Civilian Conservation Corps (U.S.)

Alternative names
Dates:
Americans
English

History notes:

The Civilian Conservation Corps, a federal agency, was created as part of the New Deal in 1935.

From the description of Civilian Conservation Corps photograph collection [graphic]. 1936. (Santa Fe Public Library). WorldCat record id: 38548415

On March 31, 1933, congress passed the Emergency Conservation Work Act, creating the Civilian Conservation Corps. On April 5, the president appointed Robert Fechner of Tennessee as Director of Emergency Conservation Work. Fechner, a vice-president of the American Federation of Labor, was given the task of creating an agency that would relieve distress through the employment of idle young men on constructive conservation projects, to aid in the rehabilitation of young men and to assist in the national efforts toward economic recovery. Fechner utilized established agencies to accomplish this monumental task. He used the United States Army to establish and administer the camps. The Army had long experience in housing, feeding and providing medical care for large numbers of men, but Fechner prohibited the Army from giving any type military training to the young CCC enrollees. The projects were assigned to the National Park Service, Soil Conservation Service, Bureau of Wildlife Management, the Forest Service, or some other subdivisions of the Department of Agriculture, or the Department of the Interior. The Office of Education establishes instructional programs in the camps, and these programs became extremely popular, motivating many young men to join the CCC. The official designation of the Turtle River State Park project was North Dakota State Park #5, or supply SP#5. The Worth Dakota State Historical Society suggested using a 475 acre tract of land one mile north of Arvilla, North Dakota, Early in 1934 the National Park Service sent inspectors to Grand Forks County to determine if the proposed project at Arvilla were within the CCC's guidelines. After determining the feasibility of the project they authorized the establishment of a camp. During the life of the project three separate CCC companies were utilized to complete the work. The first CCC company for the Turtle River project was only a temporary camp created to perform preliminary work, area clean up, and site reconnaissance, the preliminary survey of the proposed project. CCC Company 2770 arrived at Larimore, North Dakota on August 20, 1934. and Larimore would be the home of all, three CCC companies. Company 2770 performed the initial work and were sent into winter quarters on October 1, 1934 and passed out of the history of the Turtle River State Park. CCC Company 4727 was activated on June 25, 1935, but would spend less than two months at Larimore before being transferred. They were sent to Minnesota to establish a camp midway between St. Paul. and White Bear Lake, remaining there for almost two years. On July 13, 1937, they were moved to Fargo, North Dakota and remained there until being transferred back to their original home, Larimore, on October 8, 1938. They remained at Larimore until the abandonment of the CCC at the beginning of World War II. A third group, CCC Company 764, took up the Turtle River project in August 1935, establishing a permanent camp to begin project SP#5. Company 764 continued the work begun by Companies 2770 and 4727 turning the gravel pit and trash dump into a beauty spot and popular recreation area. On October 1, 1937, the project was abandoned by the CCC and National Park Service and the project appeared dead, but local support and agitation reopened the work on the park a year after it was first stopped. On October 5, 1938, SP#5 was revived and Company 4727 was transferred back to Larimore to complete the work. Company 4727 continued the work begun by Company 764 and went on to improve on existing facilities. Two of the major projects begun by Company 764 and finished by Company 4727 were the Bath House and Swimming Pool and Beach. The large Bath House, 44 x 100 feet, was constructed in 1937, finished in 1938, remodeled in 1939 and again in 1940. The Bath House, now known as the CCC Memorial is one of only three buildings remaining from the original projects and is utilized now as a large group picnic shelter. The Swimming Pool and Beach were created by damming the Turtle River and excavating above the dam. The river was diverted and a five toot rubble masonry dam was constructed, while the stream bed above the dam was dredged and a pool base was created by filling the area with sand and sloping the banks with rock riprap. The other two projects still in use are the Turtle River Lodge, now the Woodland Lodge, and the Custodian's quarters, now the Park Manager's residence. The Woodland Lodge is still used by large groups, and little renovation has been needed due to the expertise of the builders, The Civilian Conservation Corps was a great boon to North Dakota, Grand Forks County, and all the young men who worked at Turtle River. The project created a lasting monument to a group of green young men, willing to give of themselves for the betterment of others and who chose the opportunity to work rather than accepting welfare handouts when times were tough. There were a number of New Deal programs that had limited or no value, but the Civilian Conservation Corps was not one of them. Civilian Conservation Corps projects reclaimed abused lands, reforested millions of acres of over-cut and burned-off forests, and in the case of Turtle River State Park, created a popular and long-lasting recreation area for the future. Every time a picnicker or camper uses the park there is a rededication to the history these young men were making.

