his fortune, Franklin retired from active involvement in business affairs in 1749 to devote himself to formal politics. A fierce partisan in the anti-Proprietary faction of the Pennsylvania Assembly during the Seven Years' War, he was the prime mover behind the Albany Plan of Union of 1754, in which the prospect of uniting all of the British North American colonies under a single government was first proposed as a measure to improve mutual defense and for "other important general purposes." Although the plan was ultimately not approved, Franklin emerged as a major figure in colonial politics.

In July 1757, Franklin was dispatched by the General Assembly to go to London and request that the Proprietors' be stripped of control of the government in Pennsylvania. He spent most of the next eighteen years in England as colonial agent for Pennsylvania and other colonies, weathering the imperial crises of the 1760s and although he was steadfast in directing his efforts toward reconciliation of the growing differences between the colonies and crown, he drifted gradually into the radical Whig camp.

Franklin's quickening into the revolutionary cause came in January 1774 when he was called before the Privy Council for Plantation Affairs to answer charges that he had stolen letters from Thomas Hutchinson, Governor of Massachusetts, with the intent of positioning himself to usurp Hutchinson's seat and inciting unrest. Stripped of his position as postmaster and impaired in his ability to operate, Franklin returned to Pennsylvania in 1775 and was elected to the Continental Congress. In the following year, he was selected as a member of the drafting committee for the Declaration of Independence and later helped frame the Articles of Confederation. From 1776 until 1785, he was appointed by the American government as Commissioner to the Court of France, helping to sway King Louis to support the American cause with money and arms and to negotiate the peace between the United States and Great Britain.

Franklin remained active into his eighties, serving as a delegate and key contributor to the federal Constitutional Convention in 1787. A late convert to antislavery, he also became the first president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery. Franklin died in Philadelphia in April 17, 1790. His common law wife, Deborah Read, predeceased him in 1774. He left behind his estranged illegitimate son William (in exile in England), his daughter Sarah Franklin Bache, and grandsons William Temple Franklin and Benjamin Franklin Bache.

From the guide to the Benjamin Franklin Papers, 1730-1791, (American Philosophical Society)

During the 17 years he served as colonial agent for Pennsylvania in London, Benjamin Franklin developed a strong attachment to the family of his landlady at 36 Craven Street, Margaret Stevenson. Margaret's daughter, Mary (usually called Polly) became a particular intimate, so much so that Franklin connived to marry her off to his son, William. Although nothing came of these efforts, Franklin's intentions did little to impair the friendship with the Stevensons, and Franklin's domestic circle at Craven Street eventually grew to include his grandson William Temple Franklin and Sarah Franklin, daughter of an English cousin.

In 1770, Polly married the distinguished surgeon and anatomist William Hewson in what was to be a tragically short pairing. Hewson died in 1774 after contracting septicaemia from a cut he received while dissecting a cadaver in his basement, leaving Polly to care for their daughter and two sons to raise, one of whom was Franklin's godson. Recognizing the difficulty of her situation, Franklin stepped in to assist his old friend, further strengthening their bond. After Franklin left England on the even of the Revolution, he and Polly continued in regular correspondence, and after the Revolution ended, Polly arranged to renew their friendship face to face, visiting Franklin at Passy in 1785. In the following year, she followed him when he returned to Philadelphia, and was at Franklin's beside when he died in 1790. In his will, Franklin recognized Polly with a silver tankard he had "marked for her use during her life," acknowledging her daughter Eliza as well, and leaving books to her sons William and Thomas.

From the guide to the James S. and Frances M. Bradford Collection, 1749-1898, (American Philosophical Society)



Biographical notes are generated from the bibliographic and archival source records supplied by data contributors.

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Subjects:

  • Stamp Act, 1765
  • Pottery, American
  • Blood--Circulation
  • Printing and Publishing
  • Plant collectors.
  • Marriage--Anecdotes, facetiae, satire, etc.
  • String quartets (3 violins, violoncello)--Parts
  • Trade regulation--Colonies
  • Shays' Rebellion, 1786-1787
  • Colony and State Specific History
  • Animals
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  • United States - Politics and government - 1783-1809
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  • Printers--Pennsylvania--Philadelphia
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  • Printing industry -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia.
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  • Bankruptcy--History--18th century
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Occupations:

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