Eichelberger, Robert L.

Alternative names
Dates:
Birth 1886-03-09
Death 1961-09-26
English

Biographical notes:

Graduated from USMA as 1st lieutenant (1909); assigned to 10th Infantry (1909-1911); with the 22nd Infantry in Mexico (1915); sent to Washington as general staff officer and accompanied General Graves on American Expeditionary Force to Siberia (1918-1920); attache to American Embassy, Tokyo (1920-22); commanded 30th Infantry at Presidio (1938-1939); became brigadier general, Supt. of USMA (1940); commanded 77th Division (1941) and I Corps (1942). Made major general (1941-1942); worked with 1st Austrialian Army, saw action in Buna, New Guinea campaign; commanded 8th Army (1944-46) and saw action in the Philippines; commanding general of occupation forces in Japan (1946-1948). Retired 1948; wrote book entitled: Our jungle road to Tokyo. Died 1961.

From the description of The Robert L. Eichelberger papers, 1942-1961. (US Army, Mil Hist Institute). WorldCat record id: 21071779

Robert Lawrence Eichelberger was born Mar. 9, 1886 in Urbana, OH; entered Ohio State Univ. in 1903, leaving two years later to attend the US Military Academy, where he graduated in 1909; assigned as second lieutenant to the Tenth Infantry Regiment, which was transferred to the Panama Canal Zone in 1911; returned to US in 1915 and named operations officer of the Eighth Division in 1918; ordered to Vladivostok to protect American interests during the Russian Revolution; became asst. chief of staff and later intelligence officer for General William S. Graves; remained in military intelligence, traveling in Japan and China before returning to the US in 1921; promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1934, and assigned to War Dept. in 1935 as secretary to the General Staff; promoted to brigadier general in 1940 and named superintendent of West Point; assigned command of 77th Infantry Division, and in charge of first offensive victory against Japanese land forces in Buna, Papua, New Guinea in Jan. 1943; further successful action in New Guinea and the Philippines in 1944-45; commander of the army of occupation in Japan, 1946-48; author of Our jungle road to Tokyo (1950) and Dear Miss Em : General Eichelberger's war in the Pacific, 1942-1945; retired to Asheville, NC; he died on Sept. 26, 1961.

From the description of Papers, 1940-1947. (University of California, Los Angeles). WorldCat record id: 38942435

Robert Lawrence Eichelberger (1886-1961) was born in Urbana, Ohio. He graduated from West Point in 1909 and commissioned in the infantry in the same year. During World War I, he was deputy chief of staff of the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia in 1918. From 1935 to 1938, he served as secretary of the War Department General Staff. In 1938 he became commanding officer of 30th Infantry. In 1940 he made brigadier general and assumed the position of Superintendent of West Point, which he held until 1942. He made major general in March 1942 and lieutenant general in October 1942. During World War II, he was commanding general of I Corps from September 1942 to September 1944. The Army appointed him commanding general of 8th Army in September 1944. He retired from service in September 1948. He authored Our Jungle Road to Tokyo, published in 1950. His awards include two Distinguished Service Crosses, five Distinguished Service Medals, three Silver Stars, the Legion of Merit, Bronze Star, and Air Medal. In 1954 the U.S. Congress promoted him to the rank of full general.

From the description of Eichelberger, Robert L. (Robert Lawrence), 1886-1961 (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration). naId: 10567666

United States Army Officer.

From the description of Robert L. Eichelberger Papers, 1728-1984 (bulk 1942-1949). (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 19406113

U.S. Army officer. Served in the Siberian Expedition, 1918-1920; during World War II; and commanded the U.S. occupation forces in Japan; from Asheville (Buncombe Co.), N.C.

From the description of Robert L. Eichelberger Papers, 1728-1998 (bulk 1942-1949). (Duke University Library). WorldCat record id: 122661639

Biography

Robert Lawrence Eichelberger was born March 9, 1886 in Urbana, Ohio; entered Ohio State University in 1903, leaving two years later to attend the U.S. Military Academy, where he graduated in 1909; assigned as second lieutenant to the Tenth Infantry Regiment, which was transferred to the Panama Canal Zone in 1911; returned to U.S. in 1915 and named operations officer of the Eighth Division in 1918; ordered to Vladivostok to protect American interests during the Russian Revolution; became assistant chief of staff and later intelligence officer for General William S. Graves; remained in military intelligence, traveling in Japan and China before returning to the U.S. in 1921; promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1934, and assigned to War Department in 1935 as secretary to the General Staff; promoted to brigadier general in 1940 and named superintendent of West Point; assigned command of 77th Infantry Division, and in charge of first offensive victory against Japanese land forces in Buna, Papua, New Guinea in January 1943; further successful action in New Guinea and the Philippines in 1944-45; commander of the army of occupation in Japan, 1946-48; author of Our Jungle Road to Tokyo (1950) and Dear Miss Em: General Eichelberger's War in the Pacific, 1942-1945 ; retired to Asheville, North Carolina; he died on September 26, 1961.

