Madison, James, 1751-1836

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1751-03-16
Death 1836-06-28
US
English

Biographical notes:

Madison, fourth president of the U.S., served 1809-1817.

From the description of LS, 1823 December 23 : to President Monroe. (Copley Press, J S Copley Library). WorldCat record id: 14952082

From the description of ALS, 1822 January 22 : Montpellier, to Henry R. Schoolcraft, Albany. (Copley Press, J S Copley Library). WorldCat record id: 14951995

From the description of DS, 1813 November 1 : Washington. Certificate. General Land Office. (Copley Press, J S Copley Library). WorldCat record id: 14952027

Appointed minister to Russia in 1809, John Quincy Adams served until his appointment as secretary of state in 1817. Adams became a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1818 and was elected the 6th President of the United States in 1825. He served one term.

From the guide to the John Quincy Adams material from the administrative and chancellery files, 1809-1816, 1809-1816, (American Philosophical Society)

U.S. president, delegate from Virginia to the Continental Congress, U.S. secretary of state, and U.S. representative from Virginia.

From the description of James Madison papers, 1808-1812. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70981716

From the description of Card index. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70981717

U.S. president and secretary of state, delegate to the U.S. Continental Congress, and U.S. representative from Virginia.

From the description of James Madison papers, 1813-1815. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70981727

From the description of James Madison papers, 1723-1859 (bulk 1771-1836). (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 70981903

Former President of the United States.

From the description of Letter and engraving, 1830 and 1833. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 32135372

James Madison was fourth president of the U.S. and considered to be the "father" of the U.S. Constitution and the BIll of Rights.

From the description of [Letter and document] / James Madison. [1792-1809] (Smith College). WorldCat record id: 288639578

Charles Nicoll Bancker was a merchant and financier.

From the guide to the Charles Nicoll Bancker family papers, 1733-1894, 1733-1894, (American Philosophical Society)

President of the United States, 1809-1817.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Montpellier, to Thomas Jefferson Randolph, 1833 Dec. 6. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270606643

James Madison (1750-1836) was the fourth president of the United States.

From the description of James Madison papers, 1781-1847. (New York Public Library). WorldCat record id: 122346252

From the guide to the James Madison papers, 1781-1847, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Delegate to U. S. Constitutional Convention, author of several of the Federalist Papers, Secretary of State, 1803-1809, and U. S. President, 1809-1817.

From the description of Collection, 1781-1833. (New York State Library). WorldCat record id: 122574049

James Madison (1751-1836); fifth President of the U.S.

From the description of Weather records, April 1793-July 1796. (Presbyterian Historical Society). WorldCat record id: 48217284

U.S. Secretary of State.

From the description of Letter, 1804 October 12, Washington, D.C. to Noah Webster, Esq. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 24092786

From the description of Letter, 1803 February 23, [Washington, D.C.], to Robert R. Livingston, Paris. (University of Toledo). WorldCat record id: 13557614

James Madison was president of the United States, 1809-1817. He was secretary of state during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson, 1801-1809. William Jones served as a United States congressman, 1801-1803.

From the description of Letter : Washington, to William Jones, Philadelphia, Pa., 1803 Feb 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 80257318

From the description of Letter : Washington, to William Jones, Philadelphia, Pa., 1803 Feb 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 702150320

President of the U.S.

From the description of Letters, 1790-1817. (Filson Historical Society, The). WorldCat record id: 49253481

Delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention, President of the United States.

From the description of Letter, 1781 January 23. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122346503

James Madison was a President of the USA.

From the guide to the James Madison land survey, 1796, (L. Tom Perry Special Collections)

Madison was Secretary of State from 1801-09. Armstrong was U.S. Minister to France.

From the description of Maunuscript letter, 1806 March 14 : [Washington, D.C.] to John Armstrong. (Haverford College Library). WorldCat record id: 28840874

James Madison was the fourth President of the United States and was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1785.

From the description of Meteorological journals, 1784-1788, 1789-1793. (American Philosophical Society Library). WorldCat record id: 122540808

From the guide to the Meteorological journals, 1784-1788, 1789-1793, 1784-1793, (American Philosophical Society)

Virginia legislator and fourth President of the United States.

From the description of Letter to Benjamin Harrison, 1782 May 14. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 34566996

Fourth president of the U.S., serving 1809-1817.

From the description of ALS, 1836 January 22 : Montpelier, to Martin Van Buren, the Vice President of the U. States, Washington. (Copley Press, J S Copley Library). WorldCat record id: 14944676

Secretary of state, and president of the United States; from Orange County, Va.

From the description of Papers, 1803-1830. (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 19902853

Fourth president of the United States.