From the description of Turtle River State Park records 1935-1992 (University of North Dakota). WorldCat record id: 741940175

During the Great Depression, the people of the United States turned to Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal programs to help them through the trial. With the Emergency Conservation Work Act of 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps was established. The CCC, also known as Roosevelt's Tree Army, recruited unemployed young men for a peacetime army to help combat the destruction and erosion of the country's natural resources. Roosevelt selected Robert Fechner to be the National Director of the program. Some of the work accomplished by the CCC included the improvement of millions of acres of federal and state lands and parks, building of new roads, placement of new telephone lines, building of fire towers and fighting forest fires, protection of natural wildlife habitats, improvement of streams, fish restocking, and planting of billions of trees. The CCC had great public support and was one of the most successful New Deal programs. Consequently, it was also one of the least criticized programs. Following the death of Fechner in late 1939, Roosevelt appointed John T. McEntee as director but the CCC's days were numbered. The war in Europe drew the nation's attention and finally, with the United States' entry into World War II, the CCC was forced to cease operation in 1942.

From the description of Civilian Conservation Corps camp newsletters, 1934-1941. (Kentucky Historical Society). WorldCat record id: 46726159

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was created in 1933 as one of the first programs headed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) to alleviate youth unemployment during the Great Depression. Young men, ages 18 to 24 provided unskilled manual labor supporting reforestation and building the National Parks System. Over three million young men joined the CCC in the nine years it was active. The majority of the projects the young men worked on involved planting forests, setting up state parks, and building roads that made accessing the parks easier. They built more than 1000 national, state, county and city parks and planted over three billion trees across the nation. The CCC was disbanded by President Roosevelt in 1942 when the nation's resources focused on the war effort and the economic state of the nation significantly improved. The CCC left behind a legacy that would be felt for years to come through the improvement of the country's forests and environment, as well as the hard work the young men performed through their enlistment with the CCC. The Civilian Conservation Corps Alumni Association continues working for historical recognition and education of the mass achievements of CCC workers and their families.

From the description of Civilian Conservation Corps collection, 1933-1997 (bulk 1933-1942) (San Jose Public Library). WorldCat record id: 697512487

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was established in 1933 as a work relief program for unemployed Americans. Wisconsin had a number of camps that housed CCC workers as they labored on trails, bridges, buildings, and other public facilities. Enrollment in the CCC had dwindled by 1940, as young men were drafted into military service. The CCC disbanded officially in 1942, when Congress eliminated the program's funding.

From the description of Wisconsin Civilian Conservation Corps camp newsletters, 1933-1941. (University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire). WorldCat record id: 156930511

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a New Deal employment program launched by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. The CCC primarily employed young men for conservation projects across the country. The Department of Labor was responsible for employing the men but the Army actually oversaw the operations of the various camps scattered across the country. The men mainly worked in rural areas for six-month periods for about a dollar a day. The organization was disbanded during World War II because many of the eligible young men were drafted into the Army and the country focused on the war effort.

From the guide to the Civilian Conservation Corps Records, 1934-1936, (Special and Area Studies Collections, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida)

Relief program established for unemployed men by President Franklin D. Roosevelt whose main work in Massachusetts through the 1930's and early 1940's was tree planting, fire fighting, insect control, and tree and plant disease control.