From the guide to the Robert L. Eichelberger Papers, 1940-1947, (University of California, Los Angeles. Library. Department of Special Collections.)

  • 1886 March 9: Born Urbana, Ohio
  • 1903 - 1905 : Attended Ohio State University
  • 1909: Graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point
  • 1913: Married Emma Gudger
  • 1918 - 1920 : Served in Siberia as Assistant Chief of Staff, Operations Division, and Chief Intelligence Officer with the American Expeditionary Forces
  • 1920 - 1921 : Served in Japan, China, and the Philippines in connection with military intelligence activities
  • 1921 - 1924 : Served in the Military Intelligence Division, War Department General Staff in Washington, D.C.
  • 1925 - 1929 : Student and instructor at the Command and General Staff School, Ft. Leavenworth, Kan.
  • 1930: Graduated from Army War College in Washington, D.C.
  • 1939 - 1940 : Assumed command of the 30th Infantry, Presidio of San Francisco
  • 1940 - 1942 : Appointed Superintendent of the United States Military Academy, West Point, N.Y.
  • 1942 Jan.: Designated Commander of the Seventy-seventh Army Division, organized at Fort Jackson, S.C.
  • 1942 Dec. - 1943 Jan. : Participated in the Buna and Sanananda, New Guinea campaigns
  • 1943 Sept.: Promoted to Brigadier General
  • 1944 April: Commanded task force which captured Hollandia, Dutch New Guinea
  • 1944 June: Commanded Biak Task Force which retook land from the Japanese
  • 1944 Sept.: Became commanding general, Eighth Army
  • 1945 Jan - 1945 Aug. : Eighth Army under Eichelberger's command fought on every occupied island of the Philippine Archipelago
  • 1945 Aug 30: Participated in the occupation of Japan by landing at Atsugi Air Field in Honshu with the Eighth Army and a detachment from the 11th Airborne Division
  • 1946 Jan. 1: Assumed control of all ground occupation troops in Japan
  • 1948 Dec. 31: Retired from the Army
  • 1949: Eichelberger's memoir, Our Bloody Jungle Road to Tokyo, was serialized in the Saturday Evening Post
  • 1954: Promoted to the rank of four star general by an Act of Congress
  • 1961 Sept. 26: Died, buried in Arlington National Cemetery

Eichelberger received the following medals and honors: Distinguished Service Cross with one oak leaf cluster, Distinguished Service Medal with three clusters, Combat Infantry Badge, Distinguished Service Medal (Navy), Silver Star with two clusters, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, the Presidential Unit Citation with one cluster, Honorary Knight Commander of the Military Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, Grand Officer of the Order of Orange Nassau with swords (Holland), Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor (France), Grand Officer of the Order of the Crown of Belgium, the Croix de Guerre with palm (Belgium), and Order of ABDON Calderon First Class (Ecuador). He was granted the Distinguished Service Star, the Liberation Medal, and the Legion of Honor by the Republic of the Philippines. He also received the decoration, Grand Officer of the Military Order of Italy.

From the guide to the Robert L. Eichelberger Papers, 1728-1998, (bulk 1942-1949), (Duke University. David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library)

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Subjects:

  • World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns
  • Generals--Archival resources
  • World War, 1939-1945--Campaigns--Photographs
  • World War, 1939-1945--Personal narratives, American

Occupations:

  • Generals--United States--Archival resources

Places:

  • Papua New Guinea--Buna (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Philippines (as recorded)
  • Siberia (Russia) (as recorded)
  • Japan (as recorded)
  • Fort Jackson (S.C.) (as recorded)
  • Japan (as recorded)
  • Japan (as recorded)
  • Soviet Union (as recorded)
  • New Guinea (as recorded)
  • Pacific Ocean (as recorded)
  • Philippines (as recorded)