From the description of Letters of James Madison [manuscript], 1772-1775. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647860558

From the description of Letter to Thomas Jefferson [manuscript], 1826 January 7. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647818360

From the description of Letter to Thomas Smith Grimké [manuscript], 1830 February 3. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647817432

From the description of Letters of James Madison, 1772-1775. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 34931259

From the description of Letter : Montpellier [i.e. Montpelier, Va.], to Dear Sir [Richard Rush, London, Eng.], 1821 Apr. 21. (Newberry Library). WorldCat record id: 38483622

Madison, fourth president of the U.S., served from 1809-1817.

From the description of ALS, retained draft, 1817 February 10 : Washington, to the President of the Senate [Js. R. Pringle] and Speaker of the House of Representatives [Thomas Bennett] of South Carolina. (Copley Press, J S Copley Library). WorldCat record id: 14944585

Secretary of State of the United States, later became president.

From the description of Letter, March 7, 1803. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 52707957

James Madison (1751-1836) was the fourth president of the United States, born in Port Conway, Virginia. He was a member of the Virginia legislature from 1776 to 1780 and from 1784 to 1786, and the Continental Congress from 1780 to 1783. His proposals at and management of the Constitutional Convention in 1787 earned him title "father of the U.S. Constitution." He cooperated with Alexander Hamilton and Jay in writing a series of papers (pub. 1787-88 under title of The Federalist) explaining the new Constitution and advocating its adoption. Madison was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1789 to 1797, sponsored the Bill of Rights, and was leader of Democratic-Republican party in opposition to Hamilton's financial measures. He drafted the Virginia Resolutions in 1798, inspired by resentment at the Federalist alien and sedition laws. He served as U.S. Secretary of State from 1801 to 1809, and as President of the U.S. from 1809 to 1817. Madison was also commander in chief during the War of 1812. He approved the charter of Second Bank of the United States and nation's first system of protective tariffs. He served as Rector of the University of Virginia from 1826 to 1836.

From the description of Madison, James, 1751-1836 (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). naId: 10581754

Fourth President of the United States.

From the description of Letter to Asbury Dickins [manuscript], 1825 July 19. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647865405

From the description of Letter to Nicholas Philip Trist [manuscript], 1827 August 4. (University of Virginia). WorldCat record id: 647858860

James Madison became Secretary of States in 1801 under President Thomas Jefferson and guided negotiations that resulted in the Louisiana Purchase.

From the description of Madison, James, letters, 1802-1803. (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 77765487

U.S. president and secretary of state and delegate to the Continental Congress from Virginia.

From the description of Papers of James Madison, 1801-1825. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 71068458

President of the United States.

From the description of Autograph letter signed : to Col. G. Thompson, 1789 Jan. 29. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270129934

Born in Waldorf, Germany, John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) immigrated to the United States in 1784 and became a successful fur trader and real estate dealer in New York City. In 1785, he married Sarah Todd, with whom he had five children. Astor established the American Fur Company in 1808, which exported furs from the Great Lakes and Canada to Europe. In the early 1800s, Astor began purchasing and developing land on Manhattan Island. At the time of his death in 1848, he was the wealthiest person in the United States.

Source: “John Jacob Astor Biography.” Encyclopedia of World Biography. Accessed August 2, 2011. http://www.notablebiographies.com/An-Ba/Astor-John-Jacob.html.

From the guide to the John Jacob Astor Collection 2011-203., 1798-1799, 1816, (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin)

Biographical Note

  • 1751, Mar. 16: Born, Port Conway, King George County, Va.
  • 1771: Bachelor of Arts, College of New Jersey, Princeton, N.J.
  • 1774: Member, Committee of Safety, Orange County, Va.
  • 1776: Orange County delegate, Virginia Convention and General Assembly, Williamsburg, Va.
  • 1777 - 1779 : Member, Virginia Council of State
  • 1780 - 1783 : Delegate from Virginia, Continental Congress
  • 1784 - 1786 : Orange County delegate, Virginia House of Delegates Read law in Orange and Richmond, Va.
  • 1786 - 1788 : Delegate, Continental Congress
  • 1787: Member, Constitutional Convention
  • 1787 - 1788 : Contributor to The Federalist Papers
  • 1788: Delegate, Virginia ratifying convention to vote on federal constitution
  • 1789 - 1797 : Representative, United States House of Representatives
  • 1794: Married Dolley Payne Todd
  • 1799 - 1801 : Orange County representative, Virginia House of Delegates
  • 1801 - 1809 : Secretary of state
  • 1809 - 1817 : President of the United States
  • 1812 - 1815 : Commander-in-chief, War of 1812
  • 1817: Retired to Montpelier estate, Orange County, Va.
  • 1829: Delegate, Virginia Constitutional Convention
  • 1836, June 28: Died, Montpelier, Va.