From the description of Civilian Conservation Corps in Massachusetts photograph collection, 1930s. (University of Massachusetts Amherst). WorldCat record id: 51929545

Established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) employed more than 2.5 million young men in a variety of construction and trades at outdoor camps during the Depression. Managed by the United States Army and the departments of Agriculture and the Interior, the CCC had approximately 70 camps in Texas that employed a maximum of 19,200 workers at a time on public lands. These workers were dedicated to soil conservation and erosion-management programs and performed a broad range of duties, such as building small dams and planting trees, while also having the opportunity to enroll in classes and earn educational credits. In 1942, the CCC declined as the U. S. economy grew during World War II. By the end of the program, much of the work of the CCC in Texas had laid the foundation for the Texas State park system, yielding 56 public parks.

Sources:

Hendrickson, Kenneth E, Jr. Civilian Conservation Camps. Handbook of Texas Online . Accessed April 22, 2011. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/ncc01 .

Steely, James Wright and Joseph R. Monticone. The Civilian Conservation Corps in Texas State Parks . Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 1986.

From the guide to the Civilian Conservation Corps in Texas Records 87-235., [ca. 1933]-1986, (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin)

Established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) employed more than 2.5 million young men in a variety of construction and trades at outdoor camps during the Depression.

Managed by the United States Army and the departments of Agriculture and the Interior, the CCC had approximately 70 camps in Texas that employed a maximum of 19,200 workers at a time on public lands. These workers were dedicated to soil conservation and erosion-management programs and performed a broad range of duties, such as building small dams and planting trees, while also having the opportunity to enroll in classes and earn educational credits. In 1942, the CCC declined as the U. S. economy grew during World War II. By the end of the program, much of the work of the CCC in Texas had laid the foundation for the Texas State park system, yielding 56 public parks.

From the description of Civilian Conservation Corps in Texas Records, [ca. 1933]-1986 (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 774026656

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Subjects:

  • Forests and forestry--Photographs
  • Conservation projects (Natural resources)--Texas--History--20th century
  • Ski resorts--Photographs
  • Conservation projects (Natural resources)--History--20th century
  • Persons--Photographs
  • Parks--History--20th century
  • Military discharge
  • Conservation of natural resources
  • Tree planting--Photographs
  • Camps
  • Public works
  • Depressions--1929--Texas
  • New Deal, 1933-1939
  • Tree planting
  • Parks--Texas--History--20th century
  • Forest roads--Design and construction--Photographs
  • New Deal, 1933-1939--History--Sources
  • Public service employment
  • Parks
  • Depressions--1929
  • Dams--Photographs
  • Labor camps--Photographs

Occupations:

not available for this record

Functions:

not available for this record

Places:

  • McMillian Dam (N.M.) (as recorded)
  • Medora (N.D.) (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Turtle River (N.D.) (as recorded)
  • Bandelier National Monument (N.M.) (as recorded)
  • California (as recorded)
  • Chequamegon National Forest (Wis.) (as recorded)
  • Nicolet National Forest (Wis.) (as recorded)
  • Kentucky (as recorded)
  • Trempealeau County (Wis.) (as recorded)
  • North Dakota (as recorded)
  • Jackson County (Wis.) (as recorded)
  • New Mexico--Santa Fe (as recorded)
  • Avalon Dam (N.M.) (as recorded)
  • Oklahoma--Wichita Mountains (as recorded)
  • Fort Nisqually (Tacoma, Wash.) (as recorded)
  • Vernon County (Wis.) (as recorded)
  • United States (as recorded)
  • Little Missouri River (Wyo.-N.D.) (as recorded)
  • North Dakota--Grand Forks County (as recorded)
  • Turtle River State Park (N.D.) (as recorded)
  • Texas (as recorded)
  • Wichita Mountains (Okla.) (as recorded)
  • Massachusetts (as recorded)
  • New Mexico (as recorded)
  • Carlsbad Caverns National Park (N.M.) (as recorded)
  • Oklahoma (as recorded)
  • South Dakota (as recorded)
  • Chateau de Morès State Historic Site (N.D.) (as recorded)