From the guide to the James Madison Papers, 1723-1859, (bulk 1771-1836), (Manuscript Division Library of Congress)

José Francisco Correia da Serra (1750–1823, APS 1812) was an abbot, diplomat, scholar and botanist. In his work as a botanist he was particularly concerned with the systematic classification of vegetable species. Thomas Jefferson described him as “profoundly learned in several branches of science he was so above all others in that of Botany; in which he preferred an amalgamation of the methods of Linnaeus [1707-1778, APS 1769] and of Jussieu [1686-1758] to either of them exclusively.” Correia spent many years of his life in France, England and the United States where he made the acquaintance of leading European and American intellectual leaders of the time.

Correia was born in Serpa, Portugal, to the physician and lawyer Luis Dias Correia and Francisca Luisa da Serra. In 1756 the family was forced to leave Portugal because the elder Correia’s scientific work had incurred the displeasure of the Holy Office. They settled in Naples, Italy, where the boy came under the tutelage of the abbé and university professor of “Commerce and mechanics” Antonio Genovesi (1712-1769), a major force in the Neapolitan Enlightenment. During this time Correia was also taught in natural history by the botanist Luis Antonio Verney (1713-1792). In 1772 Correia moved to Rome where he studied at the University and other institutions. By that time he was already corresponding with Carl Linnaeus, in Latin. He also made the acquaintance of Don John Carlos of Braganza, second Duke of Lafoens, a member of the Portuguese royal family. The Duke became Correia’s friend and patron.

In 1775 Correia was ordained a Presbyterian abbot; two years later he received the degree of Doctor of Laws. However, it was clear that Correia’s real interest was natural history, especially botany, and that he did not plan to pursue a life in the church. In fact, some of his biographers have suggested that he focused on ecclesiastical studies mainly in order to protect himself in his scientific work from potential suspicions by the Inquisition. Whatever the case, in early 1778 the young abbé, with encouragement from the duke, who hoped to encourage scientific research in Portugal, moved to Lisbon. There he turned his attention to scholarly pursuits and diplomacy.

Correia and the duke set out right away to organize the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, a learned institution that was dedicated to the advancement of science. Correia also conducted botanical research. He spent the period from 1786 to about 1788 outside of Portugal, and while his activities during this period remain unclear, there is evidence that he visited Rome. In the mid-1790s, after his return to his native country, he began the task of editing what would be the first three of five volumes of Colleccao de livros ineditos da historia Portugueza, an extensive collection of documents.

In 1795 political difficulties compelled Correia to leave Portugal. The Royal Academy and many of its members were viewed with suspicion by certain ecclesiastical groups, especially after Correia befriended the French naturalist and Girondist Peter Marie Auguste Broussonet (1761-1807), who had taken refuge in Portugal. Armed with letters of introduction to several British scientists, Correia traveled to London. He soon became the protégé of Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820, APS 1787), president of the Royal Society, who facilitated Correia’s election to the Society. He also was welcomed by James Edward Smith (1759-1828, APS 1796), president of the Linnean Society. By then, Correia was already publishing on various natural science topics, especially botany, which contributed to his growing reputation as a naturalist.

For about one year during his residence in London, Correia also served as Secretary to the Portuguese embassy. However, tensions with the conservative Minister compelled him to depart from England in 1802. In the summer of that year, Correia moved to Paris. There he made the acquaintance of leading scientists and other public figures. The list includes Pierre Samuel Du Pont de Nemours (1739–1817, APS 1800), the Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834, APS 1781), Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859, APS 1804), the French naturalist Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (1778-1841, APS 1841), and André Thouin (1746-1824), superintendent of the Jardin du Roi, now known as Jardin des Plantes, in Paris. Correia also met Esther Delavigne, who eventually became his lover.

Of particular importance to Correia was his extensive correspondence with friends in Portugal that he maintained throughout his time in London, Paris and then the United States. Through his contact with them he hoped to bring the latest scientific ideas and discoveries to his mother country. His letters are filled with news of new vaccines, maritime maps, instruments, and anything else that he thought might serve to aid the progress of Portugal. Correia’s wide-ranging contacts with fellow botanists made him an important intermediary in the exchanges between naturalists in different parts of the world. In 1807 his own government recognized his contributions by making him a Knight of the Order of Christ.

Overall, Correia’s time in Paris was happy and fruitful. However, life as a liberal under Napoleon was not easy, and Correia soon began to explore the possibility of relocating once again, this time to the United States. Finally, in the winter of 1811, the abbé was aboard the U.S.S. Constitution, on his way to what would become a particularly interesting period in his life.

Correia arrived in Washington, D. C., in early 1812, and he did not lose time in making the acquaintance of leading Americans, including President James Madison. He was anxious to visit Thomas Jefferson but owing to the fact that Philadelphia was the intellectual center of the new nation, he decided to establish himself there first. His European friends had already announced Correia’s imminent arrival to several prominent Philadelphians, including the physicians Benjamin Rush (1745-1813, APS 1768) and Caspar Wistar (1761-1818, APS 1787), and John Vaughan (1756–1841, APS 1784), the treasurer and librarian of the American Philosophical Society. The abbé was elected a member of the Society in January of 1812, before his arrival in the city. He became close friends with Vaughan who soon handled his business affairs and advised him in all kinds of matters. Correia also got to know the botanist Henry Muhlenberg (1753-1815, APS 1785), who introduced him to the physician and botanist Jacob Bigelow (1787-1879, APS 1818). And he reconnected with several Philadelphians he knew from his time in Paris, including the lawyer and financier Nicholas Biddle (1786-1844, APS 1813), and William Short (1759-1849, APS 1804), Jefferson’s private secretary in Paris. Life in Philadelphia was clearly enjoyable for the Portuguese exile but he remained anxious to visit “the great the truly great Mr. Jefferson.” In July of 1813 he left for Virginia for the first of what would eventually be seven visits over a period of about eight years.

Jefferson had been introduced to Correia in glowing letters from Lafayette, Du Pont, Thouin, and Humboldt. It is not surprising, then, that Jefferson received the visitor with warmth and great expectations. They were not disappointed. Jefferson described his guest as “the best digest of science in books, men, and things that I have ever met with; and with these the most amiable and engaging character.” The room in which Correia stayed during his visits to Monticello, the North Square Room, is still known as the Abbé’s room. Correia spent much of his time in Virginia on rambles through the country, often in the company of Thomas Mann Randolph (1768-1828, APS 1794). His interest in natural history eventually also took him to Kentucky, Georgia and north to the Canadian border.

Through Jefferson, Correia made the acquaintance of Francis Walker Gilmer (1790-1826), a promising young man who readily accepted the abbé’s invitation to accompany him on his excursions. In 1816 President Madison asked the two men to deliver a letter from him to the agent of the Cherokee, in the southeastern United States. In the course of their journey through South Carolina and Georgia, they made extensive botanical notations, and Gilmer also recorded several pages of Cherokee vocabulary.

In 1816 Correia received news of his appointment as Portuguese minister-plenipotentiary at Washington, D. C. His expectation that this post would not interfere with his scientific pursuits turned out to be mistaken, even though he never spent more than half a year in the nation’s capital. From the start he was forced to deal with complaints about privateers flying foreign flags who were threatening the Portuguese colonies in South America. The fear was that these privateers, many of whom were American, could encourage and aid a rebellion in Brazil. Correia successfully lobbied the U. S. government for a Neutrality Act that was designed to curb these actions.

In the late 1810s, increasing worries about the turn of Portuguese-American affairs and serious health problems gradually made the abbé’s temper shorter and his spirits lower. He also ultimately became a severe critic of America and Americans, an attitude that contributed to his estrangement from some of his older American friends. However, he also found comfort in new relationships with, for example, the English-born chemist and lawyer Thomas Cooper (1759-1839, APS 1802). Most significantly, Edward Joseph, his fifteen-year old son with his lover Esther Delavigne arrived in the United States from Paris in 1818. Edward, who stayed with his father until their return to Europe, got to know many of his Philadelphia friends quite well. In 1820 father and son sailed from the United States for Portugal via London, a year after Correia had learned of his appointment as Counselor of State for Brazil. Correia spent the last three years of his life in Lisbon, “covered with honors,” as his son Edward wrote in a letter to John Vaughan. He died in Lisbon in 1823.

Correia published many essays and reports on botany in the leading European and American scientific journals of his time. His research centered on the systematic classification of vegetable species. In his work he attempted to apply the methods of compared anatomy of zoology to botany; he sought to group plants into families based on their similarities. His concept of symmetry was later adopted and developed by Candolle. While Correia was not “a member of every philosophical society in the world,” as his young protégé Gilmer wrote enthusiastically in a letter to his brother, he did belong to numerous learned societies. They included the Royal Society, the Linnean Society, the Academy of Science of Paris, and the Société Philomatique. He also offered several courses in botany at the American Philosophical Society.

From the guide to the José Francisco Correia da Serra papers, 1772-1827, 1772-1827, (American Philosophical Society)

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